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2018, Vol., No.13

  • 1.

    The Postcolonial Strategies of Two Korean Intellectuals, Ahn Changho and Kwangsoo Lee

    Song Hyun Ho | 2018, (13) | pp.9~33 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    On the threshold of the modern period, Korean intellectuals began to turn to the U.S. instead of China as their new civilization model, to restore their national rights and identity. Ahn was one of them. With his ‘(有情)-(無情)-thesis’, Ahn criticized that the Korean society was , and that it needed to appropriate the of the Western society, especially the United States. Ahn believed that a Korean society must be founded upon by practicing the ‘competency-training’(실력양성론), which claimed to improve the Korean people’s economic status and level of cultural understanding. Thus he argued for the reformation and enlightenment of their spirit into a collective spirit of ethno-nationalism(민족). Interestingly, Yi was a registered member of Ahn’s Young Korean Academy(興 士團) for preparing Korea’s independence. Although much-neglected in existing academic research, Yi’s theories on ethno-nationalist Movement or Reformation are directly and mutually related to Ahn’s ideology. They were founded upon the objective of fostering the true character of the Korean identity while reforming its subsidiary aspects. They were also an appropriation of the theories of both evolution and civilizational-hierarchy into an active postcolonial strategy, a point where his ideas of civilization and modernization fall apart from the logic of Japanese imperialism. It is in this context of Ahn’s ideology that Yi comes to publish his novels from H(무정)(1917) to (흙)(1932-3). This reveals Yi’s long-time search for a postcolonial strategy just right for Korea, which he found by reading the West through the symbol of heart(情), or love, especially the United States.
  • 2.

    The road to the novel "Soil"-In relation to Ahn Chang-ho's Discussion on Ideological Village Discourse

    Bang, Min Ho | 2018, (13) | pp.35~74 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The novel, “Soil”, is a work serialized from April 12, 1932 to July 10, 1933, in the Dong-A Ilbo. This novel is deeply related to “heartlessness Society and hearty Society”(『Light of the east』, 1926.1) Prior to the “Soil” Lee Kwangsoo wrote a book called “Heosaengjeon”, which contains a device for making Ahn Changho's ‘Living truth-energetic action’ ideas. “Soil” is a kind of critique of capitalism. “Mujung” dreamed of entering into the ‘era of the hearty’ that encompassed the ruling classes of Kim an elder of a church and Seonhyeong. This hearty society was a society that understood the people, old things, and marginalized beings represented by Youngchae as the partners of life. “S0il” dreamed of the evolution of the ideal state beyond the present state of the rural community, which is being dismantled by capitalism. The hero of “Soil” is portrayed as returnee to his hometown Salyeoul, rather than enlightenment of that. This Salyeoul is pre-modern, but heartness is a living place. The theme and idea of this “Soil” was influenced by An Chang Ho's ideal social theory, which had the experience of crossing over to the United States and constructing an ideal village.
  • 3.

    The Rural Development Campaign and Dongwoohoi in Kwangsoo Lee novel Heuk(soil)

    Park, Jin-sook | 2018, (13) | pp.75~109 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper is to assert that Lee Kwang-su's novel Heuk(soil) is an representation of the construction of an ideal village as a part of Dongwoohoi Movement started by Dosan Ahn Chang-ho. This novel is closely associated with the development of the cooperative movement and Rural Development Campaign in the 1930s, describing the youth’s worry about how to live under the Japanese rule. In this connection, Lee proposed three agendas based on the ideas of Dongwoohoi, from “The Three Basic Projects of the Korean National Movement” publishied in the magazine Dongkwang(the light of the East) in Feb. 1932. Those three are the formation of intelligentsia, the enlightenment of farmers and workers followed by the production improvement and the cooperative movement. In the novel Heuk, the project of formation of intelligentsia are represented by love affairs, self-sacrifice, process of regeneration among the youth, and the injection of a professional into a rural movement. Also, the processes of improving life quality through the establishment of the cooperative movement, the enlightenment of farmers, and the production improvement are described realistically in this novel. In this point, Heuk is not a vague rural enlightenment novel. It confronts the policies of Government-General of Korea squarely, which were to control the rural society by the Rural Development Campaign. This point is demonstrated especially by two episodes in this novel. Firstly, the Japanese tries to exploit Korean rural society by way of planting in checkrows. Secondly, the cooperative movement initiated by Heo Sung eventually changes into Mr. Han’s platform of the alternative Rural Development Campaign, integrating the Production Increase Union of Yu Jeong-keun which was closely in collusion with the Japanese police station. In this plot, the problems of the Rural Development Campaign are detected, whereas the beautiful aspects of the ideal village, Lee Gwang-su and Dosan tried to construct, is revealed. Appropriating the Rural Development Campaign initiated by Government-General of Korea, this novel claims that the realization of an ideal village, such as Sal-yeo-ul and Geom-bul-lang, by the power of Korean intellectual youth, is necessary for colonial Korea.
  • 4.

