Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.25

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2020, Vol., No.83

  • 1.

    Study in Dunhuang manuscripts found by Paul Pelliot with ‘Fixed Form and Association Chapter of Songs’

    Kim, Hyun-Ju , BAEK, YOUN JU | 2020, (83) | pp.5~39 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Fixed Form and Association Chapter of Songs’ refers to a ensemble song and poem combination with consistent tunes, consistent content, and a fixed format for sentence patterns and paragraphs and first defined by Mr.Ren Erbei in 1954, and he presented <Shi’ershi> and <Wugengzhuan> to Representative Poems in his book ≪Dunhuangqu Jiaolu≫, and they are recorded in Dunhuang Papers discovered by Paul Pelliot. He knew Chinese and understood Buddhism, so ‘Fixed Form and Association Chapter of Songs’ appreared with Buddhist scriptures in Pelliot’s Dunhuang paper. Also there are other manuscripts which informs the situations of the time. So by researching at the other parts as well as known poems, it is possible to guess the social situation of the time. Dunhuang manuscripts research in ‘Fixed Form and Association Chapter of Songs’ provides a detailed picture of how entertainment styles were presented at the time by scrutinizing and revealing other parts of the collection, other than lyrics or Buddhist scriptures already collected or studied.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Character Description and Method of Song-shu

    Yang Seoung Duk | 2020, (83) | pp.41~59 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ≪宋書≫(Song-Shu) has achieved relatively high performance in painting figures, of course not to mention ≪史記≫(Shi-Ji) or ≪漢書≫(Han-Shu) in general, but to compare it with librarians such as ≪後漢書≫(Hou-Han-Shu) and ≪三國志≫(San-Guo-Zhi). ≪宋書≫(Song-Shu) recorded many figures from the Liu-Song period, especially the writing and writing of the four-legged figure are quite lively, and therefore valuable literary appreciation. Each kind of person has different characteristics in shaping and describing historical personas, and the type of persona is rich and has a great influence. The sentence of ≪宋書≫(Song-Shu) has been a great achievement in terms of the characters' language, with its simplicity, sophistication, and emphasis on style.
  • 3.

    The Fictional Truth of the Reincarnation and the Ethics of the Novel

    Kang, Jong-Im | 2020, (83) | pp.61~82 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Historical and fictional narratives have coexisted and told stories of human lives throughout all ages. Therefore, the issue is not about having one of them replace the other, but about recognizing differences between them and having productive talks, to have them produce a synergy effect. “Virtual reality” shown in fictional narratives is an extremely different and amazing world or an imaginary world, which has been with humans in the form of dreams since the beginning of the world when humans lived in an inadequate and unstable reality. Rebirth and revenge stories have a common plot in which a character lives a seemingly predestined life through rebirth resulting from the karma of the former life and the law of causality. In particular, unlike historical narratives recording “what happened in reality” to historical figures, fictional narratives recording “what might have happened” to them use bizarre virtual reality to desperately suggest alternatives regarding the reality where justice is not protected. That is, they suggest the principle of retribution: goods deeds will be rewarded with good results and bad deeds with bad results. Although the concept of retribution originates from the religious doctrines of Buddhism, it is already accepted as a general truth by a majority of people through novels, a type of fictional narratives. The concept of retribution affects people more practically and strongly than any provision of law codes or any ethics in scriptures. It has become an unwritten law that bad deeds will be paid for in the next life if not made up for in this life. This can be said to be the ethics of novels and a fictional truth.
  • 4.

    The study of Zhao Zhi-xin poetry

    JIYOUNG KIM | 2020, (83) | pp.83~105 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Zhao Zhi-xin is poet in the middle Qing. He has shown a sign of genius in writing since he was a child. He passed the exam at the age of 18 and went up to the rank of Youzhanshan. In 1689, at the age of 28, he was dismissed from his office because he had seen the play “Changshengdian” during the period of national mourning due to the emperor’s loss of his mother. After then He lived freely, traveling various places without going back to the public office. In this paper, I review Zhao Zhi-xin's works of poetry and his poetics. He was a nephew of Wang Shi-zhen, who was then the leading power of poetical circle, but Zhao was very different from Wang. Zhao Zhi-xin criticized Wang Shi-zhen's Shenyunshuo and insisted that his sincere feelings and actual situation should be portrayed into the poetry. He insisted in the “Tanlonglu” that “There should be people inside the poetry, and there must be work outside the poetry(詩之中須有人在, 詩之外須有事在.).” Therefore, his poetry has depth and power in the idea, and there are many works that reflect the suffering of the people. His books include “Yishantangji” and “Shengdiaopu”.
  • 5.

