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2017, Vol., No.75

  • 1.

    Du fu’s Aesthetic view of calligraphy and Evaluation of future generations

    Woo, Jae Ho | 2017, (75) | pp.5~34 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focused on analyzing Du Fu(杜甫)’s Aesthetic view of calligraphy and Evaluation of future generations. Through Du Fu’s poems on calligraphy, it can be seen that Du Fu liked handwriting since childhood and already made some achievements in big letters in childhood. Besides, it is also seen that he had a high proficiency in calligraphy and a lot of critical insights into the calligraphic works of past and contemporary calligraphers. Among Du Fu’s poems, almost as many as 100 poems contained at least one line about the content of a poem on calligraphy, and four poems were filled with contents about calligraphy. So it can be said that Chinese poems on calligraphy began with Du Fu. In addition, his poems on calligraphy make it clear that the introduction presented by him became the standards for the calligraphy theory in the Tang Dynasty. Du Fu’s viewpoint like this became the standard for evaluating a style of handwriting in the Tang Dynasty before Yan Zhenqing(顔眞卿)’s style of handwriting became popular. Also, this paper introduced the evaluations of Du Fu’s calligraphy after the Song Dynasty period.
  • 2.

    The academic orientation of Yao Nai(姚鼐) : the reviewal for Tongcheng school

    Baek, Kwang Joon | 2017, (75) | pp.35~59 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Most of the research admit no doubt that the Tongcheng school is a literary one, on this basis, and its key figure Yao Nai(姚鼐) resigned from the compilation of Siku Quanshu(四庫全書). Many researchers pointed out that the reason for his resignation was no longer acceptable to the philology-centered academic environment. This paper aims to reconsider the problems of existing perspectives. First, he emphasized the reason and the writing, however, these never his ultimate goal. Looking closely at his words, the reason and the writing were viewed as a medium to reach the essence of the sage. The important thing is that Neo-Confucianism and Zhengzhou were not his final destination in terms of his methodology. He paid much more attention to the realization of the will of the sage, which prove his sense of responsibility as a nobleman. In addition, he insisted on the importance of all of the reason, the writing, and the philology, but it should not be ignored that his emphasis was not put on any one of them, but that the ultimate purpose of his academic activities is rather beyond that. His intention was in “actual practise”. Therefore, his support for the neo-Confucianism was not just the adherence to it, rather originated in the interest in the realization of the purpose of the sage by restoring the balance through correcting the academic bias of its region. It can be understood from the extension of this recognition about his view of Eight-Legged Essay(八股文). In this sense, the definition of literature clique, and the evaluation in history of literature can be said to have been a hindrance to a thorough understanding for the academic purpose of the Yao Nai. As a result, there still are lots of problem to understand issues associated with him and his school, this is the reason why we have to reestimate them.
  • 3.

    Social Universality and Traces in the The State Examination System Narrative

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2017, (75) | pp.61~85 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the Ancient Chinese society, the State Examination System was a critical factor that determines individual's honor and disgrace and ups and downs of life. In traditional community where Confucian politics, humanities, status order worked as a dominating ideology, it is true that the examination system was an employment system that had a near perfect form that has not been seen in anywhere in the world. However, the desirable means of it faded and it created a special class by marriages between higher classes as it became formidable meaning of eminity in family, kin, hometown and clans rather than individual itself. Eventually, it is abolished to the end that even the most educated people call theirselves ‘the most useless group’. Examination in ancient China was an ideology that is maintained for over a century. It is shown in many different aspects in novels and plays and worked as a key factor that winds and unwinds the plot. It is proved by many history that it is a very true and possible faces that the system can have. Studying, competitions and classes formed by the system plays a important role in the people living more than a thousand years later in confician culture apart from right or wrong. The universal value it has did not vanish in today’s society but prospers in perverted forms such as ‘spoon theory’.
  • 4.

    Study on “Conglai(从来)” and the “Conglai” Sentence

    Gwon bu gyeong | 2017, (75) | pp.87~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, many linguists pay much attention on the Chinese adverb “Conglai”(从来) and the “Conglai” sentence(“从来”句). Till now they have made great research achievements on the grammar studies and other aspects. However, there are still many deficiencies in the study. This study discussed these problems and reached the following conclusions. First, “Conglai” has the emphasis function and can prominent semantic focus. In addition, “Conglai’ can help to express the aspect concept. Second, the presence or absence of the aspect particle “Guo”(过) is up to the sentence semantics, which is Static or Dynamic semantics. Third, the “Conglai” sentence can be used in a variety of contexts and has many kinds of pragmatic functions. Fourth, we compared the “conglai meiyou”(从来没有)sentence and the “conglai bu”(从来不) sentence on the semantic and pragmatic features. The “Conglai meiyou” sentence is about the objective expression, but the “Conglai bu” sentence emphasizes the position and attitude of the speaker or show that somebody has no some kind of habits.
  • 5.

    An Analysis of the Phenomenon of the Quasi-Affixation of Kinship Terms in Contemporary Chinese

    ZHANG YONGWEI | Joo-Oeck Maeng | 2017, (75) | pp.103~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In recent years, with the popularization of new mass media, more and more traditional kinship terms have changed their original meanings, and become quasi-affixes. They have fixed positions, with high productivity, and also serve the function of classifying words. Scholars have defined such phenomenon as the “Quasi-Affixation of Kinship Terms.” These terms include “ye 爷”、“sao 嫂”、“ge 哥”、“di 弟”、“jie 姐”、 and “mei 妹.” This paper first analyzes the meanings of these quasiaffixation terms with multiple examples. Then, it examines the newly formed words ending with these kinship terms. The “X” elements in the “X-quasi-affixation kinship term” structure can be composed of nouns, verbs, adjectives, as well as letter words. Finally, this paper investigates the causes of such phenomenon, which include the weakening of the notion of Chinese patriarchalism, the changes in the concept of social life, the rapid development of mass media, and the influence of the own characteristics of these terms. Although the original meanings of these terms are weakened, their pragmatic functions are expanded, enriching our language usages. However, current utilizations of these terms are not satisfying, and thus require further regulations. A thorough analysis of the phenomenon of quasiaffixation of kinship terms enables us to have an in-depth understanding of the process of adding suffix in the formations of words in Chinese. Meanwhile, through distinguishing the differences in meanings and the cultural connotations of these terms during the process of teaching, students’ learning enthusiasms will be enhanced, and their understandings deepened, and memorizations improved. This is particularly important in Chinese teaching, especially within an international context.
  • 6.