    The Narcissism and the Autobiographical Character of Chunwon’s Literature

    Hongseop Cheong | 2018, (13) | pp.111~143 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The purpose of this treatise is to confirm that narcissism and autographical writing is the principal substance of Chunwon’s literature and that to grasp the correlation of these two elements and the changing process of these two in the correlation is a proper way to understand his literature. What made the change to Chunwon more than anything else was meeting and parting with Tosan. This study, on this premise, is to scrutinize “The Development of Korean Rural Communities” and “For the Reconstruction of Korean Traits” which are regarded as the pieces that show very well the continuity and the difference of the narcissism and the autographical character of his writing between before and after his activity in The Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai. On this view and method we can see the continuity and the difference very well between “The Development of Korean Rural Communities” which was written before Chunwon met Tosan in Shanghai in 1919 and did activities of The Provisional Government and joined Young Korean Academy, and the famous and notorious “For the Reconstruction of Korean Traits” which was written after those events. In the respect that the former shows his experiences at Yongdong as a teacher of Osan School and the latter shows signally his study and activities in Shanghai, both of these two works represents the autobiographical character of Chunwon’s literature. And both works let us see his consistent narcissism of thinking himself as a national leader. But in the narcissistic aspect the latter shows a much stronger attitude of ‘objectification’ of Korean people because of the self-confidence that he gained by meeting with Tosan and joining Young Korean Academy.
  • 5.

    Politics of Love -the Journey to "Yujeong"(of Kwangsoo Lee)

    Song Minho | 2018, (13) | pp.145~176 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Many of feature-length novels written by Yi Kwangsu are not too much to say that, even though they started and ended with the theme of love. First, Yi Kwangsu's "Mujeong(無情)"(1917) showed the conflict between love inherited from past heritage and newly discovered love in the framework of enlightenment. After that, Yi Kwangsu showed personal and social knowledge and enlightenment with love in the journey of love by way of "Pioneer(開拓者)"(1917), "Rebirth(再 生)"(1924), and "Soil(흙)"(1932), Especially, 'love' of Yi Kwangsu is structured between emotion as a individual and the torment about society, and composed of uncertainty and agony about others' feelings and love as an emotional existence. In particular, it isn't an exaggeration to say that "Yujeong(有情)"(1933), that I wish to discuss in this paper, is located at a certain peak before reaching "love(사랑)" (1938), the form of abstracted love. There is an aspect of convincing 'love' with a absolute attitude to religion in "Yujeong(有情)". In fact, various 'love' drawn in Yi Kwangsu's novels does not refer to the love itself as universal emotion in general. The love represented in his novel contains a by-product of surplus that is not always interpreted, that is, in the sense that his love always functions with a sign that exceeds itself. Yi Kwangsu has been confronted with the issue of 'enlightenment', 'politics', or 'religion' in the form of 'love' that was shaped by the discrimination between his novels and novels of the previous era. This paper examines how the sequence of love disguised in various ways in the intimate history of all Yi Kwangsu's novels, as a possibility to approach his concept of 'love' which has reached "Yujeong(有情)". As we have seen in the text, the subject of whether love is regarded as inherited, which is attached to the other by the leading edge in "Mujeong(無情)", leads to subsequent works. In addition, the dilemma, whether is to be accepted by mistake with the national independence, appears again as issue between "love" and "unstable love" and "unethical" in "Rebirth(再生)". On the other hand, the self-evident behavior in "Rebirth(再生)" is repeated in the Choi Suk's journey to the to Baikal. Finally, the various of 'Love' in Yi Kwangsu's novel is not 'love', but a movement to fill the symbol of 'love'. In this sense, "Yujeong(有情)" was a work that lay at its peak in any sense, and it was the only occasion that could overlap the discursive 'politics' of Yi Kwangsu's and 'love' narrated.
  • 6.

