In South Korea, Public Health Disaster Response Team (PHDRT) has been organized by every Community Health Center since 2016. When a disaster or accident with heavy casualties is expected to occur, PHDRT is dispatched. This study shed light on the role of PHDRT within the Korean National Disaster Response System by analyzing the related law and regulations, their activities, and interviews with disaster medical professionals. PHDRT is the part of the national disaster management system in Korea, organized under the Framework Act on the Management of Disasters and Safety. As of 2018, there was a total of 468 teams and 2,557 members, mostly consisting of physicians, nurses and administrators. The roles of PHDRT in disaster medical response include early triage, medical resource planning, patient transportation, support of on-site emergency care, and media relations and communications. To facilitate the activities of PHDRT, their roles need to be well defined and supported by legal and institutional frameworks, along with individual and organizational efforts to strengthen capacity.