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2015, Vol., No.69

  • 1.

    A Study on Female Figures of Middle Age in ≪YuTaiXinYong≫ _Costumes, Hairstyle and Ornaments

    Kwon, Hyek-seok | 2015, (69) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this thesis is to reconstruct women's figure in certain time, through the poetry in ≪Yu Tai Xin Yong≫. ≪Yu Tai Xin Yong≫ is a collection of Chinese poetry which maily dealed with women's lives. Clothing, hairstyle, hair ornaments(首飾) and accessories are also a part of their figure. First of all, among 667 poems in the book, certain poems related with those subjects were selected. Furthermore, research data about each category helped to analyze women's figure in the poems. According to the book, reconstitution of typical women's figure in The Middle Ages[中古] is as follows: A soft and thin silk was the most common fabric. There were clothing such as Ru(襦), Shan(衫), Gui(袿), Pao(袍), Pa Fu(袙複), Liang Dang(裲襠), et ceteta. Ru(襦) was usually short. Such as head kerchief, shawl, scarf, towel, handkerchief and so forth were essential costumes. Socks and shoes made of silk were preferred, and clogs with high heel was popular. Straps, that was used to gather clothes up, not only was high quality pres many wishes of love. Also people in this period already concerned about fragrance of clothing. In this period, it was very common to make fabric or clothing smell fragrant by using tumeric scent(鬱金香), potpourri scent(百花香) and so on. In the area of hair style, bun(髻) was most common. Among many kinds of bun, high bun(雲髻, 高髻) or Wo Duo-bun(倭墮髻) was in vogue at the time. There were two main types of ornamental hairpin: Zan(簪), Chai(釵). The material was gold, jade, green jadeite, Imbricate tortoise shell(玳瑁) and etc. They also usually used Bu Yao(步搖) as a kind of ornamental hairpin. There were also other accessories with jewels such as gold or pearl and ect.: the necklace, the bracelet, the ring, the jade wearings(佩玉).
  • 2.

    A Study on the Poetic Theory of Ye Mengde's Shilin Poetry Talks

    Chisoo Lee | 2015, (69) | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Ye Mengde's Shilin Poetry Talks was one of the representative works of the Song Dynasty. His poetry achievements were mainly reflected in several respects. Firstly, during the early stage of the poetry talks of the Song Dynasty, the stories about poetry and some amusing anecdotes related to the poets were also recorded while discussing poetry, but the poetry talks in the later period were more theoretical than before, Shilin Poetry Talks was typical of the transition period with such features. In this book, Ye Mengde put forward his views on the poetry comprehensively, and his poetry theory can be divided into the following categories, essentialism, expressionism, the theory of creation and the criticism theory of the poetry. Secondly, there were a lot of comments on the poetry rules which were prevalent in the Song Dynasty, Ye Mengde had covered nearly all aspects of the main questions in his book. Thirdly, in the Song Dynasty, Du Fu and his poems won undivided admiration and multi-evaluation, Ye Mengde had made many comments on Du Fu, especially on the characteristics of poetry rules from different angles, and he had shown an excellent model of writing poet for the scholars at that time. Fourthly, Ye Mengde had shown a type of proper approach of writing poems for the scholars through the evaluation of the poets in the middle and later period of the Northern Song Dynasty, and he wanted to correct the faults at the time. In addition, Ye Mengde paid attention to “the poetic flavor” and used to talk about the poems with Buddhism which made us see the tendency of poetics of Song Dynasty.
  • 3.

