This study intends to draw lessons and implications for the improvement of Korea’s disaster management system including the Ministry of Public Safety and Security that was founded shortly after the Sewol disaster by examining the post-Katrina disaster and safety management system in the U.S. Failure to respond to a disaster requires us to make efforts to clarify its subject and causes, let alone political responsibilities and issues. In addition to the scholarly definition and classification of disasters, we need to elicit a stepwise strategy for disaster management on the basis of the examination of ‘risk levels’ and ‘risk intensity’ experienced by the society. Although somewhat normative, this study suggests the policy implications which highlight the need of a serious review of the recent reform process of the national disaster management system in Korea and propose developmental directions of the system since there has been a criticism on failure in disaster response even after the foundation of the Ministry of Public Safety and Security.
Considering that 68% of the reservoirs in Korea (11,970 out of 17,505 reservoirs) were built in the 1960s or earlier, their potential failure due to aging become a serious concern. Most of the decrepit reservoirs did not follow an appropriate design or construction reference at the time of construction and it is difficult to understand the characteristics of the construction materials, which makes it difficult to ensure safety of the reservoirs during the rainy season. Besides, the large amount of their water storage may cause a serious flood disaster. This study undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the distribution and management of the reservoirs as well as the field survey results of the reservoir collapses. The results of the investigation were used as a basis for discovering problems and suggesting ways to improve the current safety management system of the decrepit reservoirs in Korea.
According to the chemical accident statistics over the recent three-year period, there were 45 cases of accidental release of hazardous chemicals in storage tanks. A proper dike must be installed to reduce the damage from massive chemical spills from tanks. The dike is considered as a passive safety measure to safely detain spilled chemicals while being carried from the storage tank to waste-chemical treatment equipment. However, such function can cause another damage by spreading chemicals into neighboring environments from the surface of spilled chemicals. In response to active safety measures installed under the Chemicals Control Act implemented in 2015, the retention function of a dike and the handling system of spilled chemicals are needed to be improved. Thus, this study contributes to minimizing the spill risk from storage tanks effectively by optimizing safety measures installed in a storage tank and emitting spilled chemicals quickly into a wastewater treatment plant.
The purpose of this research is to theoretically examine historical change of the fire-fighting organization from the liberation of Korea from Japanese rule on August 15, 1945 to that of the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of the Park Geun-hye Administration, which could suggest policy proposals on the developmental direction of the fire-fighting organization in Korea. Whenever there was a reorganization of disaster management organizations, the fire-fighting organization was not at the center of change but assigned an auxiliary role. Hence, the developmental direction of Korea’s fire-fighting organization should include the institutional and policy reforms such as implementing the function of a disaster management control tower, establishing the National Fire Service Agency as a standalone agency, implementing the fire-fighting safety policy, developing experience-oriented fire-fighting safety education programs for citizens, and unifying the national disaster management command system.
This study analyzes the socioeconomic factors that affect the causes and consequences of the damages before and after the flood at 25 autonomous districts in Seoul and draw policy implications for reducing urban flood damage. To select the factors, we reviewed the literature and constructed the database using the 2011 Seoul Statistics and the CCGIS data. We then performed a correlation analysis to check the multicollinearity and a stepwise regression analysis to analyze the effects. The results were as follows: (1) average gradient of region, permeability area ratio, and drainage capacity of inner basin were found to be common factors that affect the causes and consequences of the damages before and after the flood, 2) the improvement rate of embankment was deducted as distinct factor before the flood, and 3) the ratio of embankment area, the number of disabled people, the area of retarding reservoir and the ratio of hospital beds were deducted as distinct factors after the flood.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of APL application strategy program, which is designed to assist maladjusted soldiers to develop their own strategy to resolve conflicts and communication problems through understanding of self and others, on their interpersonal relations, communication and adaptability. The APL strategy programs including 12 sessions were administered for 12 maladjusted soldiers. The surveys were conducted before and after the program, assessing conflict management level, stress management level, communication level and self-understanding level. A significant increase was reported on all four levels among the participants in the APL program, which suggests that the APL application strategy program can be effective for promoting conflict management level, stress management level and communication level. Limitations of the study were then discussed, along with its implications.
Since the risks in a modern society are quite specified, consumers depend on the risk communication provided by mass media. As science and technology advance, the importance of risk communication provided by mass media is growing. This study categorizes the risk communication types and develops the index of measuring consumer responses based on these types. The index consists of six factors: risk perception, social trust, information acceptance, anxiety, safety attitude, and safety behavior. The index is utilized in measuring the consumer responses based on the types of risk communication in the case of a risky accident and the data collected through this index are accumulated and analyzed. We expect that the strategies to help consumers gather the true information about products play a role of building the trust of consumers toward producers and the source of information restore the trust from consumers. In a market, therefore, the unstable factors, hindering social trust will be eliminated in our society.
This study is aimed at providing a proper education to improve the level of engagement of youth at risk in correctional education programs for the purpose of reducing recidivism and repetition of offenses. The samples were randomly selected among youths involved in on-campus violation who attended eight types of correctional programs provided by the Centers for Cultivating Juveniles' Dreams by the experience sampling method. Important findings are as follows. First, their initial levels of engagement in the correctional programs were found to be low. Second, their levels engagement were highest in occupational education depending on educational contents and were also high in theater therapy, jury education, etiquette education and field trips to experience centers. Third, their engagement levels were relatively higher among female, middle school dropouts and those requesting counseling/investigation. The implications and limitations of the research findings are also discussed.
This research develops a crisis management strategy in response to separated and integrated operational structure of the Daegu Gyeongbuk Development Institute which is currently under the request of separation, by investigating advantages and disadvantages in separated and integrated operation of the institute. Independence, research expertise, and efficiency in local governmental support were selected as the factors for effective performance of local funded institutes. The results suggest that an integrated operational structure is more effective in terms of independence and research expertise as a think tank while a separated model is more advantageous for enhancing efficiency in local governmental support and improving responsiveness to the movement of the Gyeongbuk Provincial Government. In conclusion, it would be recommended to keep the integrated operational structure but to explore ways to strengthen efficiency in local governmental support.
This study verified the “golden time” in cardiac arrests, one of the 55 disaster types identified by Seoul. 4,055 cases from the rescue and EMS data maintained by Seoul Metropolitan Fire & Disaster Headquarters (2010~2012) were used to verify the effectiveness of CPR performed by paramedics within 4 minutes. A regression analysis was conducted for each of the 8 response time sections and the post-verification was carried out through SUEST (Seemingly Unrelated Estimation). The average arrival time was found to be 5.7 minutes and the response time appeared to improve gradually. The analysis of the relationship between response time and the effectiveness of first aid showed that “within 4 minutes” is the most appropriate golden time for treatment of cardiac arrests. This study has great implications for the field of rescue and EMS as it made the first attempt to confirm a statistical significance of “within 4 minutes” as the golden time in cardiac arrests.