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2019, Vol., No.82

  • 1.

    Discuss Confucianism and Buddhist Taoism Thoughts in Folk Ceremonial Dramas

    李瑛 | AN CHANSOON | 2019, (82) | pp.5~34 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are the main ideas of ancient Chinese society. They have a great influence on ancient Chinese intellectuals. There have been many famous literary works that are compatible with Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese drama has a long history and rich content. It can be divided into ornamental drama and ceremonial drama. The performance venue of ceremonial drama is located in the countryside. The participating groups are all farmers and are true vulgar literature. Taking an ancient folk ritual drama from the south of Shanxi province as the object of investigation, this paper has collected and collated 50 kinds of precious folk scripts, the oldest of which is 235 years old. Analyzing the Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist thoughts in the script, we can find that these thoughts are more clearly presented in the subject matter, plot setting, drama language and character setting. Confucianism is mainly manifested in Script lines and characters. The script has shaped the image of many wise kings, loyal ministers, faithful wife,and filial sons. A large number of Taoist terms and characters are used in the plays. In terms of characters and plots, Taoist thoughts are also vividly reflected. Buddhist thoughts are more reflected in karma and reincarnation in the folk script. They show that the general public uses religion to comfort the soul, try to endure the suffering of the world, and do more good deeds in exchange for happiness in the afterlife. By comparing with ornamental drama, we can find that the Taoist drama works created by intellectuals emphasize different ideological tendencies of preaching, seclusion, and expressing life as a dream. The Taoist thoughts in the folk script are more peculiar to fairy spells, and the Taoist characters have extensive divination and good fortune, forecasting the future. It shows the tendency of the people to pay more attention to practicality. Whether it is the literary creation of The Exhortation of Goodness or the folk script The White Pelican Open Road, it shows the tendency of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism to coexist, infiltrate, and merge with each other. It proves that the basic ideological pattern of the ancient Chinese society is dominated by Confucianism, supplemented by Buddhism and Taoism, and the unity of the three religions.
  • 2.

    The Placeness of ZhuantaHutong and BensiHutong in Chinnese Performing arts History

    Ueng-Sang Kwon | 2019, (82) | pp.35~54 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The thesis views the placeness of ZhuantaHutong(磚塔胡同) and Bensi Hutong(本司胡同) in the history of Chinese performing art. It proposes urban planning of Beijing in a larger sense, preservation and excavation of precious historical remains as space of Topophilia in a smaller sense. Sense of place in ZhuantaHutong can be found as Zaju(雜劇) street, the performance stage for Zaju before the marks of modern writers such as Lu Xun(魯迅) and Zhang Henhui(張恨水). Being the only Hutong that preserves the original name of Beijing and deriving from the records and situational evidences mentioned earlier, ZhuantaHutong reveals its sense of place as Zaju street. Accordingly, the discovery of identity of ZhuantaHutong henceforth should be commenced by confirming its sense of place of being Zaju street. BensiHutong from Ming(明) and Qing(淸) dynasty is also a significant place for Chinese art history. It was the center of various performing arts centered with Jiaofansi(敎坊司) and its traces remain in the present in many forms. Including two Hutongs previously mentioned, many Hutongs in Beijing have changed over time, consciously and unconsciously, fading its significance of context and meaning in the sense of place. Cultural valuation should be minimal. The priority is to confirm the sense of place based on historical facts, and then to restore and remember. Redevelopment of the city is ‘death’ of the place. If facing inconvenience, alternative solution would be urban regeneration with a preservation of the sense of place.
  • 3.

    A cognitive study on indirect negation of “xiang duo le(想多了)”