    Love(1938), Another Statement of Conversion

    Choi.J.H. | 2018, (13) | pp.177~202 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    In the existing research, the portrait of Lee Kwang-su, who is the author of Love, is called as a different form of 'saint', 'snob' or 'monster'. These three readings are not only confined to their own frames, but also do not explain about Lee Kwang-su at the time of writing on Love, and why readers of the time read it enthusiastically. This thesis starts from a discussion on the place where Lee Kwang-su is placed at the time of writing on Love, that is the Donguhoe Affair. In this regard, I focus on two articles that the statement of conversion Consensus, written in Japanese, and the novel Love written in Korean. The former follows the formal remarks for the governer's office. The latter, on the other hand, is another secret statement of conversion that was written to the colonial reader by allegorically narrating the problem posed by the conversion on the more intimate layer of the oppressed formal logic. The other point is about the possibility that readers of the time, who were dark in the trends of the Donguhoe Affair, could have read Love as a story about their destiny under the war mobilization of the empire. The colonial intellectual Lee Kwang-su, who will lead the war mobilization and the general public under the war mobilization system was basically in the same position, so it was possible to cross the interpretation.
  • 7.

    The autobiography of 'I' and 'He', the meaning between them -A Study on Kwangsoo Lee "His Autobiography"

    Jiyoung Kim | 2018, (13) | pp.203~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Lee Kwang-soo's "His Autobiography", which was published in the Chosun Ilbo from December 12, 1936 to May 1, 1937, is a work that recalls the story of his youth by borrowing the form of 'autobiography'. But why did Lee Kwang-soo write his autobiography in the mid-1930s, not the story of his life, but the story of his life. This paper started with the question. Why did Lee Kwang-soo want to borrow the form of 'autobiographical warfare' in the mid-1930s and tell the story of 'he'? In fact, if you read the work closely, you can see that 'he' in the title of his autobiography leads to 'I', the main character of the story, and 'I' is connected to Lee Kwang-soo. In the end, Lee Kwang-soo wanted to show his readers in this work was the 'he' and 'I' who overcome all kinds of hardships without being overwhelmed. Of course, the story of fiction is involved in the process, but the past 'memory' of Lee Kwang-soo was the purest past that he had been able to be most proud of and sacrificed for his cause. Therefore, Lee Kwang-soo wanted to be confirmed by the reader through the confession of the main character 'I', which was the fact that 'he' and 'I' were Lee Kwang-soo. And Lee Kwang-soo could go further there and want to see himself as the most 'Lee Kwang-soo'. In fact, "His Autobiography" is a confession of the past, but the reason why he can not read only the confession of the past is because of the order of memory Lee Kwang-soo chose. In particular, if you look at Lee Kwang-soo's thoughts, troubles and decisions that change through his second trip to China and his second study abroad in Tokyo, you can see Lee Kwang-soo's changes from his 20s to 30s and 40s. The work that was published in times and personal and sensitive times, especially in the form of 'autobiographical warfare', confessed mistakes, and summarized their thoughts, is meant to be present and present in the past and present arrangements and confirmation for the future.
  • 8.

