This study was conducted with two research questions. First, what factors influenced the process of policy decision on the designation of “overheated speculation zones” by the Roh administration? Second, what were the roles and effects of the policy and regulations in the real estate market in South Korea? The results of the analysis using the multiple streams framework (MSF) are as follows. The real estate market in South Korea has been affected by various political characteristics of the regulations in relation to overheated speculation zones during the Kim Dae-Jung administration and those of policy measures to mitigate regionalism during the Roh administration. For instance, the Housing Comprehensive Plan announced by the Roh administration in 2003 included strong policies to control speculation in emerging housing markets.
It is found that the policies made during the periods when multiple political streams intersected played a key role in connecting housing problems with solutions in South Korea.
This study examines how disaster vulnerability affects disaster resilience, focusing on the elderly, recipients of the basic livelihood security benefit, the disabled, registered foreigners and multi-cultural families as disaster vulnerable population. The disaster management budget of a local government was used as a surrogate variable for disaster resilience. The data collected from 226 basic local governments in five years from 2013 to 2017 were analyzed by PCSE and GMM. The results show that the proportion of persons with disabilities consistently and significantly affected the size of disaster management budget, while the proportion of the elderly population had a positive effect at the significance level of 10%. However, disaster-vulnerable populations did not have a significant effect. Based on the result, this study provided some implications on how disaster resilience is related to the disabled and elderly and how to manage the disaster management budget to support disaster vulnerable populations.
Considering that earthquakes are largely unpredictable and unpreventable by nature, it is critical to evacuate victims promptly to a safe location in case of a sudden occurrence. The lessons from Japan indicate a crucial role of urban parks perform as a safe shelter for earthquake evacuation, but urban parks in South Korea have not yet served such a role. This paper studies the need to improve and reform the legal system of South Korea to bolster the function of urban parks to prevent earthquake disasters. This study finds that the current legal framework has a limitation in installing disaster prevention facilities to assist evacuation and relief activities. In order to establish the function of earthquake disaster prevention in South Korea, the Urban Park Act should be amended to include urban parks as well as theme parks as a disaster prevention facility. In addition, the Framework Act on the National Land should include clauses on earthquakes. Lastly, the National Land Planning and Utilization Act should incorporate the prevention of earthquake and other disasters into its basic principles of land planning and management.
A growing risk of heat wave has forced the countries to come up with realistic and viable solutions. Despite a lack of on-site treatment tools to deal with heat-related diseases, few studies have examined this issue.
We aim to examine the literature related to thermal damage to find out solutions to this problem. The literature related to heat-related diseases suggested five methods for rapid treatment and analyzed the effects of each treatment option. It is found that the average temperature of the surface of the terrain is about 7.9°C lower with heat shield. As for the method of clothing removal, the use of scissors was faster than the use of knives in the absence of a helper (scissor 2.8±1.7 min. vs. knife 4.1±2.3 min., <0.05). Overall, ion drinks or water was found to provide a higher satisfaction than salt water according to the water intake satisfaction survey (94±10 vs. 86±9 vs. 28±19, <0.05).
The purpose of this study is to suggest a new method to estimate the potential hotspots of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in underdeveloped countries. Due to the lack of infrastructure and experiences, many underdeveloped countries have failed to prepare effective policies to reduce traffic accidents. Considering their fiscal constraints, it would be critical to allocate health and traffic safety facilities with evidence-based methods. This study suggests the method of using road intersections as potential high-risk areas of RTAs when no accurate data are available in underdeveloped countries. Using the data from Lagos State in Nigeria, RTA hotspots were identified based on road intersections and travel distances from the high-risk points to the nearest health facility were calculated. There was a strong spatial correlation between the number of road traffic accidents and road interactions (<0.001). It is also found that urban areas had more traffic accidents but crashes were less severe, compared to suburban areas. These results indicate a disproportional allocation of health facilities between urban and suburban areas in Lagos, Nigeria.
