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2017, Vol., No.11

  • 1.

    A Drawing Room, Modernization of Places for Guests and the Place of Novel: Focusing in Kwangsoo Lee’s Mujeong(無情), Jaesaeong(再生)

    RYU SUYUN | 2017, (11) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 5
    In the narrative of Kwangsoo Lee, modern housing spaces have an important meaning. This is because it functions as a 'place' that leads to events linked to the theme of the work. At the center of the narrative is a drawing room. Kwangsoo Lee actively utilized the changes caused by this western-style residential space to shape his work. Especially, "heartlessness" and "regeneration" are closely connected with the character relationship formed in the reception space and the theme of the whole work. From this point of view, it seems to be the text to understand concretely how the appearance of the space of reception of a guest caused the change in the literary form. Especially, it is noteworthy that the places with the function of reception becomes the stage of the event that makes the fate of the protagonist foresee. This paper intends to examine from the microscopic view how the modernized reception space is utilized as a new place of modern literature through the narrative of Kwangsoo Lee.
  • 2.

    The History of Translation of Mujŏng 『無情』 for the 100th Anniversary

    Hyerim Choi | 2017, (11) | pp.33~60 | number of Cited : 2
    The purpose of this study is to discuss the history of translation of Mujŏng, which has been translated into different languages since it was first published 100 years ago. Since first translated by Lee Suchang in Japanese in 1928, Mujŏng has been translated into English, Turkish, Japanese (2005), and Chinese. Differences between the two versions of Japanese translation resulted, in part, from the year of translation, 1928 and 2005, respectively; however, this study focused on the difference in philosophy of translation between the translators. Lee Suchang (1928) attempted to eliminate differences between the languages by centring the translation on the translated language. By contrast, translation by Hatano Setsuko left the traces of difference with the original language in the translated language. Mujŏng, the English translation, is a faithful translation based on meticulous comparison with original version. However, it substituted vocabularies that represent cultural components of Choseon with corresponding the translated language, thus, eliminating difference in cultural components or resulting in off-textual translation in certain parts. However, by preserving the hybrid text in Mujŏng, which frequently adopted English and Japanese, in the translation, it successfully conveys the linguistic situation and culture of the time. The Turkish translation Merhametsiz Yaşam opened up possibility for 『無情』 to be established as a work of foreign literature on its own. The Chinese translation 『无情』(2007) is not a complete work but was finished only partly as a piece of text in a Korean language textbook. Considering the active translation of Chinese modern literature in Korean in recent years, this highlights the asymmetry that exists between Korean and Chinese literature translation.
  • 3.

    The Feminism Perspective and History of Study on Mujeong

    Junghyun Hwang | 2017, (11) | pp.61~89 | number of Cited : 7
    This paper aims to find new clues to extend the meaning of Mujeong beyond the existing literary historical evaluation as ‘Korean first modern novel’, through the reading based on feminism perspective. Feminism perspective is important to find the meaning which has been ignored. It also can ask questions about the male-centric analysis of Mujeong and discover the hidden meaning of the novel which has been neglected by the existing authority and order. The study based on feminist perspectives shows two major tendencies. First, some studies insist that the plot of Mujeong resembles a 'female formation novel' structure because it has characters of 'modern female subject' that separate from the old values ​​through dramatic changes and aim at ethics of a new age. This view is based on the fact that the formal characteristics of Mujeong are in common with the universal structure of modern novels, thus suggesting the possibility of understanding 'as one of the world literature' beyond the context of Korea. However, the gender characteristics and differences that should be considered important in the meaning analysis of the 'female formation novel' are neglected in these studies. 'Consciousness and enlightenment of the modern people' centered on the male gender is not enough to explain the meaning of female characters’ changes. Second, some studies focus on the discriminatory factors that occur in the process of recognition and representation of female sexuality. These criticize that the form and the perspective of Mujeong reflect the view centered on the male gender. Furthermore, these insist that 'modern male subject' is established in the process of discriminating and controlling the female sexuality. This point of view provides an opportunity to critically review the dichotomous discussion of the affirmation and negation of the value of 'Mujeong as a modern novel'. Subsequent researches on the meaning of existence and role of female characters and related factors are required. As we have seen in the preceding research results, reading Mujeong based on feminist perspective is a way to escape the stereotypes that have accumulated over many years in the works and it is also a task to recognize the traits and literary values. Above all, it is valuable in that it shows that Mujeong is still a text that needs to be interpreted by raising critical questions.
  • 4.