    Su Dan | LEE,WOO-CHEOL | 2019, (82) | pp.55~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Xiang duo le(想多了)” in Chinese usually means having an unnecessary or superfluous idea. In recent years , a new linguistic phenomenon has emerged in the spoken Chinese language and even the official media, indicating that there is an indirect negation of “xiang duo le(想多了)”. “xiang duo le(想多了)”how to express indirect negation in context, what kind of negative meaning it can express, what kind of characteristics it has, and what the generation mechanism and motivation of such indirect negation are are the main issues discussed in this paper. Based on the phenomenon of “xiang duo le(想多了)” to express indirect negation, this paper analyzes the deep meaning of “xiang duo le(想多了)” and finds that it can express the negative meaning of opposition, rejection, denial and impossibility, which constitute the negative way of “xiang duo le(想多了)”. When it expresses negation, there are no negative words in the language table, non-propositional content of the negative object, disappearance of the propositional meaning and prominent features of the modality. “xiang duo le(想多了)” expresses negation as a reflection of human cognition, which is affected by evaluation and subjectivity, politeness strategy, metacognitive monitoring and idealized cognitive model. The phenomenon of “xiang duo le(想多了)” form negation reflects that indirect negation is a language strategy under the influence of human cognitive mechanism.
  • 4.

    The difference of semantic function between “Shijian” & “Shihou” in combination with the same verb

    Cao Baoping | 2019, (82) | pp.79~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Shijian” and “Shihou” are Primary common nouns in the General Course Outline of International Chinese Teaching. “Shihou” is the first level word and “Shijian” is the second level word. But in authoritative Chinese dictionaries and textbooks, there is no difference between the interpretation of these two words, including foreign notes, which often leads to errors in using these two words. Scholars mostly discuss the semantic and functional differences of the two words when they are restricted by different attributives. However, there is little discussion on the semantic and functional differences of the structural forms of the two words when they appear after the same verb. These are the Chinese structural forms that are often encountered in Chinese learning. By means of comparison and description, this paper investigates a large number of examples in BCC corpus and CCL corpus, analyses and discusses “Shijian” and “Shihou” after four verbs-“You”, “Shi”, “Dao”, “Kan”(also commonly used verbs), and explores their semantic and functional differences. All in all, “Shijian” represents the category of time, Beyond that ,it often expresses time quantity and “agreed time”. “Shihou” can imply momentum and express “the right time point” in many tables. The noun features of “Shijian” are more obvious than “Shihou”, and “Shihou” can be regarded as an atypical special noun. “Shijian” after four verbs is a verb-object phrase with relatively loose structure, while the “Shihou” after these verbs is relatively solidified, or be a word or can be regarded as a word. The verb is followed by “Shihou”, which has been lexicalized, or is being lexicalized.
  • 5.

    The Design of Design-thinking-based Chinese Culture Class

    OH HYUN JU | kimhyungran | 2019, (82) | pp.105~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to develop a design thinking-based Chinese culture class prototype whose field suitability is validated and to secure its discourse validity, based on the direction to select educational contents and the principles to design Chinese culture class in the previous study. According to Smith and Ragan model, a prototype design was developed in three stages - analysis, strategy development, and evaluation. First, this study considered how to experience the diversity of Chinese culture and what to enable students to experience based on the attitudes and background knowledge on Chinese culture understood through a learner analysis, and finally, developed a prototype about ‘Exploring the Chinese Five Senses,’ ‘Creating Chinese Persona,’ ‘Idea Sketch,’ and ‘Sharing a Story.’ This study revised the prototype through the 1st and 2nd formative evaluations with subject matter experts, and presented a 15-week lecture plan. The culture class presented by this study is meaningful because it suggests a process-oriented class, which focuses on ‘the Process of Finding a Solution’, instead of the result-oriented class, which defines culture-related matters and finds a solution simply from an academic approach. It also has significance as it provides a way to improve intercultural sensitivity by learning human-centered problem-solving methods.
  • 6.

    The Forming Process and Background of Moral “義” Ideas in Pre-Qin Period

    이병철 | 2019, (82) | pp.125~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The original concept of Righteousness(義) was born in the Western Zhou Dynasty. The words related to religious rituals gradually developed into the core concept of moral ethics with the change of social environment. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, and it is one of the important duties at that time. Its significance has expanded into a moral paradigm in the Spring and Autumn Period. In this sense that it contains the nature of moral requirements, it is the criterion for stipulating human behavior. The expansion of meaning is closely related to religious and social changes at the time. The primitive religion of the Shang Dynasty developed into an ethical religion during the Western Zhou Dynasty, and the religious nature began to change with the words related to the ritual. Political and social changes also affect the evolution of meaning. The Western Zhou Dynasty is a society in which the decimals ruled the Shang Dynasty immigrants and other nationalities. Because of the need to have a ‘destiny’ concept in the rule, Virtue(德) is an important principle for maintaining the dynasty. The impermanence's thought emphasizes individual cultivation and virtue, and ‘righteousness’ is the premise and basis of ‘Virtue’.
  • 7.