    A Study on The poetry that treats of Calligraphic of Huang Tingjian

    Woo, Jae Ho | 2015, (69) | pp.59~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Huang Ting-jian (黄庭堅, 1045~1105) was one of the most prominent writers in the Song Dynasty as a head of the Jiang-xi school of poetry (江西詩派), and well known as a calligrapher who had the most extraordinary and unique style of handwriting. Since Huang Ting-jian was a writer and a great calligrapher, he wrote more than a few poems that can be categorized as calligraphic poetry, which well contained his theory of calligraphy. Among the poems written by Huang Ting-jian, those categorized into calligraphic poetry were 50 pieces under 45 titles, which are divided into three sections of learning of calligraphy, evaluation of calligraphy and theory of calligraphy. At first, Huang Ting-jian put relatively many focuses on whom to teach and how to study in starting calligraphy. Huang Ting-jian put Wang xizhi as the best model of learning calligraphy and considered Zhong you(鍾繇), Wei dan(韋誕), Zhang zhi(張芝), Zhi yong(智永), Yan zhenqing(顔眞卿), Yang ningshi(楊凝式) and Li jianzhong(李建中). The calligraphic poetry by Huang Ting-jian includes the comparison and evaluation of the handwriting style of the master calligrapher Wang xizhi(王羲之) as well as Wang xianzhi(王獻之), Zhang zhi(張芝) and Yiheming(瘞鶴銘) with large letters, and comments on the handwriting style of celebrities, such as calligraphers in the Song Dynasty including Li jianzhong(李建中), Wang yucheng(王禹稱), Su shunyuan(蘇舜元), Su shunqin(蘇舜欽), Wang anshi(王安石), Su shi(蘇軾) and Mi fu(米芾). The calligraphic poetry by Huang Ting-jian included the learning and criticism of calligraphic works as well as the theory of calligraphy implicitly. Huang Ting-jian focused on expressing inner consciousness[神似] by emphasizing the superb spirit and ignored describing the appearance[形似]; claimed the handwriting style that unites the heart and hand; and emphasized the importance to make every effort to learn calligraphy from the beginning to form a school on your own. Such claims were consistent in his theory of calligraphy.
  • 4.

    Folk belief in Cimiao of Song Dynasty in ≪Yi Jian Zhi≫

    Juyoung Kim | 2015, (69) | pp.85~111 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Song dynasty is the period that various cultures had developed as the cultures from previous generations were passed on while enjoyed the social and economic abundance. Completion of imperial examination system, growth of citizen class, and diffusion of culture manifested Song dynasty’s popular, secular and utilitarian character, and the cultural feature that contained folk belief centered on shrine under the atmosphere of integration of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism is prominent. Main beliefs that appear in ≪Yijianzhi≫ are Cheng Huang, Tu di, Wu Tong, Zi Tong, there folk beliefs showed certain characteristics. Cheng Huang and Tu di had distinct tendency of satellization following the development of economy and cities. Wu Tong reflected the psychology on faith of Chinese seeking utilitarian goal and emphasized secular social atmosphere due to rapid growth of economy. Zi Tong, typical product that was created by the experience of transformation influenced under the Song dynasty imperial examination, especially reflected on the class of intelligence.
  • 5.

    The Culture of the Shiqing(世情) in Qingfengzha(淸風閘)

    Park, Myung Jin | 2015, (69) | pp.113~136 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Qingfengzha(淸風閘) is a medium-length Pinghua novel(評話體小說) published in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. It was written by Pulin (浦琳), an artist who performed Shuoshu(說書) in Yangzhou(揚州). This novel has an inherent property that it was developed upon the colloquial languages(Pinghua) reflecting small details of people’s daily life. It has been advanced as a genre of Pinghua novel. Qingfengzha reflected the culture of the Shiqing(世情) by realistically describing the Shiqing in detail mainly over the story of the murder of Qingfengzha and the revenge of the son-in-law for the murder. This novel reflected the culture of the Shiqing by describing the social and economic activities of urban lower classes and their daily life and custom. This research analyzed the social activities of the Wulai(無賴) and economic activities of the citizens regarding the social and economic activities in the novel. In terms of daily life and custom in the novel, the research analyzed the living customs including New Year’s custom, funeral and marriage.
  • 6.