    On Kwangsoo Lee’s Literary Theory of “the Literature of Love” to the Literary Theory of “the Literature of the Ordinary”

    김명숙 | 2017, (11) | pp.93~124 | number of Cited : 1
    Kwangsoo Lee published a series of review articles in the early period of modern literature in South Korea, and launched its own literary theory, which can be summarized as the process from the literary theory of “the literature of love” to the literary theory of “the literature of the ordinary”. This process reflects Kwangsoo Lee’s understanding of the new literature, and the core of Kwangsoo Lee’s literary theory never left the word “love”. The terms of “literature of the love” and “the literature of the ordinary” of Kwangsoo Lee not only reflect the historical situation of the literary arena in the period of intense social transition, but also embody the mixed transitional features of the old and new periods but still having its own distinct feature.Although the literary theory of Kwangsoo Lee lacks theoretical thinking, the logic is clear and can be justified. In this paper, Kwangsoo Lee’s “the literature of love” contains the consciousness and logic of resistance to reason through emotion, and shows the change will in society and culture. While Kwangsoo Lee’s trying to get rid of the bondage of the traditional literary concept, but he still cannot separate himself from of the Oriental traditional mind-set of conveying doctrine through literature, and just conveying emotion through literature instead of conveying doctrine. In “the literature of the ordinary”, the revolutionary character of the period of “the literature of love” of Kwangsoo Lee has become extremely weak, and the “love” has been moralized. On the whole, as the most outstanding intellectual in that period, Kwangsoo Lee has a dialogue with the world within his capacity not only based on his own rich Oriental artistic appreciation but also drawing the essence of Western literary theory at the same time.
  • 5.

    A Study of Literature by the End of Japanese Rule: Kwangsoo Lee's Yukjanggi

    Min, Byung- Jin | 2017, (11) | pp.125~171 | number of Cited : 0
    “Yukjanggi(鬻庄記)” is a confessional letter in which Chunwon set up Hongjidong cabin outside of Jahamun in August 1934, dwelt there for six years, and sold the house. This essay was released in Munjang magazine in September 1939. He was under pressure on the ground that his mental fulcrum Dosan Ahn Changho was arrested for the reason of bombing attack by Yun Bong-gil and incarcerated at Daejeon detention center. He wrote that the year 1934 was “one of my despairing days in my life” due to the death of his son on February 1934 and the sudden death of Doctor Kim Changse who shared joy and sorrow in the provisional government at Shanghai and member of Heungsadan. He built Hongjidong cabin with a firm principle of “psychological treatment” due to his son's death and “live until I die away by writing letters.” Yet he had a hard time to admit his son's death. Thus, he hoped that his child would be somewhere and come back later, relying on the “rebirth” in Buddhism. His belief that “I would believe something that makes me believe I live now regardless of what it is” among all religions and philosophy in the world included “Jesus Christ” and “Buddha,” “The Bible,” and “Buddhist Scripture.” He wanted to be reborn and “good person” in the new house. He dedicated to identifying the re-establishment of strong life philosophy and life value in “art” and “religion.” He once confessed his ambition to “write distinguishing work with his utmost effort and present it not only in Korea but in the world.” He needed contemplation and self-discipline through “repentance” and “penitence” in order to have a realization on the fundamental and philosophical question on life and death posed by his dear son’ death. “National movement” or “Moral personality training movement” led by Ahn Changho and Chunwon mainly pivoted on “ideological philosophy” and “practical movement” for “the people.” Themes of released every article on behalf of imprisoned Ahn Changho aimed at “Dosan” and “national spirit.” Dosan referred to national spirit and Chunwon declared “national movement” against “the Japanese Empire” through Dosan Ahn Changho. A month before the Sino-Japan War broke out, the Japanese Empire triggered “Dongwoohoe event,” eliminated Korean antagonists by arresting national movement leaders (June 7, 1937), and utilized controlled security maintenance in performing war. Moreover, it delayed trial and forced him to surrender his integrity by conducting torture and persuasion. Chunwon assumed the responsibility of every process of “Dongwoohoe event” and results as well as comrade destiny into Chunwon after the death of Dosan on March 10, 1938. Chunwon declared his infinite responsibility and was aware of national views and Japanese threat on behalf of Dosan Ahn Changho by saying “So far I have just followed Dosan, but now I have to be a leader of this event.” He also recorded economic and social situation under Japanese rule in realistic and critical ways when he wrote “Yukjanggi.” He created “25-year-old unmarried carrier” and “19-year-old female factory worker Samcheori” and criticized debilitated economic situation and living condition of the lower class in city due to the implementation of “National spiritual mobilization” and ongoing war mobilization system. He deplored the pessimistic Korea under Japanese rule by saying “I can't forget his words. Isn't it life poem and sad poem?” through Korean young adults who had no alternative but to serve “assistant soldiers” and “laborers” for survival rather than starving to death and 16-year-old Korean girls who took charge of life for remaining family members. However, he was continuously afflicted with the idea of forthcoming days of Dongwoohoe members including him on trial and profound agony on his conduct. His work Yukjaggi was written in the moment when he was sorely distressed. He had to deliver his message in speedy monologue-type letter with ungrammatical words and rough calligraphy. Target readers were the Japanese Empire and his beloved readers who take care of national future and admire him. Despite the Japanese surveillance and menace, he completed long novel Love on April 1939 in which life philosophy is well reflected. Yukjanggi, a follow-up story, recounts sympathy over “people around the world” like “family” and unite each other with “fraternity.” Great love with human beings and hope for people are the source of his pantheistic humanitarianism. In the end, he intends to change the world with a flame of love he never abandoned in his hard life and attend the holy war to triumph with love and turn the universe into love kingdom. Now he will sing a song for gratitude and glorification in a country eternal with mercy and kindness; that is, new sky and new earth where lover’s fairness and truth are promulgated. By the end of the Japanese rule, he conveys hopeful messages to Korean compatriots in order to be with them until he passes away under more deploring and growing pressures by the Japanese Empire. After writing Yookjanggi, he served as a president of “Korea Writers Association” on December, and changed his name into “Kayama Mitzro (香山光郞)” in March 1940. He started to cooperate with Japan as requested. He said “What I speak of the emperor of Japan and Korea and Japan one policy is just for Korean people. If it is not the right way for them, I will begin the independence movement” in My Confession (1948). Some calls it coward “your excuse and justification.” People despised him. There are many implications from the ending parts of a hundred poems in the context of Buddhism in Yukjanggi. Perhaps he unconsciously revealed Christian afterlife view or integrated a variety of philosophical contents including Christianity into Buddhism. Furthermore, he intended to send hopeful messages to Koreans by reluctantly cooperating with the Japanese Empire that pushed him to be line with Pro-Japan position. Accordingly, another research on pro-Japanese conducts by Chunwon Lee Kwangsoo is needed in terms of reflecting confessional voice with metaphorical expressions towards people through Yukjanggi before he changed his name and proclaimed his forged integrity by the end of the Japanese occupation.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Methods of Studying Korean Literature in Korea

