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2011, Vol., No.10

  • 1.

    D. S. Ruegg’s analysis of RGVVemphasis on non-duality

    최성호 | 2011, (10) | pp.9~33 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article reconstructs D. S. Ruegg’s analysis of Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra Vyākhyā (RGVV). It focuses on the analysis of difference between RGVV and Śrīmāladevīsiṃhanādasūtra (ŚMDSS). RGVV frequently cites passages of ŚMDSS, but the citations are little different from original text of ŚMDSS. The most evident difference is epithets to buddhadharma of dharmakāya. While Tibetan ŚMDSS explains that dharmakāya entails the knowledge of nirvāṇa (muktajña), RGVV says that dharmakāya entails the recognition of non‐duality (amuktajña). Ruegg argues that this difference originates from different hermeneutical traditions. RGVV stands on a hermenuetical tradition which interprets śunyatā as based on prajñāpāramitā sutra. This tradition emphasizes that dharmakāya, which is separated from all suffering, is not different with tathāgatagarbha which is not yet separated from all suffering. This is because sufferings are not something to eliminate but by nature non‐existent. As RGVV stands on this tradition, the absolute which RGVV describes are different from Ātman which Vedānta explains, although RGVV describes the absolute in exactly same way as Vedānta. For example, although RGVV describes that tathāgatagarbha has ātman, this ātman actually means anātman. That is, RGVV’s aim is to explain ātman does not exist in the nature so there are no difference between epithets of ātman and anātman.
  • 2.

    On the Interpretation of the Nature of Gotra by Yogācāra and Tathāgatagarbha School

    SeongCheol, Kim | 2011, (10) | pp.35~68 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The Śravakabhūmi and the Bodhisattvabhūmi, which belong to the earliest Yogācāra texts and do not contain any reference to the notion of ālayavijñāna, define the nature of gotra, especially the nature of gotra existing by nature (prakṛtisthagotra), as the distinct state of the sixsense- basis (ṣaḍāyatana-viśeṣa) of bodhisattvas. This concept of gotra has a very close relationship with the concept of the distinct state of body (āśraya-viśeṣa) of the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya and the concept of the six-sense-basis perfumed by karma and kleśa (*karmakleśaprabhāvita- ṣaḍāyatana) of Sthavira Śrīlāta. The relationship of the three concepts reveals the concrete characteristic of gotra of the earliest Yogācāra School. In other words, the feature of gotra of the earliest Yogācāca School is body-oriented, more precisely, sense-organ-oriented one. In the Yogācāra School, the body as ṣaḍāyatanaviśeṣa has, on the one hand, negative aspect such as perfumed by karma and kleśa. On the other hand, it has positive aspect such as the basis for the spiritual practices. According to the inception of ālayavijñāna and the theory of mind-only, the concept of ṣaḍāyatanaviśeṣa is forced to change its interpretation. In order for conformity with ālayavijñāna, the concept of ṣaḍāyatanaviśeṣa become as ‘specialness of the six-sense-basis’ namely mana-āyanana, and further ālayavijñāna itself. Though all the six-sense-basis is admitted as gotra, it is only because that the five sense organs are nothing but the appearance of mind. Most interesting is that tathatā is considered as gotra, because tathatā is the specialness of the outer āyatana in the Abhisamayālamkāravṛtti of Ārya Vimuktisena. On the contrary, the Ratnagotravibhaga seems to share the concept of gotra with Yogācāra School, at least around the context in the passage cited from the Bodhisattvabhūmi. Though working hypothesis, the concept of gotra in the Ratnagotravibhāga, at least in the present context, does not belong to asaṃskṛta such as tathatā but to saṃskṛta.
  • 3.

    The Soteriological Significance of Tathāgata-Garbha in the Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna

    Koh, Seunghak | 2011, (10) | pp.69~91 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In relation to the thesis of Chinese authorship of the Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna (Dasheng qixin lun 大乘起信論), we may point out that a sort of Sinicized mode of thinking, especially an affirmation of the present world, is implied in the text. This article aims at clarifying that fundamental ignorance (genben wuming 根本無明) referred to in the text denotes one’s failure to realize the identity of the realm of sentient beings with that of the Buddha or nirvāṇa, through a comparison of the text with the Scripture of Neither Increase Nor Decrease (Buzeng bujian jing 不增不減經) and the Śrīmālādevī Sūtra (Shengman jing 勝鬘經), two scriptures that explicate the tathāgata-garbha (rulai zang 如來藏) thought. In particular, the Awakening of Faith does not regard afflictions as objects of elimination. Instead, the text emphasizes that one should recognize that afflictions are devoid of self-nature. And such a view of afflictions is congruent with the Huayan idea of the one true dharma realm (yi zhen fajie 一眞法界). Original enlightenment (benjue 本覺) introduced in the text indicates the function of tathāgata-garbha as an internal cause for attaining buddhahood and the activities of Buddhas and bodhisattvas as an external condition for enlightenment. While tathāgata-garbha arouses aspiration for enlightenment in the practitioners’ mind, the Buddhas and bodhisattvas lead those practitioners to attain buddhahood. The text’s account of the permeation (Skt. vāsanā) of suchness in terms of its functionality (zhenru yong xunxi 眞如用熏習) and the gate of stopping (Skt. śamatha) and contemplation (Skt. vipaśyanā) (zhiguan men 止觀門) implies that tathāgatagarbha is intricately connected with the practice of compassion throughout the entire stages of cultivation. In sum, the Awakening of Faith explicates the structure of one’s mind and mechanism of enlightenment on the one hand, while it affirms the present state of sentient beings as a foundation of cultivation and stresses their compassionate engagement as an ultimate realization of their enlightenment on the other hand.
  • 4.

    Two Perspectives on ‘I’: the Manifestation of the Tathāgata and Tathāgatagarbha

    Park, Boram | 2011, (10) | pp.93~126 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    All religions and philosophy have their own perspective on ‘I’. Buddhism also has explained about ‘I’ in diverse ways based on no-self theory. This paper aimes at examining by comparison the meanings of tathāgatagarbha(如來藏) and the manifestation of the tathāgata(如來出現), which all understand ‘I’ through ‘my body’ in the affirmative. The tathāgatagarbha theory which had originated from the practical needs in India has been developed out undergoing various transformation according to the times and the regions. This transformation would be summarized like the followings. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra, the first sūtra on the tathāgatagarbha theory in fact as well as in name, describes tathāgatagarbha as the possibility or basis of practice or nirvaṇa. In the Śrīmālāsūtra(<勝鬘經>), the following sūtra of the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra, tathāgatagarbha becomes foundation of birth and death as well as nirvana. This sūtra, however, does not explain how tathāgatagarbha which is originally the base of nirvaṇa can be the base of birth and death as well, which came to be answered in the Laṅkāvatārasūtra(<楞伽經>) by assuming that tathāgatagarbha was same as ālayavijñāna that was already well known as the foundation of birth and death. After this tathāgatagarbha theory had been transmitted to the East Asia, this also came to be changed from the practical base into the ontological base of both defiled and pure dharmas in the Dilun school(地論宗). Zhiyan(智儼, 602~668CE) who established the foundation of the Huayan school included the tathāgatagarbha theory into his system of dependent co-arising of the dharma-realm(法界緣起) but he seems to interpret it as the base of birth and death rather than nirvaṇa. On the contrary, the Hwaŏm school of Ŭisang(義湘, 625 ~ 702 CE) and his disciples regarded the tathāgatagarbha theory which could be any kind of base or foundation of birth and death or nirvaṇa, and whether practical or ontological base as the Three Vehicles’ theory and rejected it. In other words, they asserted the complete aboliton of the tathāgatagarbha theory which could be understood as a kind of dhātu theory in any case. At the same time, however, they embraced the tathāgatagarbha theory of the Three Vehicles doctrine by transforming it into the tathāgathagarbhabuddha theory of the One Vehicle doctrine. By understanding tathāgatagarbha as the tathāgatagarbha-buddha which is the manifestation of the tathāgatha, the basic proposition of the tathāgatagarbha theory, “all sentient beings have tathāgatagarbha” are changed like this, “my body is the very tathāgatagarbhabuddha” in the Hwaŏm school of Ŭisang and his disciples. Therefore the tathāgatagarbha theory went the process of occurrence, transmittion, transformation, aboliton and embracement and, due to these processes, all sentient beings become my body and tathāgatagarbha are changed into the tathāgatagarbha-buddha as the manifestation of the Tathāgata.
  • 5.

    An Understanding of Buddha Nature in the Theg pa chen po rgyud bla ma'i don bsdus pa by rNgog Blo ldan shes rab