    Intellectuals Described in Literature by North Korean Defector Writers

    Seo Serim | 2018, (13) | pp.235~262 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Korean defector writers. The study investigated the North Korean defector writers’ description on the appearance of intellectuals and its relationship with the reality in North Korea and examined the unique aspect of the perception of North Korean defectors who experienced both regimes. The existing studies regarding the works by North Korean defector writers mainly focus on the extreme agony and starvation that is represented by ‘Kotjebi,’ which is a North Korean term that denotes street children in North Korea. However, the issue of intellectuals expressed in the literature by North Korean defector writers is also important. “Intelli” is a term that is officially used in North Korean society and it refers to the social class engaged in intellectual labor with possession of certain knowledge or technology. In North Korean society, Intelli is recognized as valuable resource for social development. At the same time, however, North Korea has controlled them with educational policy under the name of “refinement” and “conversion” for the purpose of eradicating the possibility of them turning into rebel force against the current regime from the beginning. As such, Intelli is put in the unique situation in North Korean society. This paper examined the North Korean intellectuals’ perception on problem and reality by looking at the North Korean defectors writers’ novels written in the 2000s. With a particular focus on Chang Hae-seong’s novels that mainly describe the anguish by characters who are intellectuals, such as scholars, professors, and journalists, the paper investigated works by the major North Korean defector writers, which included Kim Yoo-kyeong and Do Myeong-hak. By examining the social perception and critical consciousness in North Korea through the North Korean defector writers’ direct description on the intellectuals, the study examined the implication that the works by the North Korean defector writers can have in Korean society.
  • 9.

    The Migration Theory in <Square> and <Naked Earth>

    YANG NING | 2018, (13) | pp.263~292 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Korea and China had experienced a great change after the liberation. This change has been reflected in politics, economic, society and culture. The wounds after the war, the collapse of moral and ethical, the chaos of politics Ideological and social are fully integrated into literature and changed the literature. Choi Inhun and Zhang Ailing are the representative writers of Korea and China during this period. Zhang Ailing's <Naked Earth> was published in 1950s which is earlier than the publication of Choi Inhun's <Square>. Choi Inhun published <Square> until 1960s, after the 4.19 revolution and the collapsing of Syngman Rhee’s regime. This is because under Syngman Rhee’s dictatorship, people in South Korea could not publish novels that depicting sensitive material. In addition, mainland China is ruled by the Communist Party and Taiwan is ruled by the Kuomintang, the literary and artistic activities both in mainland China and Taiwan cannot be free. Especially Zhang Ailing's <Naked Earth> has Chinese and English versions. Because the Chinese version was created with the support of the Hong Kong office of the United States Gazette while she stayed in Hong Kong for 3 years. Therefore, some scholars suspect whether the plot of the novel is true. But in 1956, when she revised the unreasonable content of the Chinese version and published the English version, Zhang Ailing was not assisted by the United States ,so she had free speech. She not only deleted the propaganda materials but also diluted the political color in the English version. In addition, She paid more attention to the rational development of the storyline and the contradictions and struggles of the protagonist. So that the horizon of the novel was broadened. Therefore, the author combines the Chinese version and the English version to analyze. Migration has been highly regarded by scholars as a new perspective in recent years. When it comes to migration, people often associate migration with the Western recognition of "space movement." In fact, migration includes not only the "space movement" but also the changes on thoughts and feelings. Migration is generally aimed at getting rid of oppression and pursuing a better life. After migration, it is possible to start a new life, on the other hand, they might be alienated or not be able to integrate into a new life. Most of the literary works contain migration. Choi Inhun and Zhang Ailing have gone through wars and both of them migrated because of the war. The war and migration have become the inevitable materials in their literary creation. Because they have experienced the fear and the pain during the war and they understand the cruelty and scars of war more than anyone, so they are able to describe the pain of life of contemporary people vividly. These two novels reflected the social phenomenon in Korea and China. There are many similarities between these two novels. Particularly, <Naked Earth> contains the content of the Korean War, which triggered the author's desire to explore the relationship between Zhang Ailing and South Korea. It is an opportunity to understand the current situation of communication between South Korea and China in the modern period and seek sits historical experience. In <Square>, Li Mingjun is disappointment with South Korea’s life and moved to North Korea, hoping that the people’s country can make him feel peaceful. However, North Korea is also disappointing. In <Naked Earth>, Liu Quan moved to the countryside and city at the request of the state. After suffering a painful life, he decided to participate in the Korean War to seek inner peace. Due to the painful life and the oppression of the external society, both Li Mingjun and Liu Quan tried to find a spiritual sustenance in love. However, with the death of EunHye and the unfortunate fate of Huang Juan, they were disheartened. In the repatriation of prisoners of war, Li Mingjun chose to go to the neutral country and jumped into the sea on the ship to the neutral country and found the real square finally. Liu Quan did not chose Taiwan nor neutral country. He chose to go back to China. But what he chose was not China under socialism, nor China under capitalism but the people in China. He chose to go back to a new China with the love of people. Choi Inhun and Zhang Ailing combined their own migration experiences to create these two characters, Li Mingjun and Liu Quan. Li Mingjun chose the "real square" and Liu Quan chose the new China. Through their choices we can see that the ideal society of Choi Inhun and Zhang Ailing are the same. It is the society that overcome nationalism and political ideas.
  • 10.

