Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.25

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2018, Vol., No.79

  • 1.

    A study of Qianzi Zatishi(Miscellaneous Poems with engraved subjects)

    kim sung soo | 2018, (79) | pp.5~29 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis puts its purpose in examining the meaning and types of Qianzi Zatishi(miscellaneous poems with engraved subjects), the contents and the characteristics of such poetry, along with its developmental changes from the past to the present. Qianzi Zatishi generally represents that a few particular letters are engraved on porpose into each line or verse in a poem. That is to say, letters are engraved in the same place of another line or verse in order, forming the embedded style of writing. Zashushi(miscellaneous poems with engraved numbers) and Zamingshi (miscelaneous poems with engraved names) representing Qianzi Zatishi mostly emerged during the Northern and Southern Dynasties. On account that it was difficult to create Zashushi poems, though these kinds of poems were generally made up of an engraved style, they gradually died out as time went by to the next generation. Zamingshi poems were comparatively more created than other poems because it was easier to get the subject matters of these poems. In particular, Chinese herb poems, which are related to the medical knowledge of literary men, were overwelmingly dominant in Tang and Song Dynasty. The content of Qianzi Zatishi was not different from that of ordinary poetry, but the characteristics of amusement in such poetry were distinctive in its writing techniques. In later times, the area of Qianzi Zatishi was expanded into lyrics or advertisements. Furthermore, engraved letters were not confined to the academic studies or books. Rather, these letters were obtained on a basis of poets' daily lives. However, the grand principle that the development of poetry and its poetic meaning should be natural still remains unchanging until today.
  • 2.

    A study on Understanding of The Great Learning through Three-Doctrine (三綱領) and Eight-Categories(八條目) Corresponding Relationships

    Han Hakjung | 2018, (79) | pp.31~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main themes of The Great Learning are to illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德); to love the people(親民); and to rest in the highest excellence(止於至善). This is the step-by-step process and methodology for achieving the ideal world which Confucian School orientes. The highest excellence's status means the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy(平天下), as the ultimate goal of Confucian School's dream. Three-Doctrine(三綱領) : To illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德), to love the people(親民) and to rest in the highest excellence(止於至善) are the goal that The Great Learning, also are The process of reaching that goal. The Methodology exactly is Eight-Categories(八條目) : Things being investigated(格物), Their knowledge being complete(致知), Their thoughts being sincere(誠意), Their hearts being rectified正心, Their persons being cultivated(修身), Their families being regulated(齊家), Their states being rightly governed(治國), The whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy(平天下). Three-Doctrine(三綱領) and Eight-Categories(八條目), this is the basis and the whole story of The Great Learning. Among Three-Doctrine(三綱領), to illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德) refers to Their persons being cultivated(修身) from Things being investigated(格物) and Their knowledge being complete(致知) to the completion of personality; to love the people(親民) refers to Their families being regulated(齊家) and Their states being rightly governed(治國) based onto illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德); and to rest in the highest excellence(止於至善) refers to the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy(平天下), is the final stage of the ideal world based onto illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德) and to love the people(親民). Therefore, Things being investigated, Their knowledge being complete, Their thoughts being sincere, Their hearts being rectified and Their persons being cultivated are the contents of to illustrate illustrious virtue(明明德); Their families being regulated and Their states being rightly governed are the contents of to love the people(親民); the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy(平天下) is the content of to rest in the highest excellence(止於至善). to rest in the highest excellence(止於至善) just is the ideal world as the ultimate goal of Confucianism' dream.
  • 3.