    A Review of <Soft Buried(軟埋)>

    KIM,MEE JEONG | 2020, (83) | pp.107~131 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    <Soft Buried(軟埋)> is a fairly readable novel. From the compact storyline, the remarkable way of narration, to the explosive sanction and theme consciousness of Land reform, to the attitude of history, it constantly presents the reader with concrete and complex life scenes and asks questions. The meticulousness and organic relevance of letters, descriptions, composition and so on definitely bring this work closer to curiosity and tension and aroused a different kind of interest in reading. But the shock and coolness of the Soft Buried incident overwhelms the entire atmosphere above all else. It is apparently a heroic act to control their own destiny and protect their dignity beyond the fear of looming persecution. Moreover, the voluntary participation of servants in the Soft Buried shows that the relationship between landlords and servants was a very specific and complex one that could never be reverted to the simple relationship between the exploiting class and the exploited class <Soft Buried(軟埋)> does not recognize one class, a particular position, as absolute truth, and does not exclude or attack others. <Soft Buried(軟埋)>, with a personalized perspective, shows the human form of life in the gaps of history, shows history as an attitude of empathy and understanding, and shows that each has its own choice. So the political criticism of <Soft Buried(軟埋)>, even if you understand the Chinese socialist literary tradition, is reckless and meaningless.
  • 6.

    A Comparative Study of Chinese and Korean ancient the bird word poem

    HOUMEILING | 2020, (83) | pp.133~154 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Among the many Miscellaneous Poems in China, the bird word poem is a special one. Since MeiYaoChen in the Northern Song Dynasty first named “the bird word poem”, not only many poets in many times in China but also many imitations of the neighboring Korean Dynasty. This paper is a comparative Study of Chinese and Korean ancient the bird word poem. This paper makes a comparison of the bird word poems from three aspects. The first is the comparison between the creative overview and the development process. The bird word poem in the two countries has a long span. From Song Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, China spanned a thousand years, with 249 poets participating, with a total of 1,241 poems. Most of Korean poems are written during the Korean period, from the 14th century to the 20th century, spanned 600 years, there are 32 poets and 200 poems in total. The the bird word poem between the two countries is so prosperous because Mei Yaochen, Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, etc. play a guiding role for later generations. The second is the comparison of creative content. Korean ancientthe bird word poem is involves less content than China, but there are also many similar themes. Through the analysis of three kinds of themes in the two countries' the bird word poem, the author finds that the two countries' poets choose different bird images. The third part is about the comparison of creative techniques. In this respect, there are more commonalities, most of which are composed of Miscellaneous Poems and use more anthropomorphic and bird singing techniques. Due to the differences in Chinese and Korean languages and regions, there have been differences in the description of birds. By comparative study o of the two countries, the development of Chinese poetry in the two countries can be glimpsed. At the same time, a comparative study from a transnational perspective can also reveal the diversity and prosperity of East Asian culture.
  • 7.

    Compilation style and Genre classification of Dong Mun Seon(東文選) and its Acceptance from Wen Xuan(文選)

    Je, Hae-sung | 2020, (83) | pp.155~179 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Dong Mun Seon(東文選) not only contains a large number of Korean ancient literature that is difficult to find in Koryo(高麗) Dynasty and its previous period of poetry and prose works, but also helps to study the literary styles and genres and their development trends and characteristics in ancient Korea. Dong Mun Seon is a collection of selected poetry and prose works according to the style of articles. It divides the ancient poetry and prose works of Korea into 48 styles. Its genre classification and arrangement method are mainly influenced by the collection of articles in Chinese history represented by Wen Xuan(文選). The genre classification and arrangement method of Dong Mun Seon is generally similar to that of Chinese anthologies, which undoubtedly comes from the affirmation and acceptance of the compilation style of these Chinese anthologies by the editors of Dong Mun Seon. Dong Mun Seon classifies all kinds of selected poetry and prose, and collects works in a certain order. Such classification and collection is beneficial to the actual arrangement of a large number of poetry and prose works, and can fully reflect the editors' deep understanding of genre classification. Generally speaking, the genre classification of Dong Mun Seon is influenced by the collection of traditional Chinese articles and its genre theory, and has its own unique classification characteristics. His anthology accepted the traditional compilation method of “set up the genre according to the text(因文而立體)” represented by the anthology of Wen Xuan, and the genre classification of ancient Korean poetry and prose was generally based on the actual creation of domestic writers. At the same time, there is also a situation of “recording the text according to the style(因體而錄文)” in the selection of Dong Mun Seon.
  • 8.

