South Korea’s fertility rate in 2005 fell to a record of 1.08 per woman, the lowest rate in the Korean history, which has caused many social problems such as decline in working-age population and increase in elderly population. To solve these problems, the Korean government established the policies for low fertility and aging in 2006 and in 2010, but no visible change in fertility rates has been observed. The Korean government presented the third initiative for low fertility and aging society in 2016, but it also faces criticism that the it is not so different from the former policies. Thus, this study aims to find the implications for the appropriate recognition and policy response to low fertility issues based on the experience of Japan which has coped with persistent low fertility for the past decades. By examining the experience of Japan, it is necessary to improve the top-down policy which planned and organized only by the central government in order to increase the fertility rate.
This study aims to analyze the types of governance (market, hierarchy and network) and risk response policy in internet lottery. Market-based governance is related to an illegal private lottery run by private operators who are considered illegal in most countries. It works by exchanging prices and prize money. Hierarchy governance is related to a lottery run by a coalition of national and local governments. It is a market formed by transnational association and legal authority. In network-based governance, the market is operated by the trust among players with global lottery license run by internationally accredited lottery institutions. The risk response policies for Internet lottery in Korea include both regulations such as ethical education, responsible gambling, web access limitation, international litigation and prohibition of domestic participation and compliances such as strengthening competitiveness of domestic lottery industry, legalization of international lottery and participation into international lottery.
This study intends to analyze environmental justice characteristics of the areas expected to be exposed (AEE) to hazardous Hydrofluoric (HF) acid gas in case of leakage accident. The findings from this study include: (1) in comparison to the areas not expected to be exposed (ANEE), the average value of public lands was three times higher, the proportion of children aged 14 years old or less appeared 2 percent higher, and the proportion of elderly aged 65 years old or more appeared 2 percent lower in the AEE, (2) for an increase of hazardous Hydrofluoric (HF) acid gas concentration from 0.1ppm to 0ppm in the AEE to the damage, the average value of public lands decreased while the proportion of children aged 14 years old or less, the proportion of elderly aged 65 years old or more and the average number of children’s facilities increased.
A qualitative study was conducted to investigate crisis adaptation experiences of middle-aged women during climacteric period. The data were collected from twenty-six middle-aged women grouped into three focus groups as well as in-depth interviews with individual participants from April to May 2015. The data were analyzed by a phenomenological method developed by Colaizzi. A total of 147 significant statements were extracted from the data resulting in nine themes and five theme clusters such as “various overcoming efforts”, “catch-up with ambivalence”, “adaptation to the changes in my life”, “support from significant people”, and “becoming the center of my life”. This study provides us with better understanding of a crisis adaptation process of middle-age, we propose developing a intervention program to overcome a crisis of climacteric period d women during climacteric period. Based on the findingsfor women.
This study attempts to examine the effect of emotional labor on job satisfaction among workers of national university hospitals in Korea. It is found that emotional labor has a significant effect on job satisfaction. The frequency of emotional expressions has a positive effect on job satisfaction, while the attentiveness of emotional expressions has a negative effect on job satisfaction. The diversity of emotional expressions has a significant effect on job satisfaction, which means that the more diversified the emotional expressions, the higher the job satisfaction of the national university hospitals employees. In the case of nursing staff, emotion expression frequency and emotion expression attentiveness had a significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, in the case of administrative staff, emotion expression frequency and emotion expression attentiveness have a significant effect on job satisfaction.
Despite various studies on mapping approaches in the fields of safety management, there have been few attempts to theorize and generalize the roles of mapping approach for safety management. This study tried to conceptualize spatial safety information and its components. Based on the concept of spatial safety information, this paper analyzed the features and implications of mapping approach in order to build up the foundation for the generalization of safety mapping. The implications for the theoretical and practical use of safety maps are as follows. First, an attempt to formulate a general theory is needed. Second, it is necessary to develop basic and applied studies that can reflect a rapid development of ICT technology. Third, it is necessary to establish a common infrastructure that enables easy access to safety maps, such as an electronic map platform developed by the government and released to the public.
More than twenty years after independence due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian countries remain their focus on a ‘New Great Game’. From an initial narrative that surrounded the battle for energy between China and Russia, the power balance in the region is translating to a trilateral structure. The re-focus of US foreign policy to the region has fundamentally changed the nature of conflict in this area. This paper seeks to make a full assessment of the key regional characteristics of conflict in Central Asia and the post-9/11 US foreign policy in this region, particularly since the withdrawal of US combat forces from Afghanistan. It concludes by emphasizing several areas for opportunity in maintaining and resolving conflicts and bilateral and multilateral convergent interests. The paper also highlights that the three major powers in the region, US, Russia and China, lack trilateral cooperation efforts which could result in divergent local interests and elevated degree of conflagration.
This study is intended to investigate the factors affecting the clinical adaptation of new nurses in Korea and thereby provide the basic data to be used for promoting clinical adaptation of new nurses accordingly. Improving adaptability of new nurses should produce a positive impact on their patient care, reduce their turnover rate and eventually build up the foundation for their promotion to nurse professionals. Strategies for promoting clinical adaptation of new nurses are as follows. First, activate the preceptor system that strengthens education and training programs for new nurses using a precise and standardized protocol for each nursing unit. Second, review the suitability of their orientation curriculum for learning service tasks in hospital and readjust it adequately if needed. Third, review the checklist to ensure they can digest the contents during the training period.
This study aims to classify the types of adaptation to college life among transfer nursing students and suggest the strategies for helping their adaptation according to the types. Q methodology was used such that thirty-seven Q statements were selected as the Q sample based on the literature, reported data and interviews and Q sorting was conducted by thirty-five transfer nursing students. The collected data were analyzed by using the PQMethod program. As a result of the study, four distinctive types of adaptation to college life for transfer nursing students were found such as Type I (Future Anxiety), Type II (Indifference), Type III (Harmony), and Type IV (Relations Directivity). Of these, the ‘Future Anxiety’ and ‘Harmony’ types showed a positive aspect in adaptation, whereas the ‘Indifference’ and ‘Relations Directivity’ types showed a negative aspect. Based on the findings, various strategies were discussed to assist transfer nursing students for their effective adaptation to school life by their types.
Agricultural disaster insurance is a system that compensates for losses of farmers suffered by natural disasters such as flood damage, drought and other disasters. When an agricultural disaster occurs due to drought or flood, insurance companies directly visit the damage site and investigate with the naked eye resulting in limited and inaccurate damage assessment. The development of drone, image processing and analytical techniques are expected to be widely used in the case of agricultural disaster. In this study, a damage assessment system was developed by using drone images on paddy field damage. The evaluation system was developed by applying the automatic damage area calculation program using the object-based classification method. The development system was composed of six functions including GIS, configuration, image processing, analysis, mapping and result display function. This system can be applied as a useful tool for scientific damage assessment for agricultural disaster.
This study performs an empirical study on how “Jeong (情)”, a feeling of affection or attachment in Korean, influences civil servants’ aggressive or friendly behavior toward customers. We divided the “Jeong” into three sub-dimensions: human tenderness, care of others and warm-heartedness. Based on the survey data, we analyzed the relational structure among the three measures and their impacts on the friendly/aggressive behavior toward customers. The results are as follows. First, human tenderness has a weak correlation with care of others and warm-heartedness. Second, the three sub-dimensions of “Jeong” have a different role in the friendly/aggressive behavior toward customers. For instance, human tenderness has a positive impact on friendly behavior and negative on aggressive one, while care of others has a contrasting impact on them. Warm-heartedness has no impact. Third, care of others has the largest impact on both behaviors among the three sub-dimensions.