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2019, Vol., No.81

  • 1.

    A Study on ≪Du Gongbu Caotang Poetry Talks≫

    Chisoo Lee | 2019, (81) | pp.5~30 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the comments on Du Fu and his poetry in the Song Dynasty, which are listed in the Cai Mengbi’s ≪Du Gongbu Caotang Poetry Talks≫, as a general overview of Du Fu poetry, it was defined its characteristic as ‘epitomization’, ‘poetry of historical significance’, and ‘being like Six Merdians’. There were comments about the poem and prose of Du Fu, Li Bai and Du Fu, Tao Yuanming and Du fu, and the reverence of posterity. Next to that, there was a comment on the main contents of Du Fu poetry about the worries of the king and the people, the current events, the Du Fu’s life and emotions, and expressed opinions about the wording of the poem. In addition, as for Du Fu’s artistic achievement, the discussion was about the origin of poetics, characters used, sentence structure, art of composition, antithesis, tonal pattern, rhyme use, allusion, expression, feature and style. And the textual research was done about Du fu and his poem.
  • 2.

    Agony Hidden behind the Justification of Vengence: Focussing on Revenge Narratives Based on Fillial Piety

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2019, (81) | pp.31~55 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Although mostly focused on blood line, the norms of ancient Chinese on revenge seems very settled. The examples of flabbergasted promises and actions of revenge is shown in many chronicles or literature. I believe that the reason for excessive generosity on vengence is because the actions are based on Confucius beliefs such as fillial piety or loyalty. Therefore vengence is considered one of the virtues even for gentlemen of China who are considered to have the complete personality. In many literature of ancient China, the characters are seen to revenge for their family or parents under the name of piety. Even the bastard sons who have never felt the love from their parents turn into god of vengence only because they are children. Even the tiniest bit of empathy or emotions of human is left aside. It is because the reasons and causes of vengence is based upon the Confusius beliefs that are absolutely believed in ancient China. Therefore, although sometimes morality and reason can be a tool to hinder vengence, but in ancient China, those reason and morality can be the reason to revenge. The revision of Wuzixu(伍子胥), bastard son of GanJiang・Moye(干將莫耶), or Zhaoshiguer(趙氏孤兒) clearly shows that the Confucius conscience is dominant over personal emotions in deep subconscious of the Chinese. Furthermore, we can take one more step forward to human nature by looking back at their agony and conflicts hidden by their Confucius reasoning.
  • 3.

    From the Evolution of Stylistic Structure to See the Formation of the BanShi(板式) metabolic Chinese opera

    李瑛 | AN CHANSOON | 2019, (81) | pp.57~85 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As for the formation of the BanShi(板式) metabolic Chinese opera, there are still many different opinions in academic circles. This article tries from the perspective of stylistic structure evolution, by investigating the relationship between the art of speaking and singing and the mature opera, the ritual drama and traditional Chinese opera, summarizes the evolution of the stylistic structure of BanShi(板式) metabolic Chinese opera. Puju is a representative kind of the BanShi(板式) metabolic Chinese opera, the Mixed drama is a famous ritual drama, and there's a clear historical inheritance relationship between them. Comparing their scripts, we find that there are many similar themes, and even some plays have exactly the same words. In order to be more suitable for stage performance, Puju adds many new plots and female roles on the basis of the Mixed drama. Puju is singing and Mixed drama is reciting, but their musical mode is the same. The Mixed drama has retained many traces of the art of speaking and singing, and ultimately achieved theatrical performance. Therefore, Mixed drama is a transitional form between the art of speaking and singing and the mature opera, and it is on the basis of which the BanShi(板式) metabolic Chinese opera is formed. Through the study of such problems, I hope to provide a way of thinking and reference for the origin and development of Chinese opera and the evolution of the stylistic structure of drama scripts.
  • 4.