    Zhu-Hsis Reading Method of literary considerations

    kimdonghyun , Lee Se-dong | 2018, (79) | pp.61~88 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    “Zhu-Hsi’s Reading Method(the way of reading that Zhu-Hsi(1130~ 1200) passed down)” is the collection, selected from what Zhu-Hsi said about reading by Zhānghóng and Jae-Hee. The purpose of its compilation was to correct scholars' erroneous methods of the study to guide them to right reading methods. “Zhu-Hsi’s Reading Method” selected a wide range of writing genres from “Zhu Hsi's Collected Works,” and “Zhu Hsi's Words” Collection to classify and arrange codes and six items; gradual moving forward(循序漸進), To read a book thoroughly and think with precision(熟讀精思), to make mind empty to be immersed in the book(虛心涵泳), to check and reflect oneself(切己體察), to study tightly(著緊用力), and to stabilize the mind and estabilish one's will firmly(居敬持志). In addition, compared to the reading methods, seen from the 10th volume and the 11th volume of “Zhu Hsi's Words' Collection,” “Zhu-Hsi’s Reading Method” contain more contents covering the reading method of “Zhu Hsi's Words' Collection.” Regarding the ways of editing, a toal of 6 ways; quotation, cut, combination, segmentation, transformation, and movement were used. However, the editing process reached a limit in that the contents or contexts were not smoothly connected due to the problems such as misspelling and unreasonable cutting and combination.
  • 4.

    Cultural Significance of Mei Lanfang’s Performances in the U.S. in the 1930s

    Shin, Jee-young | 2018, (79) | pp.89~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Chinese Peking Theatre (“Chinese Theatre”), one of China’s most representative forms of performing arts, has resonated deep with Chinese people since the Qing Dynasty to date. The sheer volume of massive publications on artistic achievements or features of the Chinese Theatre demonstrates people’s profound interest in the theatre. Those books and journals may describe the pride the public have over the nation’s cultural excellence. Or they may be about the assessment by the art experts over its cultural and artistic values. It almost surely appears that the Chinese Theatre is a perfectly ideal form of performing arts that strikes a chord with the Chinese. This brings up the question whether the theatre can touch upon the emotions of people from other cultures. This study started from the curiosity of how the Chinese Theatre may have been received by the people from the cultures that are geographically remote when even the public of neighboring Korea felt starkly unfamiliar about the theatre. To this end, the study chose Mei Lanfang’s overseas performances for analysis, particularly those performed in the U.S. In fact, Mei Lanfang’s performances in Japan made a sensational success as predicted along with comparative critiques being actively written over similarities between the Chinese Theatre and Onnagata from Japan’s Kabuki Theatre. Theatre performances in the U.S. have a wholly different level of meaning because they deal with the audience of a completely different culture. Mei Lanfang’s performances in the U.S. were successful because of excellent strategy and planning of his team and Americans’ interest in the unique and eccentric features of the Chinese art. But most of all, Mei Lanfang’s personal excellence in theatrical arts and maturity and openness of U.S. artistic and theatrical circles were the primary reasons for the triumph. American contemporary artists and critics could look into their own theatrical and cultural circumstances in a different perspective through the Chinese Theatre.
  • 5.

    A Study on Tao Yuanming’s Extraction and Official Rank

    刘奕 , CHOI JI YOUNG | 2018, (79) | pp.119~137 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The early historical records all recorded that Tao Yuanming was Tao Kan's great-grandson. So as a member of gentry class, Tao Yuanming can obtain the higher official rank in the nine grades of rank. However, there were some scholars in the Qing Dynasty who suggested that Tao Yuanming was not the descendants of Tao Kan. Their main basis was a controversial poem of “For the Lord of Changsha” 赠长沙公族祖. In fact, as the earliest historical record of Tao Yuanming, “Song Shu” 宋书 was compiled according to the genealogies of the gentries at that time. This fact means that the genealogies records in Song Shu were reliable. There is no reason for hasty suspicion. At the same time, Tao Yuanming, as the descendant of Tao Kan, Tao yuanming should obtain a official rank in the nine grades of rank in accordance with his family identity. Combined with the official system to examine Tao Yuanming's official career, we can confirm that he Origin gentry. The old idea that he was born humble was inaccurate.
  • 6.

    A Study on the Crack of the intellectual tradition through the collection of classified Dufu's poems

    CHOI SEOKWON | 2018, (79) | pp.139~162 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In order to identify the process of developing knowledge of traditional Chinese society, this study conducted a discussion on a 門類本 of Dufu’s poems. 門類本 refers to the type of work that contains works by subject, unlike ordering them in chronological order. Of course, 門類本 do not make up many of the collection of Dufu’s poems, but the research value is significant in that it is a method implementation of new poetry readings that is different from traditional methods. In this paper, I discussed the publishing situation and characteristics of the 門類本 among the Dufu’s poems collection, and discussed its cultural implications.
  • 7.

