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2021, Vol., No.87

  • 1.

    Criticism and Literary Strategies Shown in 「Sanshoushi」 by Pirixiu

    Park, Hye Kyung | 2021, (87) | pp.5~32 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Pirixiu, a person in the late Tang Dynasty, compiled ≪Piziwenshou≫ of total 10 books by collecting his own writings in the 7th year of the reign of Yizong Xiantong in the Tang Dynasty. <Sanshoushi> is one of 36 poems included in Volume 10 and a group of poems that consists of 3 poems with the titles of “Three types of disgrace”. Pirixiu compiled ≪Piziwenshou≫ by collecting writings which can show his political view, study, ideas, or refinement to prove that he is perfectly qualified to be a government official. <Sanshoushi> sharply expressed criticism on politics of the time and his political view. Pirixiu made specific events of reality including Pirixiu's political situations of 7 years, the war with Nanzhao , and failure of the livelihood of the people in the whole area of Huaishui as well as Xuzhang his topics. Pirixiu emotionalized his sharp criticism with disgrace and criticized himself with shame. However, his shame eventually had a strategy to reveal political mistakes of the royal court and government officials of the time ironically. He indicated problems of the persons in charge of state affairs in the first poem and described defence matters in the second poem and failure of the livelihood of the people in the third poem, which are based on the political view that the people is the basis of politics. In addition, he expresses openness of channels of speech and the necessity of talented persons who can remonstrate with the king. In conclusion, Pirixiu disclosed a national crisis of the time to people, criticized the people having party presidency who caused it, and furthermore, expressed his wish to correct it by himself through Sanshoushi. For this, he selected the most timely and urgent topic and took a strategy to deliver his political opinions and desire based on the political view based on traditional Confucianism.
  • 2.

    A study of Ding Wei's Object-chanting poems

    HOUMEILING | 2021, (87) | pp.33~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an investigation of Ding Wei's Object-chanting poems. In the early Song Dynasty, Ding Wei, referring to the category of Shi Lei Fu, created more than 100 Object- chanting poems in the form of Li Qiao's Five-character poetry. The main contents are flowers and trees, birds and animals, insects and fish, food and clothing, which guide the development direction of chanting poetry in the Northern Song Dynasty. Although Ding Wei was regarded as one of the members of Xikun style, his themes are more extensive and his creative ideas are more positive than those of Xikun style. Ding Wei was a master of a poem with one word title of chanting things in the early Northern Song Dynasty. He was the forerunner of the Song poetry's characteristics of “Taking talents as poems, and discussing as poems”, and made great contributions to the establishment of the model of chanting things in the Song Dynasty.
  • 3.

    The Language Characteristics about Whether Thirty-Six Pairs of Opposites in Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch

    Hu Junhui , AN CHANSOON | 2021, (87) | pp.59~87 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Platform Sutra’s “thirty-six pairs of opposites” concept is a continuation of the “middle way” idea of the Buddhist tradition’s Madhyamaka-śāstra and the Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra as well as the “dharma-gate of non-duality” concept of the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa- sūtra. It also contains the “characteristics of phenomena” concept of the Consciousness-only school. This concept reflects the traditional Confucian idea of “listening to both sides and choosing the middle course” as well as the Taoist concept of “mutual incompatibility and mutual generation.” These concepts all combine to form the “thirty-six pairs of opposites.” The importance of this teaching is shown in how it is the basis for the transmission of teachings from master to disciple in Zen Buddhism. The main themes of the entire Platform Sutra have been compatibly intermixed with traditional Chinese literature and art to such an extent that it is hard to tell where one ends and the other begins. This shows that Buddhism has an inseparable relationship with traditional Chinese thought, literature, and art.
  • 4.