    Bang, Min Ho | 2017, (11) | pp.173~208 | number of Cited : 11
    This paper describes the methodology and concepts for studying Korean postwar literature. Studies of Korean postwar literature continue. However, it is judged that the basic methods and concepts for this study were not sufficiently reflected. In this context, this paper examined the concept of postwar literature, the process of postwar literature in korea, other concepts related to postwar literature, and the study of postwar literature in Japan. Furthermore, this paper examines the historical status of the postwar era in Korea. This paper is more about the nature of such a study than individual research.
  • 7.

    A Female North Korean Defector’s Crossing Borderland and Awakening Transnational Subjectivity in Hyeonseo Lee’s Memoirs

    Bae, Gaehwa | 2017, (11) | pp.209~236 | number of Cited : 7
    This study is one of case studies on “feminization of migrant” as a global phenomenon and female migrants’ transnational subjectivity, mainly focusing on Hyeonseo Lee’s English memoir The Girl with Seven Names: A North Korean Defector’s Story (William Collins: 2015). This study sheds light on a female North Korean defector’s characteristic as not a refugee or victim-subject but a “transnational subject” who survived through border-crossing and several name changes. After escape from North Korea, Lee renamed herself in five times to hide the North Korean identity, disguising herself with fake identities of a few Korean Chinese. By buying or changing citizenship, she promoted her social status (or exchange value) symbolized by jobs and incomes higher than before. Lee felt herself as an exile or ‘non-entity’ in China, trying to recover her identity through immigration to South Korea. But Lee found that North Koreans hided their identities for avoiding discriminations toward them, and assimilated themselves to ethnicized citizenship of South Korea. Unlike other North Korean settlers, she decided to be ‘a stranger’ in South Korean society. Later, when rescuing her family from North Korea, she had a chance to glance a transnational community based on unconditional “love for humanity.” Now she considers herself as not a South or North Korean but a global citizen, and from this standpoint advocates human rights of both North Korean people and defectors. Hyeonseo Lee’s memoir shows new type of transnational subject and a possibility to think human rights not from a state based citizenship but from global citizenship.
  • 8.