    Su Shi’s(蘇軾) Influence on Choi Yip’s(崔岦) Poetry

    So-Jin Liu | 2019, (81) | pp.87~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Su Shi(蘇軾, 1036~1101) was one of the most distinguished poets in the Northern Song(北宋) dynasty(960~1127). His poems were widely read by the poets of Koryo(高麗) dynasty(918~1392) and Chosun(朝鮮) dynasty(1392~1910) for about 900 years. But in the middle Chosun dynasty, admiration for Su Shi declined with the appearance of Korean neo-Confucianists. They criticized both Su Shi’s academic theory and his literary character, but I found Choi Yip(崔岦, 1539~1612), one of the most distinguished writer and neo-Confucianists of Chosun, was influenced by Su Shi(蘇軾) quite a bit. Choi Yip(崔岦) wrote some responding poems to Su Shi’s(和蘇詩), in order to communicate with Su Shi(蘇軾) mentally, or to compete with Su Shi(蘇軾) and show off his ability. And he often used Su Shi’s poetic words by metamorphosing into his own poems, he also mentioned Su Shi’s episodes in his own poems. These facts mean Choi Yip(崔岦) admired Su Shi, and they also show us his will to accept and study Su Shi’s poetry. Choi Yip(崔岦) was one of the most distinguished writers in the literary circle of the middle Chosun Dynasty, so we can suppose that his admiration to Su Shi deeply affected the other writers of those days.
  • 5.

    Differences between the New and Old Editions of Sin Sukju and Niqian’ Poems Responsory and Rhyme Use

    Zhu Daqing | Kim, Hyun-Ju | 2019, (81) | pp.113~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Among all the four kinds of main about the poems responsory of Sin Sukju, a Korean official, and Niqian, the envoy of Ming dynasty, Niqian’s “Interpreting Methods of Liaohai” and Sin sukju’s “Collection of Baoxianzhai” are the best ones. The Rhyme is coordinated with the one in “Hong Wu Zheng Yun” with the flexibility and variety in both even lines or every line. The rhyme in Sin sukju’ is rigorous and meaningful in exploring national language.
  • 6.

    Reception and Translation of Western Literature in China in 1930s: A Case of Translation

    SoJung Kim | 2019, (81) | pp.127~153 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the process of creating a new cultural meaning and its path of acceptance, translation characteristics with the Translation which are published in from 1934 year to 1937 year. This magazine is the first literary magazine to translate only foreign literature in China, so it is very meaningful not only for Chinese magazine development but also in China's history of translation. At the beginning of the foundation, Lu Xun was in charge of editing, and then this work was handed over to Huang Yuan from No.3. The magazine was published on September 16, 1935, Vol.2, No.6, and after five months of suspension, it was reissued on March 16, 1936. The Translation intensively translated and introduced to literature of the weak and small nations that was similar to the situation of China under the invasion of imperialist powers, and the Russian and Soviet literature and criticism. Among the writers of Western powers such as France, Britain and the United States, the magazine just introduced the progressive and revolutionary writers who, on the basis of democratic thought and humanitarianism, have depicted the darkness and sin of capitalism, for example the works by Charles Dickens, Jack London, Bernard Shaw, Merime, Flaubert, Andre Gide, Roman Roland, François Coppée, Upton Sinclair, Emil Zola and Alexander Berkman. It is worth noting that the criticism of Russian and Soviet critics on these writers was intensively introduced. The magazine was engrossed in introducing Western realism traditions and translated various types such as critical realism, satirical realism, grotesque realism, and proletarian realism. It highly valued the artist who exposed the contradictions and dark images of feudal society and capitalist powers. The magazine supported realism literature that truly depicts the daily lives of the people who lived in the transition from feudal times to modern times. In their practice of translation, they thought about how the artist could contribute to describing people's lives and improving them.
  • 7.

    ON the adverbialization of “SHI SHIHOU(是时候)”

    韦钰璇 | JANG TAE WON | 2019, (81) | pp.155~169 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the emerging “是时候VP” sentence, “是时候” has a tendency of adverbialization, which can be classified as a moral modality in terms of the situation it reflects. “是VP的时候”is based on the enhancement of subjectivity, which is formed by context absorption and pre-emption. “是时候” is reanalyzed as an adverb in “是时候VP”, a non-standard structure at the beginning, which also reflects the self-adjustment of the language system.
  • 8.

