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2016, Vol., No.9

  • 1.

    Kwangsoo Lee’s Ideology and Literature, and His Contemporaries

    이동하 | 2016, (9) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 2
    Kwangsoo Lee did public activity from 1906 until 1950. The nuclear proposition he consistently adhered to all through this period is ‘to modernize Korean people’s lives’. This period can be divided into the former and latter part with 1934 as a divisional point. In the former part, he was entirely focused on secular and historic areas. But in the latter part, his interest in such areas was maintained while he also paid attention to supersecular or suprehistoric areas, too. This change occurred because around 1934, he became a Buddhist. In this sense, in Kwangsoo Lee’s public life, the former period takes unilinear characteristics while the latter is foreshadowing. His novels, too, are characterized by this, so the former ones take unilinear characteristics while the latter ones are foreshadowing. In his entire life, Kwangsoo Lee was never positioned as a lonely man, but he was always with several contemporaries and conversed with them aggressively based on communion while he was going through his own way. Because of this, it can be a meaningful research task to focus on the aspects of relationship between Kwangsoo Leesoo Lee and other contemporaries and furthermore compare them mutually. His contemporaries we can examine along with Kwangsoo Lee can be divided into three groups: the first group mainly associated with ‘Kwangsoo Lee as a person insisting on modernization’, the second group mainly involved in ‘Kwangsoo Lee as a Buddhist’, and those mainly related to ‘Kwangsoo Lee as a novelist’.
  • 2.

    The Establishment of the Republic of Korea by Syngman Rhee, Kim ku, Kwangsoo Lee and the attempt unification of Korea by Kim Il - sung's military force

    Kim,Won-Mo | 2016, (9) | pp.53~165 | number of Cited : 1
    At a conference in Moscow in December, the foreign ministers of three great powers adopted a trusteeship plan for five years as a mean of solving the Korean problem. Meanwhile the left-wing political parties carried on a unified the pro-trusteeship campaign, at same time sought to bring about accord between left and right, thus to achieve unification of the peninsula. This plan of the left-right cooperation came to receive the baking of the U.S. military government. The democratic natioanalist, Syngman Rhee started the anti-trusteeship movement and refused the left-right cooperation. At last Rhee personally travelled to the United States in an effort to achieve of establishing of the exclusive government. Kim Ku's main activity was to support the left-right cooperation, and to oppose Rhee's plan of establishment of exclusive government. In August 15, 1948, the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea was announced to the Korean people and to the wofld. In December of 1948, the Republic of Korea was acknowledged by the U. N. General Assembly to be, in effect, the only lawfully constituted government in the Korean Peninsula. On June 25, 1950, then, North Korea launched a surprise attack across the 38th parallel to try communize the Korean Peninsula by force. The United Nations, however, quickly resolved to give military support to the Republic of Korea at whose birth as an independent nation the U. N. had acted as a midwife. Accordingly the United Nations recognized the Republic of Korea as the sole legitimate government in Korean peninsula. So 16 countries of the U. N. memberships including the United States, participated in the Korean War to defend the North Korean invasion under the flag of the United Nations. In October 1953, the Republic of Korea and the United States concluded the Mutual Defense Treaty for Korean national security in Washington D. C.
  • 3.

    Humanities studies of Chunwon’s discourse of migration shown in The house of Sambong