    The Correlation Between the Cursive Style of Writing(草書) and The Narrative Folk Song Style's Cursive Song Poetry(歌行體 草書歌) During the Tang(唐) Dynasty

    Woo, Jae Ho | 2018, (79) | pp.163~189 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The cursive style of writing was popular compared to other writing styles and the cursive song poetry reciting the cursive style of writing was created in earnest during the Tang Dynasty. While no song poetry recited the cursive style of writing before the Tang Dynasty, a large number of poets recited the cursive style of writing as a poem during the Tang Dynasty, which must have been associated with its huge popularity during the Tang Dynasty. This study intends to review the situations of the cursive style of writing and the cursive song poetry during the Tang Dynasty and explore the relationship between the cursive style of writing and the narrative folk song based on its results. In order to conduct such analysis, this study extracted how many cursive song poems were written by examining a number of books such as QuanTangshi: Complete poetry of the Tang(全唐詩). This study selected a total of 35 poems by separately extracting poems which dealt with the cursive style of writing as a theme or were related only to the cursive style of writing among these poems on calligraphy. This study intended to analyze the narrative folk song of the Tang Dynasty under the hypothesis that the narrative folk songs mainly composed of free-style long and short lines played a leading role in the poems which recited the cursive style of writing during the Tang Dynasty, in that such a writing style was characterized by its free style. The narrative folk song whose form was free without any restriction to its width and length must have been the most appropriate poem in reciting what was related to the cursive style of writing with no fixed rules to its form.
  • 8.

    A Study on the development and the Characteristics of on ‘the poem theory of nature’ in Song Dynasty

    Chisoo Lee | 2018, (79) | pp.191~215 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    ‘The theory of nature’ was discussed mainly in the philosophy area from the Pre-Qin Period to the Han dynasty, and finally in the Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties, it began to enter the field of literature and art. In the Song dynasty, ‘The theory of nature’ became the main problem of poetry’s creation, criticism and appreciation. Discussions on ‘the poem theory of nature’ include Northern Song Dynasty’s Su Xun, Su Shi, Zhang Lei, Ye Mengde, Southern Song Dynasty’s Lu You, Yang Wanli, Jiang Kui, Yan Yu, and Bao Hui. ‘The poem theory of nature’ in Song dynasty emphasized the relation between ‘nature’ and ‘affection’, ‘skillful and clumsy’, and ‘poem method’. ‘The poem theory of nature’ has become one of the most representative and core contents of poetics of Song dynasty.
  • 9.

    A study on different view between the scholars of Song Dynasty and Guo Xiang about the Zhuang ZiㆍThe Adjustment of Controversies

    Seo, Joo-young | 2018, (79) | pp.217~238 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article compares annotations of the scholars of Song Dynasty and Wei Jin Guo Xiang’s annotations about the Zhuang Zi・The Adjustment of Controversies. Scholars of Song Dynasty wanted to discover Confucianism meaning form Zhuang Zi, and wanted to establish new annotation works on “the Creator”・“Those of Heaven”・“judgments of the predetermined mind” ・“bringing the (proper) light (of the mind) to bear on them”, which can be differentiated form Guo Xiang’s annotations. Guo Xiang’s metaphysics argued that it was necessary to take a stance in the nature-designated region in order to avoid the obsession, also to accomplish free and unfettered status. But the Song Dynasty Scholars, as they are called as literati and officialdom, intended to define so called “the principle of heaven” in the Zhuang Zi, as the creation and ruling of all things. They believed that people only through the recognition of “the principle of heaven”, the argument against each other can be resolved, and the harmonization with social rules can be achieved. The reason why Song Dynasty Scholars had this view, is that they believed scholar must actively do something to accomplish world`s harmony, which is established by Cosmic Order, so they wanted to find these things in Zhuang Zi. As they are half-literati, and half-officialdom, and it is hard for them to admit Guo Xiang’s theory, which is regarded as suitable means for nobleman’s way of live, who lived in Wei Jin Dynasty. Although we can give our approval to Song Dynasty Scholar’s constructive criticism about Zhuang Zi, which propagates running away from social duty, but it is not fair to define his book as an extreme individualism, regarding other people as resource to achieve one’s own goal. It is better to interpret his work as a resistant to totalitarianism to protect the value of the individual.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Relationship of the Chinese Intellectuals in the Traditional Period