    A study of the meaning and image of the moon in Tang Poetry

    WANG NAN | 2019, (82) | pp.161~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the cognitive process of the formation of meaning and image of the moon from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. This paper analyzes the cognitive process of the formation of meaning and image of the moon from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. The language structure of Moon is the poet's intuitive expression of natural landscape, that is, the image in the image of the moon in Tang poetry. The poet's description of the moon adopts the expression of personification, simulacrum and spatialization, which is a cognitive metaphor. In addition, the poet also refers to the moon or other things by other means, which is a cognitive metonymic expression. The meaning in the image of the moon in Tang poetry refers to the thoughts and feelings expressed by the poet through the image of the moon. To experience meaning in poetry, we need to rise from the language structure of Moon to the text level. From the perspective of cognitive metaphor, the basic image of the moon is that the moon has a circle, the moon is Yin, and the moon is water, which is also the basis of other derived images. From the perspective of cognitive metonymy, on the one hand, the linguistic structure of image can produce meaning transfer in poetry; on the other hand, the poet uses poetic language to refer to deeper regular common sense, illocutionary meaning, inferential conclusion, etc.
  • 8.

    The Calligraphy of Gao Xian, a Monk Calligrapher of the Tang Dynasty, and its Past Evaluation

    Woo, Jae Ho | 2019, (82) | pp.185~206 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In the Tang Dynasty, there were many monks who had knowledge and cultural literacy: monk poets(Shi seng) who wrote poems well; monk painters(Hua seng) who painted pictures well; and monk calligraphers(Shu seng) who were excellent in calligraphy. There are countless monks of the Tang Dynasty who were well known as monk calligraphers. Among them, Huai Su and Gao Xian are the representative monk calligraphers of the Tang Dynasty. As a second review on the monk calligraphers of the Tang Dynasty, this study, first, briefly introduces Gao Xian’s life and calligraphy. Next, this study analyzes the literary works of the Tang Dynasty that sang and evaluated Gao Xian’s calligraphy and the poems of the Tang Dynasty, as well as the evaluations of Gao Xian’s calligraphy by the literary men since the Tang Dynasty. Some discriminating features in the evaluations of Gao Xian’s calligraphy are as follows: Extreme praises and criticisms exist at the same time; the praises and criticisms of Gao Xian’s calligraphy are compared with those of Zhang Xu’s and Huai Su’s; the evaluations since the Tang Dynasty were very much mediated by Han Yu’s Farewell speech for monk Gao Xian. Although, unlike Zhang Xu and Huai Su, extreme praises and criticisms exist for Gao Xian’s cursive script, the fact that Gao Xian is compared with Zhang Xu or Huai Su, who were representative cursive script calligraphers in the Tang Dynasty, demonstrates the excellence of Gao Xian’s cursive script, who was the representative cursive script calligrapher in the Late Tang period.
  • 9.

    A Study on the prevailing background and characteristics of ‘The theory of Wateriness[Pingdan]’ in Song Dynasty Poetics

    Chisoo Lee | 2019, (82) | pp.207~232 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Wateriness[Pingdan]’ originally was an important concept of Chinese philosophy in Pre-Qin period, and in the Jin Dynasty and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, ‘The theory of Wateriness[Pingdan]󰡑began to enter the field of literature. In the Song dynasty, ‘The theory of Pingdan’ became the main problem of poetry’s creation, criticism and appreciation. In this study, we investigated the discussion of Pingdan in the Song Dynasty, including the view of Hu Su, Mei Yaochen, Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian in Northern Song Dynasty, and Ge Lifang, Zhu Xi in Southern Song Dynasty. Discussion of Pingdan in Song Dynasty emphasized the ‘Pingdan’, and paid attention to the relationship between the Pingdan and refinement, sentiment and taste, and the nature at the same time. The discussion of Pingdan became the most representative and key content of Poetics in Song Dynasty.
  • 10.