    Song Hyun Ho | 2016, (9) | pp.167~190 | number of Cited : 14
    This study is to analyze the discourse on migration in The house of Sambong written by Chunwon with his experience in Manchuria, from a perspective that seeks literary study as a focus of the study on literature, not about politics or camps. Sambong was an assiduous young man with relatively comfortable life however he had to leave his home town after an evil plot by Dongcheok and dissolution of the national capital. And he was imprisoned by the police after a false accusation by Mr. No, an official who wanted to take Ulsun as his concubine. Mr. No, with Japanese authorities, drove Sambong to the corner. With help from a young lawyer, Jang Jaecheol, he was relieved as an innocent man but he spent too much money for his trial and became penniless. So he moved to Seogando away from oppression and unjust treatment by authorities and landowners and to live peaceful and happy life. Sambong settled in Seogando and tried to have a life but he was deceived by Kim Munjae and lost his money, exploited and even lost his rice paddy. For survival, he had to become a pig herder for Horoya. Horoya's mistress and Kim Munjae made false accusation and the translator Mr. Park extorted from his own people. The police was linked with Chosun's tricksters and wouldn't let Sambong go but transferred him. Sambong tried to live honest living, follow the laws and keep his life peacefully however the world deceived him. So he recognized 'it is beyond the control of a one individual' and 'it is an issue to be solved on the national level' to create a society of peace and equality and embarked on a fight for the nation. Chunwon wrote vividly about people of Chosun who lost their living foundation and moved to unfamiliar places to live like slaves, who were neither free from oppression and exploitation of Japan nor treated equally once the national capital was dissolved. Chunwon would have actively advocated Japan's policy if he had been an informer for Japan. But he wrote about miserable living of migrants from Chosun, and portrayed, against Japanese policies, negatively about Japanese authorities and landowners, and emphasized he would participate in the fight for people of Chosun.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Correlation between Reinstatement of Kwangsoo Lee and Literary History

    Kong Im Soon | 2016, (9) | pp.191~222 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Although the attempt was frustrated, Munhyup(The Korean Writers Association) made some controversy by announcing the establishment of Choi Nam-son and Kwangsoo Lee Literary prize in 2016. Perhaps Kwangsoo Lee is one of the rare people with Kim Gu whose naming is problematic in the Korean society. Choi In-hun introduced Kwangsoo Lee in his works, Seo Yu Gi through the imagination and ideas of characters. Here he showed Kwangsoo Lee’ self-confessions and confessions that he had to write the sequel of Soil against the logic of military police of the Japanese Empire that Kwangsoo Lee personally embodied the life of Soil’ Heo Sung in the late colonial period. The questions and issues surrounding ‘Kwangsoo Lee-likeness’ in Chapter 1 mainly focus on these contents. Chapter 2 is explained what historical path and process led to Kwangsoo Lee’s reinstatement with kidnapping and being not returned from North Korea. In the global trend of Armistice Agreement(1953)-Geneva Conference(1954)-Notification and reply to the list of abductees through the International Red Cross(1956~1957), Kwangsoo Lee is a symbol of anti-communism and being not returned from North Korea was able to make a soft landing in Korean society. Strengthening the image of the writer based on the publication of ‘The Complete Works of Kwangsoo Lee’ from Samjungdang in 1962 led to the justification of the Kwangsoo Lee’s reinstatement. This is a temptation of chronicle according so-called literary history producing a dichotomy of literary accomplishments and political errors. New literary history corresponding to the 60th anniversary of new literature was nothing more than an inverted “originary present” to finally define the past and this also appeared as a reciprocal movement Kwangsoo Lee with Choi Nam-son that has been constantly turning to the origin and place of the first year. Therefore, the questions and issues of ‘Kwangsoo Lee-likeness’ including Kwangsoo Lee’s reinstatement is that it examines the history and politics of this self-obsession about the origins of literary history and needs to be self-reflection containing the post-modern horizons.
  • 5.

    The Traveling to Shang-hai and Siberia in 1914 and Autobiographical Textuality of Warmheartedness

    Seo Eunhye | 2016, (9) | pp.223~256 | number of Cited : 19
    This paper aims to demonstrate how the life of the author influence on the process of writing the novel, comparing various essays with his famous novel Warmheartedness(유정). Kwangsoo Lee wrote the novel on Jo-seon Ilbo from Octorber, 1 to December 31. But not only the experience of traveling to Man-ju in 1933, but also the memory of Shang-hai in 1913~1914 strongly influences on the motifs and the plots of the novel in various ways. There are many characters in that novel, including the main character Choi-Seok(최석), Jeong-im(정임), Russian Officer R, Another R and his wife. The author of this novel choose traveling narrative, and let the hero meet many 'small' characters during that travel. This traveling narrative of main character represent the experience of the author dismissed from O-san School in 1913, and the character such as Russian Officer R represents the feeing of rage and disappointment of the author Kwangsoo Lee at that time. The essay such as To The World of Oblivion(잊음의 나라로) can be a grounded text. The implied Author, however, still emphasize on the value of commitment to the Jo-seon by arranging contrasting opinion of Officer R and Choi-seok to the motherland Cho-seon. Choi-seok is the character who is the ideal role model in aspects to the 'right' attitude to the Cho-seon by the author Kwangsoo Lee. The author wants to show the value of the attitude of nonresistence through creating the Choi-seok. The essay such as The Type Which I Belong (내가 속할 유형) shows the belief to the value of nonresistence in making and keeping new community. We can also find the memory of patriots such as Yi-Kab(이갑) who the author really met in the traveling to the Siberia in 1914. There is the scene which Choi-Seok passed the river Song-Wha(송화강), and he confesses on failed dream of building new community around there. The scene also related to the dream of real author Yi, who participated in the Group of Development(수양동우회). Bilding new community outside the colonial Cho-seon is continual projects of the Group of Development(수양동 우회). In this way, the traveling narrative and certain scenes in the novel Warmheartedness(유정) is closely related to the experience of Kwangsoo Lee.
  • 6.