    A Study on the aspect of Filming the novel 'Soil' by Kwangsoo Lee

    lee mi na | 2018, (13) | pp.293~344 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Lee Kwang-soo's "soil," a line of rural novels in the 1930s, is a two-axis epic of "The Rural enlightenment movement and the love triangle." Heo Sung, a high school student from a poor farming village, shows his willingness to enlighten farmers through farming projects and achieve dramatic status victory through marriage to Jeongseon. The study of "soil" is mainly based on the theory of work, and only a fragmentary reference to the filmmaking of the novel "soil" raises the need for a full-scale discussion. Thus, this chapter looks at the aspect of the filming of the novel 'Soil', which was the most frequently filmed novel among Lee Kwang-soo's novels. The reason why Lee has been called to the Korean film industry continuously becomes clearer when he is understood in the context of the times and cultures. Since the mid-1950s, Lee's novels have begun to become popular as the basis for 'Culture Movie,' which continues through the 1960s and the 1970s. Lee's novels have been invited continuously for nearly three decades, except during colonial times. There is an epidemiological relationship with the publishing market, where his literature became prevalent, such as Lee Kwang-soo's constantly loved literary position and the publication of his collection. In addition, Lee's abduction and reinstatement as a national writer, and the nation's state-sponsored 'ethnic enlightenment' and cultural discourse called 'literature film' are complicated by many factors. Lee's novel 'Soil' interacts with cultural discourse at the time, and shows a unique aspect of the novel. In 1960, Soil was portrayed as a film devoted to faithfully moving the original novel to the modern needs of the postwar establishment of a new country, and in 1967, it was a film of literature created by state intervention. Also, the 1978 Soil, which was produced in the dark ages of Korean movies, is a little bit far from the original, with its national policy of emphasizing publicity to avoid double censorship and stimulate public sentiment. As such, the media exhibition of Lee Kwang-soo's novel "Soil" and the movie "Soil" is viewed as having many implications in the era.
  • 11.

    A Study on Kujejok Kangto[Righteous Robber]

    Hwang Jae-moon | 2018, (13) | pp.345~384 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Thun Nak Chung(1875-1953) was a first-generation Korean American who was included in the Hawaiian immigrant laborers, and moved to Hawaii in 1904 and moved back to California in 1907. He made a living by working on the farm and educated his children and nephews. He wrote several novels and articles around the 1920s and 1930s, which were handed down as unpublished manuscripts and recently donated by his family to the University of Southern California. Among them, “Kujejok Kangto[Righteous Robber]” and “Owolhwa[May Flower]” the prequel, reflect the experiences of first-generation and second-generation Korean Americans. The main character of these novels is his son Jack Thun, but it is believed to reflect the experiences of the whole family on the Korean Peninsula, Hawaii, and California, as well as cultural experiences from Korean classical novels, new novels, American films and pop culture. As a result, it is understood that this reflection of the immigrant experience has given the works a kind of cultural hybridity. For example, he used the same style of writing as the Korean classical novel, but used a dialogue style similar to a new novel, and used sentences containing English words in addition to Sino-Korean words. There are also materials and themes that show the lives of Korean Americans, such as racial discrimination and unemployment problems after the Great Depression, nude paintings, hula dancing, tap dancing, and other cultural shocks encountered in America. The “Kujejok Kangto[Righteous Robber]” can be seen as a meaningful case of a hybrid and transitional work in the Korean literature in the 1930s.
  • 12.

