The M 5.8 earthquake occurred in Gyeong-ju in September 2016 and the M 5.4 earthquake occurred in Pohang in November 2017. After these earthquakes, aftershocks were occurred constantly. Korea is a highly dangerous area for a nuclear accident not only in its own country but also in neighboring countries. When a nuclear accident occurs, radioactive materials are diffused in the surroundings by wind and deposited in the soil and the river, which leads to the contamination of drinking water. In this study, we analyzed the effect of cesium diffusion on river, in case of a nuclear accident in neighboring countries using the environmental multimedia fate model (G-CIEMs). Nuclear concentration of radioactivity was observed in Chung-ju dam and Ipo weir, along with the changes in sediment adsorption and dissolved matters in water and the concentration of Cs-137 in dam/weir.
This study explores the obstacles to prevention of conflicts in local governments and their resolutions. Conflict assessment was introduced to Korea in 2007 as a part of the Regulation on the Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts in Public Agencies to prevent public conflicts. Looking at what happened over the last decade, the conflict assessment seems to have been carried out after conflicts as mitigative rather than preventive approaches. Many local governments have made regulations for conflict prevention and management which include conflict assessment. However, there are many obstacles such as organizational or budgetary problems, although many local governmental ordinances allow for the enactment of preventive conflict assessments.
In this paper, we clarified the obstacles and examined ways to cope with them.
The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the development of the method catastrophic disaster prediction using a foresight research method widely used in the field of disaster and safety management.
Considering a new and changing disaster environment, we used the environmental scanning and Delphi methods to predict future disasters. Based on the selection logic during the response processes, keywords were drawn out to create scenarios for a catastrophic storm and flood and presented to the respondents in the form of scenarios. According to the Delphi, future catastrophic disasters are differentiated from the existing normal-scale disasters in terms of response capacity, extent of damage, scale of damage, and social (psychological) damage. Future catastrophic disasters selected by this study include the epidemic as a social disaster, storm and flood as a natural disaster, and nuclear accident as a man-made disaster.
As hazardous chemical accidents continue to occur, information on the use of hazardous chemicals in the workplace has been constantly required. According to the Chemical Control Act of 2015, those who deal with hazardous chemical substance in excess of a certain quantity should prepare and carry out the plan for accident prevention, out-of-court evaluation and emergency response. In accordance with the obligation to notify the residents, the workplace that complies with the risk management plan is required to notify the residents within the impact range of the chemical accident by means of written notice, individual explanation, or collective communication, However, the operators who are obliged to report information on hazardous chemical substances to be handled feel too much burden. In this study, we introduced the resident notification system developed by the National Institute of Chemical Safety in Korea which newly defines the employer’s responsibility of risk communication in the workplace. We then analyzed the statistics on resident notifications in Korea and compared them with the public data from COMAH in UK to discuss the future directions.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is facing ethical challenges as the question of who actually determines core values for all is critical to cope with new types of risks emerging from an interplay among rapid urbanization, changing climates, and unplanned urban development. Community involvement becomes a must for disaster risk reduction to address vulnerability, but community-based approaches emphasizes consensus building and stewardship too much and thus often prevent certain groups of urban population from participation. Hence, there is a call for examining whether community-based disaster risk reduction in the SDGs is open to community-driven initiatives. By adopting the Henri Lefebvre’s production of space, this article suggests a conceptual framework to examine how community-based approaches to disaster risk reduction in the SDGs have addressed spatial vulnerability as well as participation in a decision-making process.
This study uses the Andersen Model of Health Service Utilization to analyze factors that affect poverty among households with older women who have disabilities. The major findings based on the analysis are as follows.First, in terms of predisposing characteristics, the probability of poverty increased when the subjects had fewer years of education, mild disability, sensory, mental, and internal physical disabilities, and no spouse.
Second, in terms of enabling resources, the probability of poverty became higher when older women with disabilities did not own their place of residence, and the household members’ participation rate in economic activity was lower. Third, perceived needs were found to have an insignificant effect on poverty among older women with disabilities. Policy measures are presented based on these findings.
This study aimed to verify the dual mediating effects of depression and aggression in the impact of academic stress on smartphone addiction among teenagers in Korea. Among 270 teenagers attending high schools located in Daegu Metropolitan City, 250 were found to be highly addictive to smartphone and selected for our final analysis. The findings of the analyses done by SPSS/PC (21.0) and AMOS (21.0) were as follows. First, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between academic stress and smartphone addiction and between depression and aggression among teenagers. Second, depression and aggression had dual mediating effects in the impact of academic stress on smartphone addiction among teenagers. Based on such findings, this study presented the need to develop a program to prevent teenagers from being addicted to smartphone.
This study conducted a rainfall infiltration test for weathered soils of different parent rocks in order to investigate infiltration characteristics. The changing pattern of pore water pressure was identified and compared with the numerical analysis results to analyze ground infiltration characteristics in relation to rainfall characteristics. The results of rainfall infiltration test and numerical analysis showed that the infiltration capacity became higher when the infiltration coefficient of weathered soil was large given that the same rainfall intensity was applied. Additionally, it was found that the movement of wetting front was fast in accordance with the changing rainfall intensity. The analysis results indicated that ground infiltration coefficient, rainfall intensity and duration were the major factors influencing ground infiltration process.
This study aims to evaluate the effect of the 2017 flood on design flood estimation at Mushim River in Cheongju. The design floods were estimated in two cases (CASE 1 and CASE 2) and compared to each other using hydrological data from 1967 to 2016 and 1967 to 2017, respectively. The FARD model was used to estimate the probable rainfall, and the HEC-HMS model was calibrated based on 15 flood events. All calibrated parameter sets were applied to the two cases to estimate the design flood. The range of the design flood was estimated from 364.9 to 1,231.6 m3/s for Case 1, while from 431.0 to 1,455.0 m3/s for CASE 2. The finding that the design flood of CASE 2 was approximately 18% greater than that of CASE 1 indicates that the flood event on July 16th, 2017 increased the design flood in this river by 66.1 ~ 412.4 m3/s. The observed peak discharge on July 16th 2017 (1,028.5 m3/s) was below the current target design flood (1,355 m3/s) but the maximum estimated design flood in CASE 2 was greater than the current target, which confirmed an increase of flood risk.
In this paper, we proposed a method to quantify and classify the components constituting spatial environment and to simulate the effect of each component to improving spatial environment. For this purpose, we selected the unique spatial environment of Incheon city as a study site and conducted an impression evaluation survey of students. The relationship between each component and their impression was analyzed quantitatively by using the quantification theory Ⅲ and cluster analysis, which was used to simulate the effect of improving spatial environment. As a result, we identified the influence of each component on the evaluation of spatial environment as well as the overall improvement effect of spatial environment.
Chemical accident is one of the main obstacles for industrial development of South Korea. In order to prevent future accidents, it is necessary to estimate and predict the potential location of a chemical accident. This study first conducted a chemical hazard assessment using spatial analysis of chemical factory and accident data in Korea and then evaluated the hazard by environmental receptor. It is found that the human habitation area was found to have the highest chemical accident hazard (72%), compared to biotic and abiotic areas. In addition, among five receptors (human, forests, farmland, water resource, livestock), humans face the greatest threats (99.7% are at risk), followed by water resource, farmland, livestock farms and forests with 67%, 52%, 46.6% and 42% respectively. This study can help the relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in effective prevention of chemical accident and environmental management.