    The Reference Value of Wenxindiaolong(≪文心雕龍≫) for Chinese Writing Teaching in College

    Lyu Wujyh , Je, Hae-sung | 2021, (87) | pp.89~112 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper adopts Liu Xie(劉勰)’s viewpoint in his masterpiece Wenxindiaolong(≪文心雕龍≫) as a reference for instruction of Chinese writing teaching in college. It explores various aspects in terms of the selection of model essays, the explanation of exercises in a textbook, the introduction of authors, the cultivation of literary sentiment, the analysis of writing skills, the appreciation of writing styles, the emulation of specific writing methods and the guide to extra readings. Based on the above aspects, we hope to improve the effectiveness of Chinese writing teaching in college.
  • 5.

    A syntax and semantic comparative analysis of the Chinese Dummy verbs ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’

    Lee Seul-ki | 2021, (87) | pp.113~149 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, we examine the change of functions of the representative ‘hada(do)’-like dummy verbs ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’, in-depthly distinguish between syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic differences from a Diachronic and synchronic perspectives. Through this study on ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’, we reached several conclusions as follows. First, diachronically, ‘zuo’ originated from the original ancient word ‘zuo(作)’, and only after the inter-Korean dynasty came to have the meaning of ‘do’ and ‘to die’, and the frequency and scope of use gradually after the Tang five Dynasty. Began to expand and become vain. On the other hand, ‘gao(搞)’ is a Southwest dialect, and was absorbed into modern Chinese until around 1950, and the vocabulary meaning and grammar function of modern Chinese were established. These two verbs are similar but have different syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic differences due to the difference in historical origin and transition process. Second, syntactically, ‘zuo(做)’ is mainly combined with a two-syllable noun or verb object, while ‘gao(搞)’ is combined with a one-syllable bore or a complex object form of three or more syllables. This is considered to be the influence of the trend of two syllables and four syllables in modern Chinese phonemes. In addition, the common adverbs, syntax forms, and types of bore that the two verbs combine were somewhat different. ‘zuo(做)’ is mainly combined with ‘modal adverb’, which indicates the way of action or attitude, while ‘gao(搞)’ was strongly combined with the ‘degree adverb’, which mainly indicates the state or degree. Third, semantically, ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’ showed differences not only in their intrinsic verb meanings, but also in the semantic qualities of the object components they combine. ‘zuo(做)’ is mainly [+status] [+relationship] [+industry] [+activity] mainly [+Independent] [+specific] [+action] [+medium・positive], etc. In addition to the meaning of ‘to engage’, the meaning of ‘to become’, ‘to take on’, ‘to produce’, and ‘to proceed’, while ‘gao(搞)’ mainly refers to [-status] [-relationship] [+industry] [+system]. In combination with semantic features such as [± Independent] [+abstract] [+state] [+negative], the meaning of ‘to engage’ or ‘execute’ was expressed. Fourth, pragmatically, ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’ have a difference in stylistic colors, and ‘zuo(做)’ derived from ‘作’ used in ancient texts is mainly government agencies. It is used in formal documents such as the system and official documents, and is mainly used in written form in modern Chinese, whereas ‘gao’, which originally originated in the Southwest dialect and has a strong regional character, naturally has a strong regional color, so it is a significant part of the colloquial language in modern Chinese. In conclusion, the two dummy verbs of Chinese ‘zuo(做)’ and ‘gao(搞)’ have considerable differences in actual syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic terms, although they seem to have similar usages formally. It is the result of changes in connection with each other.
  • 6.

    Comparison of Modern Chinese Aspect marker ‘zhe (着)/zai (在)’ and Shanghai Dialect ‘la~(辣~)’

    Chang, Ockbang | 2021, (87) | pp.151~175 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    “Zhe” and “Zai” are imperfective markers in Mandarin. “Zhe” is durative aspect, “Zai” is progressive aspect. “Zhe” and “Zai” have a close relationship in the diachronic development. They are both related to locative meaning and have gone through the process of grammati- calization from verb to preposition to aspect mark. In Shanghai dialect, the corresponding aspect marks of “Zhe” and “Zai” are in “laʔ(辣~)”category of words, which can represent the continuous meaning, as well as the progressive meaning. They have the grammatical function of the verb, the preposition, the aspect auxiliary , the adverb and the modal particle. This phenomenon of using the same grammatical form to express different meanings not only exists in Shanghai dialect, but also in other dialects, which reflects the commonality in language development. By comparing them with “Zhe” and “Zai”, we find that they have a lot in common with “laʔ(辣~)”category of words in Shanghai dialect. First of all, they appear after verbs when they serve as the aspect marker of continuous form. The aspect marks that act as progressive elements all come before the verb. Secondly, their grammaticalization process is relatively similar, and the verb collocation with them requires the semantic feature of [+persistence]. However, they also have some differences.
  • 7.