    The formation of a place of liberation Period and topographical map of emotional dynamics

    Hwang ji seon | 2018, (13) | pp.385~412 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article takes a look at the process of forming a place and creating a new value perspective in the middle novel “The Boy is Growing Up" of Chae Man-sik. And furthermore, he wanted to analyze how the novel deals with the liberating state and the new generation. This is because the novel's epic is devising a different way of ethics than the ideological reality. Just as the novel's title, "The Boy is Growing Up" implies a new generation of growth, the novel depicts how the boy's main body responds to the world's problems surrounding him. What's important is that the boy uses the logic of viewing and connecting, not the logic of division and division of the hierarchy required by society at the time. A national project to distinguish Joseon people/external Koreans/immigrants creates a hierarchical modern order by separating the core/ambient areas. This reflects the duality of the modern/fertile world system in which the subject can be defined only by the batter. For ‘JeonJaemin(diaspora)’, a boy who could be a native but not a native country, Joseon/Manchuria is considered as an unseparated group. Manchuria is reborn as a place to supplement the inside of a batter or an outside player. And the novel deepens this through the boy's journey to build a new place, accumulating concrete lives and experiences. Along the path of space, Young-ho, a boy, grows up, acquiring a new place in a strange and repressive place called Joseon. At this time, emotions are a link that makes the dichotomy and rigid ideology flow. It is the boy-man's emotional interaction with the people that makes Joseon a real and concrete place to live, away from the empty ideology of national nation, democracy. Emotion can be a social product that the system is giving to the individual, but at the same time emotion can be a way for the individual to respond to the system. The compassion that people at the station show to the boy is how the existence of Joseon Dynasty responds to ideology. Unlike compassion, which distinguishes the beneficiary from the recipient, it connects the entire Korean people and the Korean people as it begins from the premise that the suffering of others can be my pain. Pity, which is triggered by a sense of homogeneity, not a hierarchical one, has an important impact on the boy's life. It allows him to own both Joseon and Manchuria and belong to both. Shame, on the other hand, is a way of perpetuating ideology. To establish one's own ethics by accepting the eyes of a batter and gaining shame to look back on yourself. The boy who refers to the feelings of both JeonJaemin and hoteliers eventually creates the power to constantly modify himself. Therefore, the ending of a boy's life and speech cannot be defined as incomplete or incomplete. Because the work hopes for a world of majority and diversity, not central/peripheral hierarchical logic. The center of the world is not one, but many, and is meaningful because it always changes. A new ethics will be created when focusing on the course of action, not the outcome of action, and the meaning of the work will be considered in a more diverse way.
  • 13.

    Universal knowledge of the Public and the Human Emancipation

    heo seon ae | 2018, (13) | pp.413~455 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In the late 1970s, the issue of 'public' was one of the main concerns of the intellectuals at the time. For the intellectuals, the masses were generally understood as the nonstandard of the 'people', and the intellectuals were doing their duty to convert the masses into people. The purpose of this article is to identify the new aspect of popular discourse in later 1970’s through Oh Saeng-keun and Kim Jong-cheol. Kim is not suspicious of the cultural and speculative functions of the public who can enjoy art actively. The reason for this is that his literary theory focuses on the audience, not the producers, but the reading masses. As a result of civilization, Kim says that language can not contain specific experiences and that the cause of losing appeal is the absence of the reader. The idea that who is to read affects the works, shows that the reading public is accepted as the new subject of literature that can lead the tendency and movement of the literary field. Furthermore, the possibility of new art can be found in the attitude of listening to the experience of the other. Kim's claim to read poetry and poetry accessible to readers was essential to a better life and reading for civilization. By setting the "public" to the "everyone," Oh leads to a positive perception of the public, ignoring the boundaries between elite, public, intellectuals and non- intellectuals. Why he sees the public positively is that it has the potential to achieve "democratization of art". However, the problem is that the popular art restores the subjective consciousness of human beings in order that the enjoyment of "human emancipation" can be attained, and presents a true humanistic education as the answer. There is a possibility of mutual self-knowledge of teacher and student, and possibility to advance to better knowing through each other. The manifestation of the subjective will that can realize the knowledge of oneself is the maximum value of the education that Oh speaks, and this active knowledge becomes universal knowledge that is possible for everybody.
  • 14.