    Interpreting Feng Yansi's Quetazhi Ci from the perspective of Figure-Ground Theory

    WANG FEI | 2019, (82) | pp.233~258 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Feng Yansi's Ci plays an important role in the history of Ci, and influences the development of Ci at that time and later generations. The most representative of Feng Yansi's achievements in Ci writing is his “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci. In the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci, the poet melts his feelings into the scene and describes a real and perceptible picture. In the process of description, some contents endowed with deep meaning by the poet are highlighted and become figures. These figures activate the conceptual system of the reader's cognition. In the process of reading, the reader visualizes and reason these concepts, and finally complete the understanding of Ci. It can be seen that the creation process of poets and the reading process of readers are inseparable from the psychological cognitive process, so it is feasible and effective to use the figure-ground theory to analyze the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci. Previous studies on Feng Yansi's Ci mainly focused on the artistic style, historical position and life experience of the poet, but they have not been studied from the perspective of the figure-ground theory, and previous studies on the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci are mostly focused on several of them, the rest are lack of specific analysis and research. This paper intends to make a tentative analysis of the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci by using the figure-ground theory, and find out its internal cognitive motivation, so as to provide a new perspective for the analysis and interpretation of Feng Yansi's Ci. This paper first uses the figure-ground theory to make a deep understanding of the text of each poem in the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci, and then sums up the expressions of figure and ground. In the “Quetazhi (鹊踏枝)” Ci, some images with their own independent characteristics are mostly constructed into figures to highlight the emotion of Ci writers. In addition, the figure-ground relationship is mainly reflected through the way of location words, figurative rhetoric, time relations and marked sentence patterns. Applying the figure-ground theory to the internal analysis of the “Quetazhi(鹊踏枝)” Ci can transform the abstract language into a vivid and perceptible picture, which enables readers to recognize and experience as if they were in the picture, so as to perceive the charm of a word from a new perspective.
  • 11.

    A Study on the ‘ZHE GE/NA GE’ meaning of appearance & disappearance and Variation in Korean Translation

    KIYUMI | 2019, (82) | pp.259~293 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    When we comparative or translational research between one language and another can reveal features not found in only one language research. In general, ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ is combined with nouns and can be translated simply as ‘this / that’ in Korean, but according to the characteristics of the object placed after ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ It is often awkward to translate only by the descriptive meaning of ‘this / that’. In this paper, the translation patterns of ‘ZHE GE / NA GE + N (Proper Noun)’, ‘ZHE GE / NA GE + N(Personal Pronoun)’, ‘ZHE GE / NA GE + V / A’, and ‘NA + ∅(zero reference)’ are described. The results of this study were analysis of the meaning appearance & disappearance and variation in the translation of ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ into Korean. ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ not only expresses simple reference functions but also expresses “topic presentation and emphasizing”, “target distinction and emphasizing”and the speaker's “subjective emotion”. In each case, the Korean translation is expressed in various ways, and it is natural that the meaning of ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ is omitted, and the meaning of ‘ZHE GE / NA GE’ is not the basic form of ‘this/that’. In some cases, they may be transformed into other formats. Through the analysis of this paper, we found that it is important to use not only dictionary basic meanings but also flexible meanings in translation. In particular, it has been recognized that it is very difficult and necessary to supplement the meaning of the grammatical functions that are not visible on the surface, or to omit them properly and switch to other expressions.
  • 12.

    A Study on Semantic Analysis of '⼩' in the '⼩+N' -Korean Language 'Small/Young' Interpretation-