In the previous research, we developed a regression model for estimating damage of natural disasters based on the public database. Although this model considers nonlinearities among variables by using log transformation for the dependent variable, it reveals limitations in improving estimation accuracy because of its inherent characteristics of linearity assumption between independent and dependent variables. In this study, we proposed an artificial neural network (ANN) based model to predict the amount of damages due to natural disasters more accurately, which does not require the linearity assumption among the variables.
For verification of the proposed model, we compared the model estimates with those from the regression model, including the Natural Disaster Risk Index (NDRI), Regional Safety Grades (RSG), and actual damage amounts. According to the results of analysis, we can confirm that the estimates from the ANN-based model reveal a higher correlation with the actual damage amounts than those from the regression model or the assessment results of NDRI and RSG.
This study aims to present practical tasks which young people can perform to create a safe community.
To this end, it conducted a survey on recognition and awareness on community safety among adults and youths residing in a district in South Korea during October 2019. The data collected from 2,544 adolescents and 364 adults were used for the analysis. The results of this study are as follows. First, the adults recognized that the community was not safe for the youths, more seriously than did the youths themselves. Female youths were more concerned about the issue of security in a community than male youths. Second, both adults and youths recognized home as the most secure but traffic safety as the most vulnerable. Third, both adults and youths were most aware of a safety net for helping them to cope with school violence.
Fourth, the level of safety awareness among youths was higher than that in adults. Some suggestions for community safety in this study include enhancing community environment., expanding support for female youths, reinforcing transportation safety, promoting a community safety net, and offering safety education to improve safety awareness.
This study examined the factors influencing preferences for financial resources for post-disaster mental health services, such as out-of-pocket payment and tax burden. The data were collected from 2,928 individuals in South Korea who were classified into three groups according to their preference for financial resources: out-of-pocket payment, tax-based financing, or no preference. A logistic regression was performed to assess the predictive power of each variable in each group. The significant psychosocial factors influencing preference for out-of-pocket payment, compared to the no-preference group, included the perception of the time to recover from post-disaster mental health problems, the perception of importance of national support, and public stigma of seeking mental health services. On the other hands, external attribution for mental illness, the perception of the time to recover from post-disaster mental health problems, the perception of importance of national support, and self and public stigma of seeking mental health services significantly predicted the group who preferred tax-based financing.
Rainfall has become a primary concern for flood control and effective water resources management. It is predicted that the reduction of available water resources due to climate change will exert a severe influence on human life. This study conducted a trend analysis on the annual rainfall, monthly rainfall, and monthly maximum rainfall at Andong Dam basin for 42 years from 1977 to 2018. Statistical hypothesis tests were performed by a nonparametric test because the rainfall data do not follow a particular probability distribution.
This study utilized the Mann-Kendall test, one of the commonly used nonparametric testing methods, in order to analyze the rainfall trend variations. It is confirmed that the October rainfall and July maximum rainfall show an increasing trend according to the 5% confidence level. In addition, the August maximum rainfall reveals a decreasing trend according to the 10% confidence level.
The purpose of this study was to assess forest fire vulnerability by considering both biophysical and socioeconomic factors. The forest fire vulnerability index was mapped on a census tract level based on population, economy, information and location factors in Gangwon Province. The proxy variables for the index include ‘people older than 65 years, people younger than 15 years; rental houses, houses of 60㎡ or less, houses over 20 years old, people with an elementary school education or less, forest-urban interface areas within 30m, and coniferous areas. A statistical analysis was conducted on the amount of forest fire damage and the number of fire occurrences to identify the impact of each factor of forest fire vulnerability.
Both the damage amount and the frequency of forest fires were higher in areas adjacent to forests than in urban areas where population and buildings are concentrated. The forest fire vulnerability map developed in this study can be used as the basic data to assign priorities in practices concerning forest fire prevention and response.