    Tokutomi Soho and Kwangsoo Lee: centering around the 14 letters Kwangsoo Lee sent to Soho

    Choi.J.H. | 2016, (9) | pp.257~300 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis tries to illuminate one aspect of Kwangsoo Lee's politics of immanent in his Pro-Japanese activities, especially examining mutual exchange of two persons since 1940. For this I consider 14 letters Kwangsoo Lee sent to Tokutomi-Soho from 1935 to 1944, documents of reminiscence and newspapers media, as remember reconstructing the relationship between Soho' Joseon and Kwangsoo Lee. Soho was the superviser of Gyeongseong Daily News from 1910 to 1918. After that he had much power over media and publishing in Joseon as chief the Japanese emperor media, as member of Central Joeson Association throughout colonial period. Kwangsoo Lee had kept soho at a respectable distance from the first meet. But after death of Abe Misuie in 1936, Soho had been a powerful supporter succeeding Abe, and an associate of empire power that can not be negligible. Soho had taken active and defensive attitudes toward Kwangsoo Lee. But Kwangsoo Lee had taken passive and formal attitudes toward Soho consistently. Sometimes Kwangsoo Lee demanded full support from Soho in reward of cooperation and sometimes he kept his distance away Soho strategically. It is no wonder that mutual exchange of two persons based an asymmetric power relationship between emperor and colony was restricted to using each other fully.
  • 7.

    Two Handwritten Anthologies of Kwangsoo Lee: "My Songs" and "My Songs 1"

    Hatano Setsuko | 2016, (9) | pp.301~318 | number of Cited : 0
    “Complete works of Kwangsoo Lee; volume 15” published in April 1963 from Samjung-dang(三中堂) incorporated all his poems known until then. But the “volume 19” published in September of the same year, incorporated his unpublished 33 poems. According to the commentary, Kwangsoo Lee’s wife discovered in his study two notebooks in which the poems were handwritten. After the publication of the complete works, the notebooks went missing. In January 2015, I discovered these notebooks in the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Library. One is titled “My Songs” and the other “My Songs1”. In this paper, I sorted and analyzed the poems in the two notebooks. It seems that the poems in “My Songs” had been written before 1945, and those in “My Songs 1” during the three months after he, who had been imprisoned by Nation Traitor Law, was bailed out. Through the poems, we can see what Kwangsoo Lee was thinking in those days in 1949, the preceding year of his abduction and disappearance during the Korean War.
  • 8.

    On National Movements during Japanese Colonialism: With Special Reference to the Activities Performed by Ahn Chang-go, Kwangsoo Lee and Kim Chang-se in Shanghai