    The Historical Gaps Between Cai-Yong(蔡邕) and Cai-Erlang(蔡二郞)

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2015, (69) | pp.137~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In modern perspective, a kind of faction of CaiYong(蔡邕), a Han Dynasty's character has the factor of other faction genres in which it is a combination of history and fiction and the public is enthusiastic about it. Some one thousand years later, ZhaozhenbuCaierlang(趙貞女蔡二郞)> in NanSong(南宋) Dynasty, shows the desperate vengence and grief of the public through the tragic conclusion of Caierlang(蔡二郞), who has abandoned his duty as a son and a husband for his own glory. Also, the time when the Pipaji(琵琶記) was written was chaotic when the Yuan(元) Dynasty faded and the Ming(明) Dynasty started so the housewives' fidelity, filial behavior, patience and sacrifice was essential and to etch the situation, the inevitable actions of Caivojie(蔡伯喈) did positive effect on the developing of paragraph. Additionally, even though Caivojie let down the morality, the desirable end he faced conveys a message that it was a proper award to Caivojie for he could not disobey his parents, authority and the Emperor. Accordingly, we make a conclusion that reproducing of the historical facts closely interacting with the public's freewheeling imagination is related with the public's desires. This is considered the most important background of historical drama of Cai-Yong and Cai-Erlang. The factual history does not exist in the story, but it is important that the fictional story has an apparent effect. It is that the mass production of gwageo can be extremely inhuman and also how it could be desperately humane when used to make order for the new dynasty. These factions that include general cognizance and was enthusiastically popular might be more meaningful than the historical truth.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Influence of Chiyou on Sun Wukong’s Image

    XIAODAPING | 2015, (69) | pp.161~182 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Up to this date, the study on the cultural factors which is amalgamated in the prototype of Sun Wukong’s image is not satisfactory. Chiyou is one of the factors amalgamated in the prototype of Sun Wukong’s image, while people paid not enough attenion to the influence on the creation of Sun Wukong’s image. In My opinion, in the writter’s reation of Sun Wukong, Chiyou’s mythical image and stories affected the reation of Sun Wukong’s image. In this paper, this opinion is based on three evidences. The first one is the external feature, which is called “铜头铁额(copper head and iron forehead)”, the second one is the similarity between Chiyou and Sun Wukong’s achievement (from resisting, being stifled to obtain the designation of Mars), the third is the similarity between Sun Wukong’s taking a fancy to the weapon and Chiyou’s invention of original weapon in Chinese history, and the ability of contorlling the wind, the rain, the cloud and the thunder.
  • 8.

    Female Consciousness in the Wang Hai-ling's “Three Stories about Marriage”

    Woonseok Park | KIM, HYUN JOO | 2015, (69) | pp.183~213 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A study of Female Consciousness of Chinese modern novels in Korea is mainly weighed on works and writers of the 1920~1930's and the late 20th century, and on some writers. This study is intended to broaden its limits of understanding by studying Wang, Hai-ling(王海鸰)'s novel in the end of 20 century over the early of 21 century. After the Chinese economic reform, the traditional concept of a patriarchal family system came alive. Some women accepted this and returned to their families and husbands, others awakened to a deep- rooted harmful effect and transcended it after denying it. Women suffer from not only jobs but housekeeping labor. They face various unequal situations whether returning to their families or remaining in their work places. Especially following the market economy principle, they are in an unfavorable condition such as risked dismissal and low wages. And traditional concept of “Nan Cai Nü Mao(男才女貌)” which judges women by appearance is adding to its voice. As a result, a married woman gets involved in a serious unequal situation. Wang, Hai-ling's images of women represent the women facing the contradiction in a zone of suppression and transcendence. Some women increasingly try to secure a sexual identity in the sexual relations. In process of this, escaping from a moral taboo, a new form of female sexuality following its free will is founded. Wang, Hai-ling's women tried to seek self-realization, awakening to inequality factor in the traditional masculism culture and defying this, independently nailing down a problem, getting forward from dependence to self-reliance, affirming their value and pursuing their sex appeal, competing against men, building up a sense of sovereignty.
  • 9.