    A Study on Polysemy of Chinese idiom ‘Bu yi le hu(不亦乐乎)’

    김영인 | 2019, (81) | pp.171~195 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese idioms are historical vocabularies which have been inherited for a long time, but the meaning of the word has changed in the course of its oral history. However, dictionaries often do not contain all of these changed meanings. Therefore, it is difficult for foreigners who understand vocabularies and acquire languages through dictionaries to understand the changes in the meaning of idioms. To overcome these difficulties, this study makes ‘Bu yi le hu’ the first target of study in polysemy idioms of Chinese. ‘Bu yi le hu’ is an idiom which comes from the first part of chapter 1 of 'The Analects of Confucius.’ This study, first classified the meaning of ‘Bu yi le hu’, is based on examples which extracted from the corpus and statistically produced figures. This study also analyzes the examples of corpus syntactically and examines the semantic relationship in terms of cognitive linguistics. As a result, this study confirms that the Chinese idiom 'Bu yi le hu' has other meanings that are not specified in the dictionary and that the relationship between the separation of meanings is represented in accordance with the rules of cognitive linguistics. Through this study, I could see that Chinese idioms like other ordinary vocabularies appear semantic changing through the process of semantic bleaching with semanticization and grammaticalization.
  • 9.

    A Contrastive Study of Chinese and Korean Coordinate Structures from the Perspective of Linguistic Typolog: Focus on Coordinate Phrase

    Zhang,Yan | 金基石 | 2019, (81) | pp.197~213 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Coordination construction, as a cross-linguistic category, refers to the connection of two grammatical units by means of the equal relationship of juxtaposition. Since there are different coding forms of parallel structures in different languages, this paper aims to make a comparative study of the juxtaposition structures between Chinese and Korean, parallel phrases at the phrasal level as the main research subjects. Firstly, the author divides juxtaposition structures into different types according to different classification criteria, namely “equal standing type”, “turning type” and “selective type” based on senses, and “noun-noun juxtaposition structure”, “verb-verb juxtaposition structure”, “adjective juxtaposition structure” based on the part of speech of the juxtaposition. Secondly, the paper studies and analyses the syntactic functions of Chinese and Korean juxtaposition structures, mainly focusing on four aspects: the marking degree of juxtaposition structure, the syntactic position distribution of juxtaposition structure, the position of conjunctions, and the possibility of heterogeneous juxtaposition, in addition to the attempt to explain the similarities and differences between Chinese and Korean juxtaposition structures in combination with the language types and relevant theories in Chinese and Korean.
  • 10.

    A study on the text coverage of Chinese basic vocabulary in secondary curriculum

    KIM UNG | 2019, (81) | pp.215~238 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The basic Chinese vocabulary of secondary curriculum in Korea is 880 items and is smaller than general vocabulary list. This is the result of a number of researchers' efforts to achieve two goals which are ‘beginner-level learning vocabulary coverage’ and ‘curriculum content adequacy’, and this is rather contradictory. However, it is somewhat questionable whether 880 items will be enough for beginner level learning vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the basic vocabulary of the secondary curriculum is appropriate to the elementary level learning vocabulary. Ten graded readers were selected and the lexical coverage in the basic vocabulary of secondary curriculum from each books were examined. For comparison, 1,342 items with high frequency among the first grade vocabulary from the ≪等級劃分≫ were used. Although the high difficulty of the text, it did not reach 95%, which is a reasonable level of understanding, but it was found that it was quite high despite of the small vocabulary amount. However, there are many words in the secondary curriculum that are considered to be included even if they are not listed. The difference in the coverage of these words depending on whether they are included is considerably large at around 7%.
  • 11.

    “V起来” in the General Syllabus and Textbook layout Review and Recommendations

    Xingyan Guo | 2019, (81) | pp.239~256 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    For learners of the Chinese language, the grammar -“Vqilai” - is not easy to acquire. We propose that this is not just because of the complexity of “Vqilai” itself, but also from the knowledge arrangement of the ‘International Curriculum For Chinese language education’ and the associated textbooks. For our analysis, we first investigated the arrangement of “Vqilai” in the aforementioned curriculum and then considered four sets of spoken textbooks commonly used in Korea and a textbook commonly used in China - ‘Boya Chinese’ - as the material for our study. We found that the curriculum did not arrange “Vqilai” as a grammar point alone and due to the lack of a clear guiding program, each textbook also suffered from this lack of guidance. We also note that there were many shortcomings with each textbook layout.
  • 12.