    Cha, Sangyeob | 2011, (10) | pp.127~161 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, I considered some acceptance aspects in tibetan buddhism of terminology and concept of buddha nature in the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā. The Theg chen rgyud bla ma'i don bsdus pa is the very first tibetan commentary of Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā, and had been translated by rNgog Lo tsā ba Blo ldan shes rab (1059-1109) in India. To examine rNgog Blo ldan shes rab's interpretation, so it is the initial step to understand controversy in tibetan buddhism about buddha nature. Based on extant tibetan texts, I could in the second part of this article verify some following philological facts : first the title of Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā as well as the name of writer, Maitreya has been mentioned in works of Ratnākaraśānti (from the late 10th to early 11th century) and Abhayākaragupta (d. 1125) in the early 11th century. Second the first introduction into Tibet of Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā whose formation was in India, it was through tibetan translation by Atiśa (982-1054) and Nag tsho Tshul khrims rgyal ba (1011-1064) in the late 11th century. rNgog Blo ldan shes rab personally inherited the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā in Kashmir, India, from Sajjana (late 11th century) whose teacher was Ānandakīrti. The latter figure was a pupil of Maitrīpa (b.1007/1010) who had rediscovered the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā. rNgog Blo ldan shes rab since then translated the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā with Sajjana, and bequeathed the first tibetan commentary of the original Sanskrit text. Third according to the Deb ther sngon po of 'Gos Lo tsā ba gZhon nu dpal (1392-1481), the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā had been translated in Tibet a total of six times until in the 15th century. In the third part I examined how rNgog Blo ldan shes rab understands three aspects of buddha nature, i.e. dharmakāya, tathatā and gotra in the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstravyākhyā, of verses I. 27 & 28. rNgog Blo ldan shes rab judges whether dharmakāya, tathatā, and gotra are to be understood as nominal (btags pa) or actual (dngos po) with regard to their existence in sentient beings and the Buddha. rNgog Blo ldan shes rab's commentary is closely related with his understanding of “nominal designation” (Skt. upacāra, Tib. nye bar btags pa) in a passage of “because its result has been nominally designated as the Buddha's gotra (bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārād), [the Buddha] taught all sentient beings have the Buddha nature.”(I. 27) This suggests that all sentient beings has the spiritual potential (gotra) inside as Dynamis, as cause of attaining Buddhahood. rNgog Blo ldan shes rab extends the nominal designation into dimension of dharmakāya and tathatā, beyond dimension of gotra. According to him, buddha nature (Skt. tathāgatagarbha, sugatagarbha) is nothing less than dharmakāya and the immaculated tathatā. On the contrary to this sattvagarbha is the stained tathatā (samalā tathatā) and gotra, the latent cause of buddha nature. He has highlighted the possibility of buddha nature through terms of thob tu rung and btags pa, whereas Sa bzang Mati Paṇ chen 'Jam dbyangs Blo gros rgyal mtshan (1294-1376) has underlined “the enjoyment” (nye bar spyod pa) whose original concept is btags pa of rNgog Blo ldan shes rab's interpretation, to say that gotra is none other than dharmakāya, even though gotra has some kind of “adventitious stains” (āgantukāvaraṇa). This modification of Sa bzang Mati Paṇ chen is an hermeneutical device to approve the fact that all sentient beings have buddha nature inside and so is even in the ultimate existence (paramārtha). rNgog Blo ldan shes rab explains all of three aspects of buddha nature, i.e. dharmakāya, tathatā and gotra as emptiness. This is a crucial point which is suggesting how rNgog Blo ldan shes rab understands buddha nature. He pushfully utilizes the concept of btags pa as hermeneutical device, to make understand organically the śūnyatā and buddha nature.
  • 6.

    The study on analysing casual relation between image and trust of buddhism

    권정만 | 2011, (10) | pp.165~194 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Because of have been verified through review between image and trust, satisfaction and loyalty in previous study (especially, organization research section), this study try to rising (or drafting) index or plan for trust of buddhism thorough research for relationship between image of buddhism and trust of buddhism which the previous research and survey have limitations. This study try to re-naming for image of buddhism through factor analysis for conceptual consist factor for image of buddhism, correlating for all observation variation, and analysing casual relation between image and trust of buddhism. This trial is based on the improvement for image of buddhism. furthermore, verifying for casual relation between image and trust of buddhism thorough not simply understanding but statics.
  • 7.

    Candrakīrti's critique of svasaṃvedana

    KimHyunGu | 2011, (10) | pp.195~227 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Candrakīrti's critique on svasaṃvedana is an important discussion to let us know ideological characteristics of mid-term Madhyamaka school which succeeds to Bhāviveka and what Candrakīrti's Madhyamaka idea is. With trying, in this paper, a critical approach on Candrakīrti's understanding of paratantra, I examined his definition on paratantra. I reviewed also svasaṃvedana in terms of paratantra criticized in Madhyamakāvatāra, and showed correlation between Candrakīrti's understanding of paratantra and his criticism of svasaṃvedana. Significantly, Candrakīrti has criticized paratantra combined with Epistemology viz., “Candrakīrti criticized ālayavijñāna in terms of paratantra and svasaṃvedana in terms of paratantra”. In addition to this, paratantra has become a primary target in Candrakīrti's critique of vijñānavādin.