    ‘Zhuzi of Chosun(海東朱子)’ Yi Huang(李滉)’s Responding Poems to Su Shi’s(和蘇詩)

    LIU SO JIN | 2020, (83) | pp.181~209 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    During the middle Chosun dynasty while Yi Huang(李滉) was working, admiration for Su Shi(蘇軾) fell into decline with the appearance of Korean neo-Confucianists. During this period, not only Su Shi’s thought and scholarship was harshly criticized, but his literature was also criticized. But I found Yi Huang nevertheless liked and learned Su Shi’s works a lot and he even wrote some responding poems to Su Shi’s(和蘇詩). The aspects of Yi Huang’s responding poems to Su Shi’s are as below. First, he wrote some responding poems to Su Shi’s for emotional communication with Su Shi. Secondly, he wrote some responding poems to Su Shi’s to compare his poetic talent with Su Shi’s. Thirdly, he used Su Shi’s poems to keep company with his friends. Yi Huang, even praised as ‘Zhuzi of Chosun(海東朱子)’, nevertheless wrote some responding poems to Su Shi’s in such an atmosphere. It shows that Yi Huang accepted Su Shi’s literature without prejudice, apart from the ideological confrontation with Su Shi. And it means that Yi Huang was a man of tolerance and Su Shi’s influence was so great that it reached Korean neo-Confucianists who were in a confrontational relationship with Su Shi in the academic field.
  • 9.

    Spread abroad of Jin-ku-qi-guan: a case of Translated into English Text in Nineteenth Century

    Sojung Kim | 2020, (83) | pp.211~235 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines propagation aspects of Jin-ku-qi-guan, or Wonders old and new in English-language zone. Using three translated text published in nineteenth century as a research subject, this will consider in detail the context, motivation, purpose and method of translated text. The first translated text is The Affectionate Pair, or the History of Sung-kin translated by P. P. Thoms, published at London BKPA in 1820. The second text is Wang Keaou Lwan pĭh nëen chang hăn, or The Lasting Resentment of Miss Keaou Lwan Wang translated by Sloth, published at Canton Press Office in 1839. The third text is The Casket of Gems translated by Samuel Birch, published at The Office of the Phoenix in London in 1872. All of these three translated text were direct translations of the Chinese text. Respecting the Chinese source text, the literal translation method was used as the principle. But due to cultural differences, semantic translation sometimes also was taken. Starting with a desire to learn and understand Chinese life and culture, Western translators did not alter the Chinese source text to suit Western readers' tastes or to improve readability. However, due to the lack of under- standing of the unique narrative of Chinese novels, its narrative features were not well carried. Thus these text was accepted in the similarity with Romance and tragedy of the West. In fact, Western translators and readers had a stronger purpose of using it as a means of obtaining information about Chinese people and Chinese culture.
  • 10.

    Chinese Ending Change Reflected in Chinese Readings of Joseon Chinese Textbooks

    Shin Yong-Kwon | 2020, (83) | pp.237~269 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to study Chinese ending change reflected in Chinese textbooks of Joseon dynasty. In these books Chinese readings in Korean alphabet may reflect the phonetic changes in Mandarin. This paper will analyze these readings in Joseon Chinese textbooks and discuss several problems concerning Chinese ending change. The conclusion of this paper could be made as following: First, -z(ㅿ) and -m(ㅁ) readings don’t represent the actual Chinese ending of Modern Chinese at that time. -ʔ(ㆆ) and -w(ㅸ) readings may represent Chinese ending category. Secondly, the -z(ㅿ) readings in final position may reflect the main vowel change of Zhi-zhi-chi-yun(支紙寘韻). Thirdly, in some cases the -m(ㅁ) readings in final position is retained, but -m ending and -n ending were actually merged. Finally, -ʔ(ㆆ) and -w(ㅸ) readings in Joseon Chinese textbooks not only may represent Chinese entering sound change, but also represent the characteristics of Chinese readings in Joseon Chinese textbooks.
  • 11.

    Chinese translation of foreign geographical names

    Son Kyung-Ok | 2020, (83) | pp.271~293 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    “坤輿萬國全圖” is the first map of China with geographical names in chinese characters. “海國圖志” and “瀛環志略” are the representative world geography of 19th century China. This paper studied the chinese translation of geographical names in these map and books. ‘美國’ is short for ‘美利堅合衆國’, ‘英國’ for ‘英吉利國’, ‘法國’ for ‘法蘭西’, and ‘德國’ for ‘德意志(國)’. Chinese character translation of western country geographical names in Korea before and after the enlightenment period was mostly influenced by China, so it is similar to China, but the translation different from chinese translation such as ‘伊太利’, ‘佛蘭西’, ‘露西亞’, ‘獨逸’, ‘濠洲’, they were influenced by Japan. As the chinese scholars claim, most chinese translation used good chinese characters such as '美, 英, 法, 德, 意' in translation of western country names or city names. The fact that Japan called ‘米國’ was not Japanese translation, but was found that it was influenced by chinese geography books including “海國圖志”. In the provincial cities of China's port openings, the geographical names that first translated into Cantonese, Min Nan, and Shanghai are still in use. Most foreign names were transliterated based on English names, but ‘獨逸’, ‘和蘭’, ‘西班牙’ and ‘希臘’ were transliterated based on the original sound or other notes of the country, not English. Due to historical reasons, most of Korea's chinese character notation of western country names are the same as in Japan. It is interesting that ‘美國’ is an exception.
  • 12.