    Min, Byung- Jin | 2016, (9) | pp.319~385 | number of Cited : 4
    The aim of this study is to illustrate the processes and activities occurred in the periods from the births of Ahn Chang-ho, Kwangsoo Lee and Kim Chang-se till their meeting in the Shanghai Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. This paper also deals with the historical movements, so-called “national movements,” conducted by these three persons in Shanghai. Their meeting for the movement was performed without any intended plan. Rather, this unplanned meeting was made up of their patriotism for their nation. Ahn Chang-ho, in particular, had a democratic point of view, which emphasized gender equality. His excellent understanding and sense of new advanced cultures could also provide him an insightful inspiration as a leader of the nation with the future-oriented educational thought. His outstanding leadership, by which he organized and led several organizations at home and abroad, led to the absolute dedication to the organization and development of the Shanghai Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in 1919 after the March First Movement. In addition, the ideas and thoughts throughout his life were finally sublimated to the movement longing for independence,i.e. the nation’s long-cherished wish. Kwangsoo Lee, who opened his eyes to the enlightenment thought through Iljinhoe and studied Japanese by himself, was selected as a member of Iljinhoe and then could go to Japan. With the status of a middle school student at Taisei Middle School in 1906, he went to Japan again in January 1907 and returned to Korea three days before the graduation ceremony of the General College of Meiji Gakuin University. After returning to Korea, he proceeded his post as a teacher at Osan School in Jeongju, because his teaching profession in Osan School was the site of resolution and oath to devote himself prepared for death for his homeland. It is evident that he was so passionate for the national education with his giving up entering high school, considering himself as a devoted patriot who would awaken Joseon people. Later, he contributed to his talent for the activities of Young Korean Academy (Heungsadan) as the president and the chief editor of Independence News (Dongnip Sinmun), the chief of Historical Research and Compilation Committee. Furthermore, he was deeply involved in the establishment for the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, Shanghai in 1919. Kim Chang-se had studied Japanese language in Kobe Middle School, Japan in 1904 and further English language in Seisoku Middle School, Tokyo. After finishing his school, he returned to Korea and became a teacher in Euimyeong School in Sunan. Graduating the Severance Union Medical College, he worked at the Seventh-day Adventist Church Hospital in Sunan. In 1919, he came to work at Red Cross Hospital in Shanghai managed by the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the U.S.A. and also made a great contribution to the organization and establishment of Korean Red Cross and Nurses’ Training School. In particular, he devoted himself to relief activities for our compatriots in Shanghai. He worded actively as an excellent doctor of surgical operation and became both a member and an auditor of the Korean Red Cross Central Committee, receiving trust and respect among Chinese and Westerners with Kwangsoo Lee. In 1919, Ahn Chang-ho, Kwangsoo Lee and Kim Chang-se had met in Shanghai. Ahn Chang-ho and Kim Chang-se were strongly related with a ‘tie’ of blood relation. Another individual, Kwangsoo Lee, who respected Ahn Chang-ho and loved him throughout his life also became a member of them with the meeting in the same year. This unplanned and unintended meeting in Shanghai, China, could be a great motive force to overcome the sorrow of the loss of the country and inspired them to have a movement for the independence of the motherland that is an inevitable ‘destiny’ foretold already. Due to Kim Chang-se, Kwangsoo Lee came to be interested in the Seventh-day Adventist Church. With his interest in the church, Lee also studied the Bible with Pastor M. G. Conger, who was a professor at Shanghai Missionary College for one year. After studying the Bible, he confessed Novel Love was his view of life. Kwangsoo Lee’s philosophical confession of ‘love’ had a thread of connection to Ahn Chang-ho’s philosophical and practical thought of ‘love.’ He finally decided that he follows Ahn Chang-ho’s teaching and idea and realized them while he was alive. Also, he decided to meet the Joseon’s young people who were sincere for this religious creed with the activities of ‘Suyang Dongmaenghoe’ and to convey Ahn Chang-ho’s idea. In his first meeting with Ahn Chang-ho, an essayist Pi Chun-deuk became an individual who considered Ahn as his mentor. Pi was inspired by Ahn’s benevolent and great personality. He also regarded Kwangsoo Lee as his another mentor with praising him as a person who has a good heart and is honest and innocent like a child. The meeting of three persons, Ahn Chang-ho, Kwangsoo Lee and Kim Chang-se in the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai in 1919, developed the human bond tied with respect and friendship. Later, taking this meeting as an opportunity under the direction of Ahn Chang-ho, Kwangsoo Lee kept active in ‘Suyang Donguhoe’ despite the tough domestic condition with Kim Chang-se. The driving force of the national movement in Shanghai, China was a hot comradeship of the three persons who had overcome the sorrow of the loss of the country and met each other with a desire and passion for the independence of the motherland, sharing all the joys and sorrows together during the period of Japanese colonialism. Chunwon Kwangsoo Lee respected Dosan Ahn Chang-ho more than anyone else, and Dosan cared for Chunwon more than anyone else. This is the reason why Chunwon’s name is always connected with Dosan. The link between them is ‘respect’ and ‘love.’ Ahn passed at 60-year-old and was buried in Mangu-ri Cemetery. Chunwon presided the funeral on the day as well.
  • 9.

