In this study, the author examined the basic structure of the German local treasury appropriation system and its management in practice after the unification. Germany maintained the institutional apparatus that would allow the local governments in the former West German region to participate in the financial aid to the local governments in the former East German region, in particular, through the horizontal financing system. If Germany was only adopting a vertical financing system, it would have put added burdens on the federal government in financing the reconstruction of the East Germany. Given that the German federal government engages in consultation and coordination, rather than exercising unilateral directive and control in the case of collaborative works carried out jointly by the federal and state governments, it still gives us a compelling case even after considering the characteristics of the federalism.
The purpose of this study is to examine the North Korean defectors’ perception and awareness on human rights crisis from an equal opportunity perspective. The results show that they recognized discrimination in equal opportunity with the average score of more than 3.0 points regardless of their demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. The major findings with statistical significance are as follows. First, as for demographic background, education is associated with ‘discrimination against educational opportunities’, while age is significantly related to ‘higher education, the possibility of higher socioeconomic status’. Second, in terms of socioeconomic background, the possibility of hierarchical movement is related to ‘high education, the opportunity of career choice’ according to residential area, while recognition of hierarchical discrimination is associated with ‘hierarchy, limit of career choice’ according to time of escape from North Korea. Finally, recognition of hierarchical discrimination appears to related to ‘fair punishment of lawbreaker’ according to hierarchy in North Korea.
This study focuses on the conflict and crisis in a participatory process of making the Seoul Citizens’ Human Rights Charter. A new form of governmental decision-making process emphasizes interaction and partnership between public and private sectors. Citizens acquire autonomy in civil society and enhance civil rights through participatory governance. Regarding conflict and crisis in a participatory process, this study shows three things as follow. First, conflict and crisis are considered as a democratic process which manages social conflicts among various groups. Second, the emotional consensus among citizens for the enactment of the Charter needs sufficient time and governmental efforts. Third, as for the crisis of democratic procedures, not only institutional conflict management but also sufficient time is of great importance.
The purpose of this study is to propose solutions for civilian-conflict management through the analysis of conflict factors surrounding the THAAD placement in Korea. Based on system theory, we classified conflicting factors of THAAD found in various editorials and commentaries by type and analyzed accordingly. We pointed out the lack of communication between civilian and military as a major barrier of the existing resolution system for civilian-military conflict. The implication is that the preliminary preparation and prevention activities are critical for conflict resolution in national projects and the preemptive conflict resolution system can handle civilian-military conflicts that continue to arise due to the conflicts between national security and private interests.
On the basis of communication and systematic solutions, it is necessary to utilize positive aspects of conflict but avoid prolonged conflicts.
The aim of this study was to analyze the factors affecting personal prevention maneuver (PPM) compliance in adolescents. The data were collected from 278 students enrolled in 3 different high schools in Busan between November 15-30 in 2018 through a self-report questionnaire survey, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical multiple regression. The predictors for personal preventive maneuver compliance include the level of knowledge of personal prevention maneuver, carry of a toilet paper, length of handwashing time, and frequency of handwashing with soap (R2=.221, p<.001). The results suggest that health education for infectious disease prevention could become more efficient when the contents on individual personal preventive maneuver (PPM) are added to the curriculum including proper use of toilet paper and soap and sufficient handwashing time.
The purpose of this study was to obtain specific understanding of the work experiences of HIV/AIDS service providers in Korea. The in-depth survey data of 9 social workers and counselors who had worked in various agencies were analyzed by a qualitative research method such as content analysis. The results of the data analysis are as follows. Their work experiences were classified into three categories: ‘starting career without knowing anything’, ‘working together while sharing emotions and faith with one another’, ‘working against taboo with pride’. In other words, the participants started working in the career without sufficient information about AIDS but worked together with patients and share emotions and faith with them despite the issues of homophobia, discrimination and stigmatization. They also experienced their personal development and gained pride in working against social taboo. The results of this study suggested the betterment of HIV/AIDS education and promotion, the use of institutional supervision system and peer support groups, and the change in social perception.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social safety awareness and life satisfaction of the elderly and to test the role of solidarity that mediates this relationship. We examined the influence of social safety awareness and solidarity on life satisfaction among the elderly based on the 379 surveys from elderly households collected in 2014. Frequency analysis and descriptive statistics were used to examine demographic characteristics, and Sobel test was used to validate the mediating effect and mediation pathway significance suggested by Baron & Kenny(1986). The results of the analysis are as follows. First, social safety awareness and solidarity of elderly people have a statistically significant effect on life satisfaction.
Second, the sense of solidarity of elderly people has a mediating effect on the relationship between social safety awareness and life satisfaction.
The development of powder manufacturing and processing technology has increased pulverization processes for combustible dusts. This led to the enhanced probability of dust explosion, but the current safety management system in Korea is only concerned with flammable solids, excluding combustible dusts. Such management structure was created by the introduction of the GHS system, followed by the revision of the regulations on combustible dusts to those on flammable solids. Since only a small number of combustible dusts are classified as flammable solids under the current criteria, most combustible dusts are under insufficient management. Thus, the continuing requests have been made for the management of combustible dust facilities and more stringent legal standards. This study suggested the improved legal standards for accident prevention by clarifying the definition and determination criteria for combustible dusts and identifying the items to be managed.