    Analysis of vocabulary and formulaic expression of Chinese textbooks using corpus analysis tools

    Byeong Kwu Kang | 2020, (83) | pp.295~344 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study examined the linguistic features of Chinese textbooks using quantitative analysis methods used in corpus linguistics. In particular, we focused on finding out the linguistic features of textbooks compiled in Korea compared to textbooks published in China. In this paper we collected data from 35 Chinese textbooks published in Korea and 263 textbooks published in China. And this textbook was divided into three categories. They are texts compiled by Korean authors (type A), texts translated from Chinese textbooks in Korea (type B), and textbooks published in China (type C). First, we investigated the frequency of words and sentences used in Chinese textbooks. According to the analysis result, when looking at the token frequency and type frequency of a word, it has the order of ‘A type <B type <C type’. The average length of sentences varies greatly depending on the textbook type and level. Second, the STTR statistics for each Chinese textbook were examined to compare how various vocabulary words are used. As a result of analysis, the STTR value of the A-type textbook is the lowest, the B-type textbook is the next, and the C-type textbook is the highest. Third, to understand the level of vocabulary use for each textbook, we compared it with the HSK Vocabulary Rating Table. Overall, the proportion of vocabulary grades did not differ significantly by textbook type, but by level. Fourth, keyword analysis was conducted to understand what vocabulary categories are frequently used in Chinese textbooks. According to the results of the analysis, it was found that the keyness of personal pronouns and interrogations in Chinese textbooks was very high. Fifth, formulaic expressions frequently used in Chinese textbooks were extracted. As can be seen from the results of the analysis, there is a combination of words repeatedly used in Chinese textbook text. The formulaic expression needs to be studied important in that it becomes the basic data of Chinese education. Finally, in this paper, cluster analysis was performed based on the linguistic characteristics of Chinese textbooks. According to the results of statistical cluster analysis, Chinese textbooks are divided into five cluster types. The results of this analysis can be used as a reference to study texts in Chinese textbooks in the future.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Development Process and Characteristics of Chinese Language Education in the US

    LEE EUN HUA | 2020, (83) | pp.345~372 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The international status and power of a country’s language may change, so that this global age has witnessed many changes occur in the international language environment. It is about time to check and reappraise the direction and development of Korea’s foreign language education policy amid these changes. As all countries have different national sentiments and development backgrounds, their foreign language policies differ from one another. Nevertheless, since the foreign language policy changes and develops according to the government’s development plans or the needs of the times and the society, research on other countries’ Chinese language education policies can provide good references and criteria for revaluating Korea’s Chinese language policy. This study intends to provide suggestions for the development of Chinese language education in Korea and the establishment of related policies, based on the historical development, current conditions, and characteristics of Chinese language education in the US. To this end, this study examined how Chinese language education in the U.S. has been provided under the foreign language policies towards China, which is in a trade war with the U.S., whose first language is the most influential global language.
  • 14.

    Social Gazes of Modern Korean and Chinese Realism Films

    Seo, Joo-young , LEE, MIKYOUNG | 2020, (83) | pp.373~397 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the conflict and violence of “Parasite” and “Touch of Sin”, from the perspective of the social realist view. “Parasites” comically but delicately portrays the immoral behavior taken by the struggling lower class, and the violent and inhuman contempt of the upper class. “Touch of Sin” shows how the basics of human society such as social fairness, family, human dignity and feelings are broken due to the current Chinese socio-economic system. In “Parasites”, the conflict, which is based on ‘the survival of the family’ and ‘the desire toward wealth’, forms a conflict among the classes. The “Parasite” structure forms a horizontal and vertical structure, and the nature of violence has internal, external, power and emotional properties, and the issue of ‘human dignity’ is thrown into the buzzword. The conflict in “Touch of Sin” is caused by social contradictions, and forms a conflict structure between society and the individual, and the violence caused by this is characterized by the tension between ‘individual legitimacy’ and ‘social criminality’. These two attributes are mutually exclusive, but at the same time, form a martial artic tragic beauty.
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