    Pragmatic Function and Co-Occurrence Constraints between the Hedge “Tingshuo” and the Interrogative Type in Modern Chinese

    Han, Seoyoung | 2021, (87) | pp.177~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with pragmatic constraints on co-occurrence between the attribution shield hedge “tingshuo” and the interrogative type in Modern Chinese. Based on CCL corpus analysis, it has been revealed that the hedge “tingshuo” only co-occur with the yes/no interrogatives with rising intonation and the tag questions. This can be interpreted as the mitigation strategy to produce conversational implicature by moving deictic center. It was also related to the indirect speech act to protect hearer's face by weakening the illocutionary force. Moreover, the hedge “tingshuo” in interrogatives plays an important role to start a conversation and to socialize with people. Lastly, the hedge “tingshuo” can function as an indicator of the degree of questioning. These results differ from the existing viewpoint of conventional structural linguistics, which call for more research in syntax-pragmatics interface.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Study on the Second Foreign Language Education Policy between Korea and Taiwan

    Park Jong-Yeon | 2021, (87) | pp.213~236 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Language’ is an important tool of communication and thoughts for human being. And the people’s ability of foreign languages of a country represents its national competitiveness and could be a criteria of a way of thinking. Therefore, foreign language education is very important to maintain the relationship between countries in the era of internationa- lization. In addition, using and speaking foreign languages could help all of us to exchange and share the thoughts and culture with others in foreign countries. When a country establishes a policy of foreign language education, it is necessary to consider a various kinds of factors beyond the basic aspects of language education. Also, foreign language education could represents cultivating intellectual capacity of the people, and furthermore, it has very much related to future development of the country in the fields of society, politics and economy. Since geographically, the two countries, Taiwan and Korea are very close each other, economic performances between the countries have been very active. The purpose of this paper is to help establish the second foreign language education policy and prepare for improvement plans in the future by examining the similarities and differences between the high school second language education policies of Taiwan and Korea.
  • 9.

    HSK verb level search for Korean learners

    JIN HYEON , Park,Byung-Seon | 2021, (87) | pp.237~260 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to statistically verify that the HSK verb vocabulary grade is not suitable for Korean learners. For example, when targeting Korean learners, even if the verb vocabulary is at the same grade, there may be a difference in average scores between the vocabularies. On the contrary, although the series of the HSK verb vocabulary are different, we try to verify that the scores may be similar among the vocabulary types. First, there was a statistically significant difference in scores for grade 5 ‘Chinese characters’ and grade 5 ‘nonequivalent word’, grade 5 ‘Equivalent’ and grade 5 ‘nonequivalent word’. There was a statistically significant difference between the grade 6 ‘Chinese characters’ and grade 6 ‘nonequivalent word’. It can be seen that the HSK verb vocabulary grade is not suitable for Korean learners. Second, HSK grade 4 ‘Chinese characters’ and grade 6 ‘Chinese characters’, grade 5 ‘Chinese characters’ and grade 6 ‘Chinese characters’ had similar scores. There was a vocabulary with a similar score difference in the ‘Equivalent’ and ‘nonequivalent word’. The verb vocabulary is grade 4, grade 5, and grade 6, but the difference in grades is not significant. In this study, it was verified whether the difficulty of grade 5 vocabularies could be made similar by adjusting the series of some vocabulary types related to grade 5. As a result, the scores of the grade 5 ‘Chinese characters’, the grade 5 ‘Equivalent’, and the grade 5 ‘nonequivalent word’ were similar for the grade 5 subjects.