    Cho Ohyeon Dansijo of death study

    Kwon, Sung-Hun | 2016, (9) | pp.389~414 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper, “pioneer of Hangeul line founder” Cho Ohyeon (1932 ) broke more than 200 Part of Pyonshijo, Otoshijo, editorial founder, Yonshijo, Dansijo the Buddhist view of the world that appeared to Dansijo 8 side to filter the ritual of death, the destination to explore intensively. Shipment enlightenment through the ritual of death has been compiled, 8 Ed Danshijo of examining Ohyeon the locality and the language of the condensation of the reason has been the culmination. In short, to gain insight into the freedom dramatically death in back and forth so the secular and Sonsoku as a basic skeleton of stage one hand of the founder of 3 Chapter 6 wards 4 notation, and derive a new sense of line. While analyzing the death that has been shown to Danshijo of this Cho Ohyeon, the process to continue to build a sense, were analyzed through the is his book “Blue Cliff Record”. The final death means the end of existence as a human limitations, religion can not discuss with the exception of the human end. Thus religious understanding to death relationship, has an important meaning enough to atomize the existence and the foundation of religion, death religion says is the system that will support the death religion people immediately. Of course, the death of the ultimate is a problem of annihilation to go irreversible life, as a way to implement that guru language of the dimension is no, the “now no reality” led by the “presence you are in here.” Ohyeon, as marked with inhalation and exhalation, it is interpreted as also does not change life and death. In this way, the life and death that appears in his broke, or lyrics from preaching and scriptures, without asking, is a look at the natural phenomenon of it remains. Ritual of most of the death to be displayed this paper to Danshijo of Ohyeon is, with his “Blue Cliff Record”, it is possible to view its origin, it is the Buddhism of three basic Tenets(敎義) various is Impermanence of worldly things(諸行無常印), Method selfless(諸法無我印), Dream appropriate positive(涅槃寂靜印) it revealed that has reached.
  • 10.

    A study of Family Romance in Kwangsoo Lee's King Dongmyeong of Love

    Choi Sun-ho | 2016, (9) | pp.415~436 | number of Cited : 0
    While novels can be interpreted in various ways, King Dongmyeong of Love is one that cannot be fully grasped without first understanding its author Kwangsoo Lee. The weight of his social stance as a pro-Japanese and the pressure of being in the middle of a historic turning point compelled Kwangsoo Lee to portray Jumong as an ethically perfect, ideal leader. King Dongmyeong of Love focuses on Jumong’s life story and the process of his development into a king. The passive, pliant nature of a foster child and the power-seeking character of an illegitimate child, appear clearly. Jumong had no choice but to live as a foster child because he had no knowledge of his true father. A foster child displays blind obedience, as he assumes that he does not possess the strength or the will to defy reality. Jumong’s reclusive condition can be linked to the Korean people’s situation during Japan’s colonial rule. The loss of a country leaves its people dejected and defeated, and demands for its people to become pliant foster children amidst insecurity and disorder. Once Jumong perceives himself as a child of the sky-a celestial being-he makes no attempt to hide his characteristics as an illegitimate child and openly pursues power and social success. But rather being portrayed as a violent tyranny, he is recreated into a benevolent and heroic illegitimate child. Through Jumong, Kwangsoo Lee creates a benevolent monarch who cares for and leads his people wisely-in short, a leader that was greatly needed by the Korean people. King Dongmyeong of Love is a work that condenses Kwangsoo Lee’s inner torment about his people. He actively expresses the importance of achieving his people’s wish of founding a new nation through the portrayal of an ideal leader. Kwangsoo Lee recreates the image of the foster and illegitimate child, reflecting the needs of the times, thus providing an opportunity to look back on the true meaning of a nation and its people.