    Modality of modern Chinese ‘ba’

    JIN, JOONHWA | 2017, (75) | pp.127~150 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper considers ba in Chinese to represent modality and discusses it. A summary of these discussions is as follows. In Chinese, ‘YuQi’ should be understood as having a reactionary response to the speaker's attitude toward the listener in the context of the speech act, using the whole meaning of the sentence as the acting area. In other words, the term must be understood as a sentence pattern about the whole intention and meaning of sentence utterance, and modality should be understood as the level of the speaker’s belief in the sentence proposition or the speaker’s judgment or attitude about the real status of the proposition will be. The semantic structure of the sentence is composed of ‘[S = [P + M] × Y]’(S: sentence, P: proposition, M: modality, Y: YuQi). ‘ba’ is a modality that expresses the subjective attitude of the speaker such as [speculation], [push], [recommendation], [consent], [prompt], [suggestion], [action request]. ‘ba’, which has the meaning function of ‘[Confirmation [guess]]’, belongs to ‘epistemic modality and can be defined as’ [action request], [enforcement],[prompt], [recommendation] and have a meaning function such as ‘deontic modality’ belongs.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Use and Communicative Effectiveness of Chinese Color Metaphors and Metonymies : Based on the Basic Color Words ‘White’, ‘Black’, and ‘Red’

    Lee, Byum Lyul | 2017, (75) | pp.151~180 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to show that the basic color words ‘white’, ‘black’, ‘red’ have been used either metaphorically or metonymically to vividly express various abstract notions and qualities, which makes communication more effective. ‘White’ has been used to vividly express ‘funeral process’, ‘inefficacy’, ‘humbleness’, ‘counterrevolution’ etc. in terms of metaphorical expressions of ‘白事’, ‘白費力’, ‘白屋’, ‘白色政權’. ‘Black’ has been used to animatedly express ‘wickedness’, ‘illegality’, ‘secrecy’, ‘fairness and impartiality’ in such a metaphorical expression as ‘黑心’, ‘黑地’, ‘黑信’, ‘黑臉包公’ respectively. ‘Red’ has been used to vividly describe ‘happiness’, ‘getting a reception’, ‘success’ in terms of such a metaphorical expression as ‘紅喜事’, ‘紅人’, ‘滿堂紅’ respectively. ‘White’ has been used to refer to ‘大夫’ in terms of ‘白大褂’ based on the conceptual metonymy [OBJECT POSSESSED FOR POSSESSOR]. ‘Black’ has been used to refer to a treacherous person in terms of ‘黑心 腸’ based on the conceptual metonymy [BODY PART FOR PERSON]. ‘Red’ has been used to refer to ‘嫉妬’ in terms of ‘眼紅’ based on the conceptual metonymy [PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF EMOTION FOR THE EMOTION]. In conclusion, the basic color words ‘white’, ‘black’, ‘red’ have been used as either a metaphor or a metonym for the vivid expression of various abstract notions and qualities, which increases the effectiveness of communication. Thus, they have been used as an efficient communicative tool in Mandarin Chinese.
  • 8.

    On Grammatical Cohesive Redundancy Errors in Korean Students’ Chinese Discourse

    羅姝 | 2017, (75) | pp.181~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper makes a non-proportional and stratified random sampling inspection on 4171 compositions of South Korean students for HSK [Higher] writing, to give a description of the distribution of redundancy errors of the grammatical cohesive devices, summarizing these errors’ characteristics. These redundancy errors mainly manifest themselves in the cohesive devices of misuse, mixed use, excessive use, extensive distribution and distribution imbalances. The reasons of the errors are primarily due to the following three areas: the negative migration of mother language, the impact of communication strategies, lack of consciousness and knowledge in text cohesion and coherence for target language.
  • 9.

    Chinese literary thesis punctuation error analysis

    JIN HYEON | 2017, (75) | pp.205~223 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I examined the punctuation errors in the four academic journals of Chinese literature and doctoral theses at three universities in Korea. First, It is an error to use double quotes where you need to use single quotes. For Korean, use single quotation marks(‘ ’) for the part to be emphasized. On the contrary. in Korean, double quotation marks (“ ”) are used for quoting someone's words or writings directly. Second, According to Korean spelling regulations, you can use single angle brackets(< >) instead of Korean single quotation marks(「 」). You can use double angle brackets(≪ ≫) instead of Korean double quotation marks( ). This itself is not a problem. However, it is confusing that the punctuation is not uniform for each school and each journals. The reason why the Chinese literary system uses single angle brackets (< >) and double angle brackets (≪ ≫) instead of a quotation marks is simple. First, the brackets is familiar. Second, there are no Korean quotation marks on the keyboard. Third, Korean high schools and universities are not sensitive to punctuation marks because they do not teach Punctuation mark. When a graduate student writes a thesis, an advisor should be careful about the Punctuation mark. In addition, Chinese literary journals should also be interested in punctuation marks. You should instruct the contributor to use the correct punctuation marks.