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2018, (79) | pp.239~260 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The effort to select human resources in systematically and fair made an excellent system called a state exam. The long existence of state exams is deeply connected to Chinese human based sentiments and their obsession to raise human resources essential for the country. These ideas are well shown in the story of dreams in “MengZhan YiZhi”. The selecting the human resource foreseen through main examiner’s dream and the promotion through recommendation makes us imagine the deeply destined relationship between the dreamer and the beneficiary by intervening mysterious phenomenon of dreaming. The few examples given here is just a tip of the iceberg. I insist there are other countless vertical relationships or various types of relationships in stories. Indeed, it should have been happened and still is happening in this time both in the stories and real life. The relationship-oriented propensity is one of the most critical factors to explain China’s identity. Additionally, the psychology is already been acknowledged as social norm in China. The important question is not the rational determination on whether it is desirable, but regardless of the question, it is still emphasized in Chinese society.
  • 11.

    A Cross-Cultural Rewriting of Chinese Huaben Xiaoshuo: The Case of Lin Yutang

    Sojung Kim | 2018, (79) | pp.261~283 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese Huaben Xiaoshuo(storyteller's book) has been translated steadily since the first translation by Western translators in the 18th century. The text that was retold in English by Lin yutang, Chinese writer, in the global city of New York in 20th century is not a faithful translation of the original work, but has a special meaning in the history of translation of Chinese Huaben Xiaoshuo in that it rewrites the original work by mixing traditional Chinese and modern Western cultures. Chinese Huaben Xiaoshuo retold by Lin Yutang was all three, “The stranger's note”, “The jade goddess”, “Jealousy”. These short stories were recorded in Famous Chinese Short Stories published in 1952 by John Day Book and could met with American readers. Lin yutang, the liberal cosmopolitan Chinese intellectual, retold the vernacular Chinese short stories by borrowing the techniques of Western modern novels with the universal theme of world literature such as women's equality, eternal love, romantic affection. His transcultural rewriting was a creative attempt to enjoy reading of cosmopolitan modern people.
  • 12.

    A Study on the on the embedded constructions in old chinese

    Hyang Lan Park | 2018, (79) | pp.285~307 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to categorize and analyze the embedded constructions in old chinese. first, this paper divides the embedded constructions into three: nominal clauses, attributive clauses and adverbial clauses. nominal clauses can appear in subject, object and Predicate position. Subject Clauses usually express truth, certainty, or difficulty, and they namely evaluates something. and in object Clause, they often combine with perceive-cognize-utter verbs. Predicative Clauses also express judgment. in old chinese, nominal clauses habitually use complementizer ‘zhi(之)’. this phenomenon is similar to english and korean. attributive clauses include relative clause and an appositive relative clause. relative clauses is marked with ‘suo(所)’, ‘zhe(者)’, ‘zhi(之)’, and they represent object and subject. an appositive relative clauses are not yet existed in old chinese. adverbial clauses are still highly ambiguous with subordinate constructions. the obscurity of the two clauses is related to degree of grammaticalzation. this paper defines adverbial clause as it shares one subject and appears in simple sentence. The markers of adverbial clauses use yi(而) and yi(以).
  • 13.

    The utilization of the formality of the four words phrase in modern chinese

    kimmiseong | 2018, (79) | pp.309~327 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The formality of the four words phrase, which originates from having been used in ≪詩經≫, has been passed down and used so far. The four words phrase represents the feature of the chinese and also can be the essence of the culture. In this study, I classified and considered the vocabularies concretely that are written in the formality the four words phrase, in result, I confirmed the formality is applied in chinese daily life whole such as politics, economy, society, culture, advertisement language. The trend degree, which is contained in a part of the present neologism, is being used in the formality the four words phrase. Not only in the newly words but in the abbreviations that are deformed and used by abbreviating the sentences according to the arrival of the internet era is the formality of the four words phrase used frequently.
  • 14.