    A study of Mourning and Melancholoy of the Fiction of Sohn Chang-Seop in 1950S

    Lee, Da-on | 2018, (13) | pp.457~495 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Son Chang-seop It is no exaggeration to say that the main subject of literature is in the 1950s works of war. His work, which deals with the tragedy of postwar reality, shows the destruction of the destructed world and humanity represented by a dark and dismal atmosphere, a pathological human image, an insult to humanity, extreme nihilism. The reason why mourning and melancholy are important in the reading of Son Chang-seop's work is that his novel is based on a very fundamental fact that deals with the problem of war. Son Chang-sup reflects on the wounds of the time of war through the melancholy-keeper's depressed emotions that fail to gaze on the lost object or the lost inner face. Korean society in the 1950s was a time when we had to forget the wounds of colonialism and war under the sign of liberation. At that time, South Korea rapidly mass - produced the illusion of uniform nationalism along with anti - communism. The state in which everything appears in the form of overstriking has been absolutized and sacred. In this process, the state ruled out the "insecure others" that can not be absorbed into the body of the people in order to maintain the order of identity of the people. In short, after the war, anti-communism, nationalism, etc. Korea lost its 'otherness'. However, the main characters of Son Chang-seop's novels reveal the nostalgia for the batter that was lost through the melancholy that was created in a society deprived of tyranny. In a word, Son Chang-seop's novel seeks true politics of mourning against melancholy subject that can not be easily separated from others, against the situation of mourning impossible. From this point of view, this paper examines the mourning potential of melancholy in the early fragments of Son Chang - seop in the 1950s.
  • 15.

    Fluid Text and Aspect of North Korean Representation -Bandi's 『GOBAL』 and The Accusation Translated by Deborah Smith

    LEE JIEUN | 2018, (13) | pp.497~532 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    『GOBAL』 is the novel of Bandi, an anonymous writer in North Korea, which describes North Korean realty from 1989 to 1995, and only its text was taken out of North Korean and published. In Korea, it was first published from Chogabje.com, and then translated into 20 languages and published in each foreign country. In particular, Deborah Smith who translated it into English received PEN Translation Prize, and then its copyright was transferred to Dasanbooks which published it as a popular literary product without political color. While the 'narrative of escape from North Korea' which has been increased since the mid to late 1990s puts forward economically extreme poverty, the inner conflict of people banished by 'Chief Magistrate-Party' is the core narrative of 『GOBAL』. Different from the narrative of escape from North Korea after the 'Arduous March', 『GOBAL』, therefore, shows various behaviors of people who were aware of deception and fallacy in the North Korean regime, where it began to be changed from 1989 to 1995. However, provocative materials around the text make 『GOBAL』 more likely to be understood as 'the record of people who leave their home due to more difficult livelihood', a somewhat stale rhetoric. In addition, the North Korean regime as 'evil' is also emphasized, as adversity derived from the process in which the text was taken out is stressed. Meanwhile, The Accusation, the English version of 『GOBAL』, translated by Deborah Smith emphasizes that it accuses the 'hidden inner parts of North Korea' in journals of England and America. It promotes Western readers' impure and curious views on North Korea. Moreover, the English version not only applies paraphrasing and transformation to the original text, but also adds some specific phrases to it. Some aspects of the transformation largely tend to stress poverty in North Korea, totalitarian spectacles and tyranny of dictatorship. Bandi's 『GOBAL』 called 'the escape of North Korea in terms of text' is a text flowing from North Korea through South Korea to foreign countries and producing North Korean images depending on narrative topography to which the text is exposed or needs of journals issued. It is possible to examine how 'North Korea as a gossip' is produced and consumed through 『GOBAL』.