    Syntax Analysis of “A着VP” Structure in Modern Chinese

    Yang Youngmae | 2015, (69) | pp.215~246 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In modern Chinese, some adjectives can accompany “着” a dynamic postposition, and the adjectival phrase “A着” can combine with a verbal phrase to make the “A着VP” structure. The “A着VP” structure is frequently used in actual linguistic discourse, but there have been almost no studies on it. This study aims to look into the types of the “A着VP”structure through analyzing the syntax of the structure and the adjectives and verbs appearing in the structure. According to this study, the “A着VP” structure can be divided into a connection, modification and predicate-object relation depending on the relationship between “A着” and “VP”. Most of the adjectives appearing in this structure are qualitative adjectives but some may be conditional adjectives. It was confirmed that action verbs with semantic features of [+human description] and [+controllable] mainly appeared.
  • 10.

    The construction of “Vshang+quantitative structure”

    Chang Na | 2015, (69) | pp.247~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Vshang+quantitativestructure” is a special sturcture, “shang” can be omitted. The structure possessesnon-self-sufficiency syntactically, irreality and cohesive function in the text. “shang” expressesreachmentand highlights achievement of quantity. The continuable verbs and qualitative adjectives can enter this structure. “shang” highlights the natural termination points of the action, constitutes prosodic words with verbs. It can express a relaxed tone pragmatically. Because “Vshang + quantitative structure” also can express the quantity extent of action, so the omittion of “shang” haslittle over the sentence meaning.
  • 11.

    “Biography of Jeong, Dojeon” in the History of Goryeo in Fung Ping Shan Library Possession which Kim, Jeonghui of Korea sent to Weng, Shukun of Qing

    Park Hyun Kyu | 2015, (69) | pp.263~283 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The manuscript of “Biography of Jeong, DoJeon” in the History of Goryeo in the possession of Fung Ping Shan Library of Hong Kong University is a good example that showing the friendly exchange between Kim, Jeonghui of Korean and Weng, Shukun of Qing China. The book has the stamp of Mr. Weng's Shimo shulou collection. In 1810, Kim and Weng met at Shimo shulou for the first time and became lifelong friend. They exchanged and studied epigraph materials. Weng, Shukun managed to purchase a Japan edition of the History of Goryeo through Zhejiang marine commerce. Unfortunately, the edition missed 8 juans of biograpy including that of Jeong, Dojeon. Weng, Shukun requested Kim, Jeonghui to supplement the omitting parts and Kim sent Biography of Jeong, Dojeon in the History of Goryeo to Weng in 1814. The History of Goryeo was introduced in 1495 to China for the first time. Ji Yun separately Korea edition of The History of Goryeo, Wang Ruzao separately a wanting of The History of Goryeo, Wu Qian and Liu Xihai owned separately The History of Goryeo of China copy manuscripts. Weng borrowed the edition of Liu's possession to compare with his own edition.
  • 12.

    A Study on Chongqing's Culture through Cultural Texts

    Bark, Jeong Hee | 2015, (69) | pp.285~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chongqing has become an urban space typical of new metropolitan city and transitory society which has gone through radical development since it became ‘a city under direct control of the central government’. Gigantic transition of the form of city based on the change of structures by rapid urbanization does produce fictional text which puts complex reality and conflict of transition in the front. This writing aims to read Chongqing's nature of urban culture from various cultural texts of Chongqing and explore contradictions and conflicts of Chongqing's urban culture caused by rapid urbanization. First, this study attempts “city reading centering on traces” which fight against oblivion of memory of Chongqing coming from gigantic transition of city form. And the study goes on to investigate state of existence and metal condition of humans in the transition period of China from the visual texts which have Chongqing as their background.