    An Instructional Design and Its Application of Media Chinese

    Jaeun Kim | 2019, (81) | pp.257~282 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper introduces the media Chinese teaching model and application examples. I have set the goal of this class to help students gain access to information about China through the media and build up a rudimentary understanding of China. The contents of weekly learning were taught step by step as follows. Students have the basic ability to learn media- related terms first and to process information in Chinese on computers and mobile. And the video and subtitling of the party and the propaganda were taken as starting point to understand China. Next, we grasped the political and social meaning and linguistic characteristics of the advertisement, and examined the mechanism of Chinese society in more detail through regular news. The process of preparing and reading the contents of the news made it possible to understand the Chinese people's thoughts and expressions and realize the linkage between Korea and China. At the final stage, we confirmed that the students had reached the level of obtaining the desired information by using the Chinese media by carrying out activities using the Chinese website. The selection and difficulty of class contents is the biggest task of this class. Communication and empathy between professors and students are very important to overcome this. You also need to worry about whether this course can enhance your ability to use Chinese in practice. The professor should develop instructional methods to improve the ability of Chinese speaking, listening, writing and reading evenly. You also have to edit the new class every year. Above all, we must constantly strive to respond appropriately to the student's level and needs.
  • 13.

    Study on Yang Zhu’s Origin and his Lifetime

    LIU ZHEN | 2019, (81) | pp.283~306 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Among the pre-Qin philosophers, Yang Zhu is a very important figure, but there are no books written by him handed down. With regard to Yang Zhu, the records of historical materials are extremely limited, hence there are many problems and controversies in the previous studies. The most basic controversy is about Yang Zhu and the question of Yang Zhu’s origin and lifetime. By investigating ancient records and combining previous studies, the author of this paper believes Yang Zhu’s surname is Yang, or original Yang, and his name is Zhu, styled as Zijü. People respectfully called him as Yangzi or Yangzi, and also used to call him as Yangshi. He is original from Lu during the Warring States period. Yang Zhu has a wife and a concubine, and his house has a three-acres-wide garden. He also has a younger brother, named Yang Bu. Yang Zhu is a disciple of Lao Dan. He once asked Lao Dan about “the ruling of a wise king”. He accepted the lessons of Lao Dan in “southern of Pei”, afterwards immediately repented. Yang Zhu, Ji Liang and Sui Wu were used to be friends. He once entrusted by Ji Liang to persuade Ji Liang’s son with things. He also participated in Ji Liang and Sui Wu’s funeral after their death. Yang Zhu once visited the King of Liang, and also discussed the relationship between “modality and content” in Lu with Mengshi. Yang Zhu had had an intersection with Qinzi, but did not discuss any issues in depth. When Yang Zhu went to the Song, directing to the comments of the people in a gasthaus, he educated his disciples that “behave properly but abandon the behaviors that you think complacent of”. His disciples should be Meng Sunyang and others.
  • 14.