    Jung Sung-Im | 2019, (82) | pp.295~319 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Korean language enables to distinguish small (‘작다’) and young (‘어리다’) or has alternative words to replace, however, in case of the Chinese language, when ‘⼩’ is placed prior to a noun, it is hard to identify a difference between small in size and young in the meaning of not long after born because ‘⼩’ includes the meanings of both. This study aimed to investigate the semantic analysis of ‘⼩’ in ‘⼩+N’ actively and to help the readers understand and solve the issues that can occur during interpretation process. First, this study classified the types of ‘N’ into ‘animal’ and ‘non- animal’ categories, and proposed the appropriate semantic interpretation of ‘⼩’ depending on the classified category. Second, ‘⼩’ of ‘⼩+N’ that was used for personification implies a meaning that is close to ‘young (baby)’ and ‘child oriented’. In the ≪low- grade textbook of the Chinese elementary school textbook series≫, ‘⼩+N’ appears with a higher frequency, indicating an association with a child oriented attribute. Third, when interpreting the ‘⼩’ of ‘⼩+N’ into the Korean language, there are various expressions in the Korean language such as ‘작은(small)’, ‘어린(새끼) young(baby))’, ‘조그만(little)’, ‘아기(baby)’, ‘꼬마(kid)’ that can replace or distinguish each other in terms of a semantic aspect. However, since ‘⼩’ plays all roles in the Chinese language, therefore, this study proposed a necessity to consider the contexts absolutely together with a category classification of ‘N’ when interpreting the ‘⼩’.
  • 13.

    Privacy in Intercultural Communicative Competence for Chinese Language Learners

    Bong, InYoung | 2019, (82) | pp.321~351 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Harmony, especially interpersonal harmony, is a fundamental principle and the goal of communication in Chinese. However, communicative discord is an inevitable part of communication in the target language, especially when communication involves multilingual and multicultural settings and people with diverse expectations. Contesting the prevailing thesis of harmony, this article shows how linguistic equilibrium can be destabilized by inquiring into personal matters. Topics such as age, family composition, occupation, hometown, and nationality are presented in a manner that presupposes and reinforces traditional Chinese norms. Centering on the concept of privacy, this article analyzes the ways in which these topics are addressed in introductory Mandarin Chinese textbooks, so as to enhance their intercultural sensitivity and intercultural communicative competence, while offering constructive suggestions for future textbook design. Through critical analyses of lessons on the subject of privacy, this study presents how both speakers and listeners can address personal and private matters without violating privacy by using indirect questions, the use of correct context, and cultural nuance. By practicing intercultural awareness and the interconnectivity of people, Chinese language learners will acquire both language proficiency and intercultural communicative competence with enhanced global consciousness.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Convergence of Chinese History and Korean History- Focusing on the propagation of modern Chinese vocabulary

    Yongjoong Kang | 2019, (82) | pp.353~371 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the long history, Korean has been deeply influenced by Chinese. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the research results of Chinese history and Korean history. Moreover, this work involves the internal development history of the two languages and the language contact between them. In South Korea, previous studies have focused on language, and more on grammar. As for vocabulary, it's much worse than language and grammar. The purpose of this paper is to explain the language contact and the development of Korean Chinese words through the process of modern Chinese words importing into Korean Chinese words. Another point is to reveal the fusion of Chinese history and Korean history and explore the next direction of development. This paper mainly discusses the following contents: the processing methods of Korean Chinese characters in Chinese historical records; the processing methods of Chinese characters in Korean history research and the reference methods of Chinese history; the ways and examples of modern Chinese words into Korean Chinese characters.
  • 15.

    Translated and Annotated on ≪BiJiManZhi(碧鷄漫志)≫(5)

    LEE TAE HYOUNG | 2019, (82) | pp.373~421 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ≪BiJiManZhi≫ established a comparatinely complete theoretics system concerning The origin and ontology of Ci poetry in view of philosophical cosmologist genesis and dualism. Wang Zhuo(王灼) put forward the following Ci Poetry of the Central Ideas. Wang Zhuo is literature, theorists during the southern song dynasty. He achieved some success In the fields. His ≪BiJiManZhi≫ is the highest achievement. That is the earliest extant a ci theory monographs. This monograph related to Music and the relationship between Ci, the Ci origin, Ci criticism and so on. That is a high works of data value and academic value. This article uses the literature review method, mathematical statistics, and logic analysis method. Study ci poetry criticism theory and analysis aesthetic standards. The first part with a longitudinal perspective Wang Zhuo for CI, CI origin theology and part of speech features are discussed. The social background and scale master piece of Ci that had mainly probed the sources and evolution of poetry, ci and the southern song dynasty, made the question of their clear to break through then sterotypes of ci the southern song dynasty to live up to Ci for Poetry and offered the theoretical proofs for remaining the song like literary traits of ci.