불교학리뷰 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.38

Korean | English

pISSN : 1975-2660

http://journal.kci.go.kr/crbs
Aims & Scope
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The Geumgang Center for Buddhist Studies (GCBS) is an institute of Buddhist Studies at Geumgang Universtity in Korea. It was founded in 2003 CE to comprehensively study various fields related to Buddhist Studies and culture and to develop Korean Buddhist studies to a world-class level. In 2007, GCBS was selected and financed by the National Research Foundation (NRF) as a 10 year project, named the Humanities Korea Project. Our agenda being, “Inspection of the Cultural Processes of Formation, Transformation and Reception with regard to the Buddhist Classical Languages and their Texts.” Since then, we have released a volume titled, “The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners. Buddhist Yogācārabhūmi Treatise and Its adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet”, which was co-published by Harvard University in the Harvard Oriental Series Vol. 75, and so on.  We publish out academic journal called Critical Review for Buddhist Studies (CRBS) twice in a year(April 30th/ October 31th).
Editor-in-Chief
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Seunghak Koh

(Geumgang Univ.)

Citation Index
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  • KCI IF(2yr) : 0.38
  • KCI IF(5yr) : 0.33
  • Centrality Index(3yr) : 1.026
  • Immediacy Index : 0.0

Current Issue : 2022, Vol., No.31

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  • A Critical Examination of a Prominent Theory about the Four-level Two Truths: did Jizang develop his four-level two truths theory in action to other schools of thought in his time?

    Cho, Yoon Kyung | 2022, (31) | pp.9~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The theory of the four-level two truths (四重二諦說) created by Jizang (吉藏), was based on the Sanlun school’s traditional theory of the three-level two truths (三重二諦說), and is one of the most renowned teachings of the Sanlun school (三論宗). Most of the preceding studies related to the theory of the four- level two truths were the result of integrating the theory mentioned in other literature of Jizang, focusing on the theory introduced in Dasheng xuanlun 大乘玄論. However, the extant Dasheng xuanlun is neither a work of Jizang nor a compilation by his disciples. Instead, it is a document that was later attributed to Jizang, distorting many of his thoughts, including the theory of the four-level two truths. Therefore, many issues need to be addressed in the previous studies on the theory of the four-level two truths. This paper focuses on the intended audience of each level of the two truths and examines whether Jizang developed the theory in reaction to other schools of his day. Generally, Jizang’s theory of the four-level two truths is considered to have developed one step further from the theory of the three-level two truths to criticize the two truths of the Abhidharma, Chengshi, Dilun, and Shelun schools in China. However, Dasheng xuanlun, which has been the basis for this argument, misinterpreted the four-level two truths theory since it has nothing to do with the emergence of Yogācāra schools which occurred at the time as the Dilun and Shelun schools. The intended audience of each stage is ordinary people, the two vehicles, and Bodhisattvas, the same as in the early theory of the three-level two truths. It is far from the original intention of Jizang to claim that those three recipients correlate with the masters of the Abhidharma, Chengshi, and Mahāyāna (e.g., Dilun and Shelun) schools, mentioned in Dasheng xuanlun. Jizang’s theory of the four-level two truths is not a separate theory that deviates from the context of the traditional theory of the three-level two truths but is a multi-layered theory developed more systematically in a continuous context with the theory of the three-level two truths. By focusing on the intended audience at each stage, this paper lays the groundwork for further research on the logical structure and characteristics of the four-level two truths theory.
  • A Comparative Study of the Meaning of the Phrase “Is Not as Such” in the Diamond Sūtra: Centering around the Kumārajīva Version and the Sanskrit Manuscripts

    Jo, Yeon-sug | 2022, (31) | pp.37~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Kumārajīva version of the Diamond Sūtra, we find twenty-four instances in which the stock phrase “A is not A as such. Therefore, it is called A” appears. It seems, however, that this phrase was not initially used in such a standardized form. The researcher’s examination of the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the scripture has revealed that such a typical form does not appear frequently in the earlier Sanskrit manuscripts and that a similar pattern is also found in the Tibetan versions, as the latter is a uniform and mechanical rendering of the Sanskrit versions. Whereas the earlier Sanskrit versions of the Diamond Sūtra adopt an inspiring literary style that draws its reader naturally to the words of the Buddha, the Kumārajīva version fixes the corresponding passages in a standardized form and emphasizes that these are the words of the Buddha. The phrase “A is not A as such. Therefore, it is called A” states that when one immediately sees A is the dharma-nature devoid of self-nature and thus sees A is not what its real concept is, it is called A. Therefore, it was already said, is being said, and will be said that since the true nature of A is not identical with A, it is called A. Therefore, the Huayan Sūtra says that everything is constantly preaching the dharma; the Lotus Sūtra also says that the Tathāgata is always giving truthful words “It is called A.” In the case of the Diamond Sūtra, however, the phrase “It is called A” means that the Tathāgata goes beyond the true characteristic itself and performs a linguistic activity caused by the subsequently attained wisdom, which goes beyond the nondiscriminating wisdom that occurs prior to the division of one’s consciousness into subjective and objective aspects. The Sanskrit phrase meaning “A is not A as such” which appears in Chapter 8 of the Diamond Sūtra is rendered as “A is not of the nature of A” in the Kumārajīva version. He then adds that the Tathāgata says that there are therefore great merits. This seems to contradict with Bodhidharma’s criticism of Liang Wudi as having no merits, but it rather corresponds with the meaning of the passage “emptiness is itself non-emptiness.”
  • Analysis of the meaning of reincarnation in the ‘Ghost in the Shell’ Reincarnation as Mergence

    JUNG SANG KYO | 2022, (31) | pp.59~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Mamoru Oshii’s ‘Ghost in the Shell’, presents an era in which information can be moved without any restrictions because it can be freely distributed via a network that is like an Electronic Brain. In this time, how can the identity of the self be guaranteed if the Electronic Brain is hacked and memory, one of the representative functions of mental activity, is manipulated? In the work, a puppet master, in the form of a computer program, becomes aware of itself at some point when it acquires vast amounts of information. And it insists that (s)he is a live creature. How can individual beings be defined when the movement of information (or memory) goes beyond their boundaries due to developing technology? The work also asks questions about the regulation of species reproduction. The director pportrays beings as Ghosts. And then presents the procreation of races that passes on the characteristics of individuals, as a merging of Ghosts. The birth of a new existent being through this convergence resembles reincarnation, an important theory of Indian philosophy, including Buddhism. Therefore, this study first analyzes Ghost as an entity and examines how Ghosts can be interpreted within reincarnation theory. Results Findings show that Ghosts seem to be closer to the perceptual faculty suggested by Buddhism than the immortal soul (ātman), and it is deduced that there is a similarity to the action of the consciousness of the past life or the action of the antarābhava (中有). In addition, it is suggested that this work can be interpreted as a type of reincarnation theory based on the fact that the existing, which arises from the mergence between Ghosts, cannot remember its state before the mergence.
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