    A study on Anxiety in Pioneer: focus on hysterical narrative

    SONG SANGDUCK | 2017, (11) | pp.237~265 | number of Cited : 0
    Pioneer(published serially from November 11th 1917 to March 15th 1918 in Daily News), written by Kwangsoo Lee, like The Heartless(1917), his another representative work, was one of the popular works in those days. However, Pioneer was appreciated as a work which lacks consistency in its narrative composition. In a number of existing researches of the work, it has been thought to have a completely different narrative according to whether they would see Sung-jae or Sung-soon as a main character of the work. Particularly, a reader in those days even submitted to Daily News(March 17th 1918) an essay which indicates contradictions and cracks in the work. From narrative similarities between a neurotic and Sung-soon, this study finds reasons why it doesn't consist of a single narrative and is differently read according to each condition. Thereby, considering narratives of Pioneer according to characters, it perceives which aspects function as cracks of the narratives. In the process, it is noteworthy that words and actions of Sung-soon in refusing to marry Min are deeply similar to discourse of a hysteriac. The narrative of Sung-soon suggests questions which show uncertainty of enlightenment as the signifier, and the questions function as doubtful points even when the narration ends. This study is going to reveal that the meaning of the hysterical discourse of Sung-soon demonstrates anxiety, which modern subjects have.
  • 9.

    A Study on the generation of the Late Japanese Imperialism in Jung Bi-suk’s short stories

    HA NIE JUNG | 2017, (11) | pp.267~300 | number of Cited : 0
    Though Jung Bi-suk is well-known as a writer of the affair, some short stories of Jung in late Japanese Imperialism shows the matter of the generation at that time. Around 1940 in the Chosun literary world, there was a argument about the new generation. Jung Bi-suk did not enter that argument, but he showed his thought on the matter of the generation through his few short stories - ‘The Third Friendship’(「第三의 友情」), ‘Solitary’(「孤高」), ‘A Village with Springtime’(「마을은 봄과 더불어」). These short stories show that insulating to the old generation was the starting point for the younger generation. In ‘The Third Friendship’(「第三의 友情」), ‘Solitary’(「孤高」) show that some of younger generation did not make realistic choices, they hesitated between the logic of reality and ideal. But in 1942, during ‘The New Era’(신체제), Jung had written stories in Japanese, and in that kinds of works, his tendency of the works certainly changed. There were no more hesitated young men. The young man of Jung’s short story in Japanese accepted ‘the Fact’ as his belief, and things he did for his village was actually for the Japanese Imperial.
  • 10.

    The Study on the Discourse of Migration in Chunwon’s Yujeong

    WANG XIAN | 2017, (11) | pp.301~332 | number of Cited : 1
    Yujeong is the most confident work of Chunwon. Theresearch related to it, though carried out all the time, is now in the decline. Since it doesn’t directly reflect the oppression of the colonial rule at thattime, Yujeong is often regarded as a purely literary work which describes only the “unethicalromance” between the adoptive father and adopted daughter. However, “jeong” in Yujeong, does not mean simply the love between men and women. During the process of the characters’ immigration, through the production, transformationand sublimation of “jeong”, the story shows the readers an loving world where in particular there is a kind of often-neglected strong patrioticfeelings. As part of quest for a diverse approach to the research of Yujeong, this thesis deals with the discourse of migration from a national perspective. In the immigration experience involving people’s “feelings”, the sentimental world of the characters’ own inner space has been gradually formed, and thesentimental world between characters has also been formed. This loving world isopposed to the merciless Korean society at the disposal of the colonists wherethey live in before their immigration. The characters, though carry out theirimmigration activities respectively, they are consistent in their efforts topursue an affectionate Korean society. In addition, we can see Chunwon’scall for getting rid of the cruel society and entering into a loving societyfrom the story, which shows Chunwon’s use of Dosan’s thought of “CheongeuiTonsu”. Through the ‘jeong’ between Choi-Seok and Jeong-im, Chunwon demonstrates the ‘Cheongeui’ to the publicand transformed the return of immigrants into an opportunity for there alization of a loving society in an effort to achieve the goal of ‘CheongeuiTonsu’. In the following, on the basis such research context and the discourse of migration, we will examine the real creative sense of Chunwon and raise the inspiration ofthe Yujeong fromthe individual level to the national level, so as to reveal the significance ofthe discourse of migration
  • 11.