    A Study on Chinese Books mentioned in the Ŭmbinghaengjŏngnyŏk

    kyounghun Lee | 2019, (81) | pp.307~339 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviews the acceptance attitude of Chosun intellectuals about the Chinese books at that time through the assessment of Chinese books by Moksan in Ŭmbinghaengjŏngnyŏk, examines their views on the same books before and after them, including him and examine the changes in attitudes toward understanding Chinese books and the Chinese studies during the Chosun Dynasty. After looking through the records of the Chinese books of Moksan, I came to the following conclusion. First, when it comes to the books already have known to the Moksan, it has been summarized as if it were to release the books it had contacted without any expressing a positive or negative opinion. They did not feel the need to express their views on books that had already been introduced to Chosun and could only be known by their titles, or were excluded from the list of new interests to express theirs. Second, he expressed his views on the books he first encountered in traveling, explaining both the contents of the author and the book in parallel. The criteria for him to evaluating books in the past depended on the importance of orthodox Neo-Confucianism(性理學) and Confucian significance with Chu Hsi(朱子), at the core. Rich colored in Yugwanghak (陸王學), books of anti-Chu Hsi studies were dismissed as worthless. He also expressed his views of affirmation and negation only when asked whether the author’s ideas were descendants of Royal’s command with the banner of ones’ mission’s report, and that they should be based on the observance of fidelity of Royal’s command, the source of small Sinocentrism(小中華思想) that of importance to cultural Chinese ideas, not geographical Chinese ones, and should not violate Chosun’s principles of Neo-Confucianism, negate and attack on the Cheng-Zhu Confucianism (程朱理學) as they were known. Third, the route through that Moksan came into contact with the books was by looking at the calligraphy owned by a subordinate officer of Nanjing, purchasing it through a librarian from Jiangxi, or obtaining a book list from a bookstore and borrowing it through the librarian. To conclude, this study will not only provide a partial picture of the attitude of accepting Chinese books per period, but it will also be meaningful to examine how Chinese studies are accepted differently depending on the situation of Chosun.
  • 15.

    An analysis of documentary aesthetic features of Jia Zhangke's early films “sound”, “light” and “color”: centered on XiaoWu, Platform, Unknown Pleasures and StillLife

    DIANHUI ZHENG | 2019, (81) | pp.341~360 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As a leading figure of the sixth generation of Chinese directors, Jia Zhangke focuses on recording the great changes since China's reform and opening up with his camera, and pays attention to the relationship between social changes and individuals. Jia Zhangke's films focus on the bottom ecology, love to depict the joys and sorrows of small people, advocating documentary aesthetics, showing a unique image world. Jia Zhangke's early films have typical documentary characteristics, which are also evident in the way of expression of sound, light and color. In terms of sound, dialect dialogue is mainly used. Dialect is more in line with the identity characteristics of the small people at the bottom, and more able to show the current situation of China's population mobility, so dialect dialogue adds to the documentary film; TV, radio and popular music mark the age, radio and television news have real-time, the sense of age is self-evident, popular music also from the point of view of mass entertainment, the film marked the age label; Record the scene noise, mainly including motor vehicles, trains, ships, street pier noise, etc., which also enhanced the scene of the scene. In terms of light, they tend to use natural light, including using active lighting, not avoiding backlighting, and not deliberately adding light. While respecting the authenticity of the shooting scene, they also show the survival status and destiny of the characters. In terms of color, the film is mainly based on gray tone, which is embodied in character modeling and scene tone. The use of sound, light and color is not isolated from each other. Jia zhangke has organically integrated them, showing clearly the underlying world of China in the transition period and shaping a unique documentary style. This paper takes the four feature films XiaoWu, Platform, Unknown Pleasures and StillLife as examples to analyze the documentary characteristics of sound, light and color in Jia Zhangke's films.
  • 16.

    Translated and Annotated on BiJiManZhi(碧鷄漫志) 4

    LEE TAE HYOUNG | 2019, (81) | pp.361~394 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ≪BiJiManZhi≫ established a comparatinely complete theoretics system concerning The origin and ontology of Ci poetry in view of philosophical cosmologist genesis and dualism. Wang Zhuo(王灼) put forward the following Ci Poetry of the Central Ideas. Wang Zhuo is literature, theorists during the southern song dynasty. He achieved some success In the fields. His ≪BiJiManZhi≫is the highest achievement. That is the earliest extant a ci theory monographs. This monograph related to Music and the relationship between Ci, the Ci origin, Ci criticism and so on. That is a high works of data value and academic value. This article uses the literature review method, mathematical statistics, and logic analysis method. Study ci poetry criticism theory and analysis aesthetic standards. The first part with a longitudinal perspective Wang Zhuo for CI, CI origin theology and part of speech features are discussed. The social background and scale master piece of Ci that had mainly probed the sources and evolution of poetry, ci and the southern song dynasty, made the question of their clear to break through then sterotypes of ci the southern song dynasty to live up to Ci for Poetry and offered the theoretical proofs for remaining the song like literary traits of ci.