    An analysis of the origin and evolution of Korean in the Chinese word “시금치”

    구민혜 | 2018, (79) | pp.329~345 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It is well known that there are many Chinese loan word in Korean words. In this paper, the Korean word “시금치”, was chosen to be the subject, from the perspective of lexicology, this word’s source language and evolution process in both Korea and China were analyzed. Firstly, on the premise that Chinese word “赤根菜” is the source language of “시금치”, the paper analyzed the forming process of the word “菠菜”,a Chinese word for “시금치”. Secondly, by examining Chinese historical dacument and literature, this paper explored the words “菠菜” and “赤根菜” diachronically and synchronically. Finally, based on Korea’s historical dacument, the paper confirmed the truth that “赤根菜” is the source language of “시금치”. At the same time, it also analyzed the evolution process of the word “赤根菜” since it was turned into Korean. According to historical dacument, the paper found that the word Spinach was first introduced to China in 647 AD, and it was transliterated as “波棱” at first. “波棱” and its variant forms have been frequently found in the Song literature, and it was in the Song and Yuan Dynasty when abbreviated “菠菜” began to appear frequently in literature. Since Ming Dynasty, both “菠菜” and “波棱” were considered as common word, but it is the “菠菜” that has been in mainstream until today. The word “赤根菜” was first found in the Yuan literature. In fact, before the Ming , the words “菠菜” and “赤根菜” can both be found in literature. At first, the “赤根菜” was used as the alias for “菠菜”, but people find it difficult to find out the reason for its formation, actually it was indeed drawn from the northern spoken language, a very popular folk spoken word in the north region. After the word “赤根菜” was introduced and koreanized in Korean, the phonation saw a step change, making it really difficult to convince the fact that it is a loan word. Therefore, it compared once the each morpheme’s Chinese ancient phonation and at that time the Korean phonation. This paper also explored the evolution process of the phonation of “赤根菜” after it was borrowed into Korean.
  • 15.

    A Study on the change of consonant clusuter ‘*k?l-/kh?l-/g?l-’

    Park, Kyujung , KIM JI YOUNG | 2018, (79) | pp.347~366 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article studied on the problem about how did the consonant cluster ‘*(k?l/kh?l/g?l)-’ in Proto-Chinese and Proto-Tibetan language change in each language though optimality theory. In conclusion, the changes of consonant cluster in Middle Chinese and Tibetan language have two different aspects. First, the numbers of onset are different in two languages, for there are different levels of constraints between ‘Linearity’ and ‘*Complex’. Second, because there are different hierarchies among ‘*onset[Cvcd’, ‘IdentI→O(ObsLaryngeal)’ and ‘*Cvcl&asp]onset’, parsing of laryngeal features are not same in two languages. The same point in two languages is the hierarchy among ‘Ident(F)’, ‘IdentI→O(LiqPlace)’ and ‘IdentI→O(ObsManner)’, therefore there was same situation on the change of phonetic value. However, different constraints influenced counterparts before and after segmental change, in other words there are ‘MAX’ in Middle Chinese and ‘ObsDEF’ in Tibetan language.
  • 16.

    A Study on Chinese of Current Affairs

    LEE, MIKYOUNG | 2018, (79) | pp.367~394 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the current study is to understand the overall circumstances of the Chinese of Current Affairs course and its textbook in Korea and China, and propose the new teaching method that can improve all the four main skills of the Chinese of Current Affairs course which are speaking, listening, reading and writing. At present, the analysis of the current situation of the Chinese of Current Affairs-related courses and the textbooks that were published in Korea shows that most of the courses were reading-oriented reading education. The Chinese of Current Affairs is one of the foreign language courses, and it is effective to operate the course in a way that one can improve one's speaking, listening, reading and writing skills evenly. Thus, the characteristics of the new teaching method presented in this study are the following: First, improve reading skills through supplementary materials. Second, improve listening ability by listening and analyzing news or lectures. Third, improve speaking ability through presenting listened contents and presenting keyword pattern sentences. Lastly, improve writing skills through dictation and quiz. This new teaching method can organically combine the four kinds of instructional design mentioned above and achieve the best educational effect. For this educational effect, the interaction between the instructor and the learner and their efforts are very important.