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2010, Vol., No.7

  • 1.

    Buddhist Manuscript Research in East Asia: the Present Situation and Research Methods

    落合 俊典 | 2010, (7) | pp.9~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    It goes without saying that the main language of Buddhist manuscripts in East Asia was Classical Chinese. From the foundation of Chinese Buddhism until around the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries both intellectuals and scholar monks were using it as a common mutual language. Long had the transmission and copying of Buddhist texts been done with handwritten manuscripts, but in the tenth century in China the Kaibaozang 開寶藏 (Beisong chiban 北宋勅版 or Northern Song imperial edition) had published a printed edition of the Tripitaka and the printing of sūtras became popular. However, even following this there was no abandonment of handwritten manuscripts and they continued to be used for daily use, but throughout East Asia as print publishing culture developed the primary use of handwritten manuscripts declined. Today any person seeking to conduct research on East Asian Buddhist culture must consider and well understand the present situation of manuscript research. Here I will, with young Korean researchers with an interest in manuscript research in mind, outline the following five articles and explain their significance: 1) The definition of Buddhist manuscripts. 2) The present situation of Buddhist manuscript research in East Asia. 3) An introduction to Buddhist manuscript research methods. 4) A particular example of research Choesung taeja byoltan gongyang uigwe 最勝太子別檀供養儀軌 by the Silla monk Hyongcho 玄超. 5) The basis of classical studies in the humanities.
  • 2.

    On the Contents and Characteristics of the Jinzang yaojijing

    Choe Yeonshik | 2010, (7) | pp.35~59 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Jinzang yaojijing (JInzang lun) is an anthology of the tales of derived from several Buddhist Sutras. The subjects of the tales are the conversion into Buddhism, the examples of punitive justice, and paying respect to Buddha and his statues and stupas. The editor of this book, Daoji was an famous scholar majoring in Satyasiddhi-sastra during Bei Qi period, but after an incident which brought him a great disappointment at the atmosphere around the Buddhists who were vainly indulged in studying the Buddhist theories without practicing it in their daily lives he retired from the capital and edited this book. On finishing this book he began to making a round of villages outside the capital and read the tales of the book to the common people. By this he preached the Buddhist teachings to the common people and guided them to live Buddhist’s lives by keeping the Buddhist moral and ethics. There is also an emphasis on the filial piety and it might be one of the earliest example of the integration of Chinese important moral into Buddhist teachings. There remain several versions of this book in Korea, Japan and China. But all of them are incomplete. According to the old bibliographies the Jinzang yaojijing was in 7 volumes. The remains are only 4 volumes, volume 1, 2, 5 and 6. Korean version, 13th century woodblock print kept at Beom’eo-sa temple, contain volume 1 and 2. Japanese versions, 3 handcopy manuscripts kept at Kofukuji temple and University libraries, contain volume 1 and 6. Chinese versions, several fractions from 4 handcopy manuscripts found at Dunhuang cave, contain volume 5 and 6. Among the remained versions the Beom’eo-sa has special importance. At the beginning of it the table of chapters is preserved. This table present the name of every chapter. Ant by this table we can also figure out the total composition of Jinzang yaojijing.
  • 3.

    The Jinzanglun and Chinese Buddhism in the Late Period of the Northern Dynasties

    宮井 里佳 | 2010, (7) | pp.63~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Jinzanglun 金藏論 is an anthology of the Buddhist Canon compiled by Daoji 道紀 in the late Northern Dynasties in China (the later half of the 6th century). Although the complete original text has not survived, there are several extant scrolls in Japanese manuscripts, and some pieces have recently been found among the Dunhuang 敦煌 manuscripts, and the woodblock edition belongs to the late period of the Goryeo 高麗 Dynasty of the Beomeosa 梵魚寺 in Korea. We know that this important text was widely read and highly valued not only in China, but also in other areas in East Asia. The outline of this paper is as follows. Part 1: the extant copies of the Jinzanglun will be organized and the importance of the woodprint edition in Korea will be revealed. Next, in Part 2.1.: I will point out that while the Jinzanglun resembles the Buddhist encyclopedia, that is to say ‘leishu 類書’ in style, it is difficult to place it in the history of the Buddhist encyclopedia, and moreover, its characteristic that the anthology of tales, referred to as ‘avadāna’, is different from that found in the Buddhist encyclopedia. In Part 2.2: I will point out that the Jinzanglun was compiled to revive Buddhism after the persecution by Emperor Wu 武帝 of the Northern Zhou 北周 Dynasty, and thus its theme indicates the propagation of Buddhism. Finally, in Part 2.3.: from scroll 2 of the Beomeosa edition, I will examine Chapter 4: Confession 懺悔緣第四, Chapter 5: Praising Buddha 稱佛緣第五 and Chapter 6: Beholding the Buddha statues 觀像緣第 六. I will explain how the three practices of confession, praising Buddha and beholding the Buddha statues are interrelated and furthermore how this all reflects Buddhist practice at that time.
  • 4.

    The Jinzanglun and Japanese Short Story Literature

    本井 牧子 | 2010, (7) | pp.85~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Jinzanglun 金藏論 is an anthology of Buddhist texts which was compiled by Daoji 道紀 in the Northern Zhou Dynasty. It is gaining much academic attention across not only Japan, but also in East Asia, such as in China, Taiwan and Korea. This is because, contrary to previous thoughts that this text survived only in Japan, it has also been found and verified in the Dunhuang archives as well as in Korea. This paper shows that studies concerning the Jinzanglun got underway initially with research concerning Japanese Buddhist literature such as the Nihon-Ryoiki 日本靈異記 and Konjaku-Monogatari-shu 今昔物語集. It also points out the influences of the Jinzanglun on the Konjaku-Monogatari-shu, one of the most famous and largest anthologies of short stories 說話 in Japan, with the help of the newly introduced copy preserved in the temple Beomeosa 梵魚寺. The Beomeosa text and the Konjaku-Monogatari-shu provide valuable information concerning some of the other lost chapters. My presentation proposes several possibilities of reconstructing the lost chapters. This will help us to gain an overview of this important text.
  • 5.

    Ŭijŏk’s Commentary on the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life: Examining the Newly Found Manuscript

    南宏信 | 2010, (7) | pp.101~125 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Within the Pure Land related religious scriptures stored at the Minobu collection (Yamanashi prefecture, Japan), there is a commentary on the Sūtra of Immeasurable Life 無量壽經 entitled Muryangsugyong sulgi 無量 壽經述記 卷第一 (Japanese: Muryōju-kyō Jukki Kan Dai’ichi). Upon validating the contents it was determined to match the text entitled Muryangsugyong sul(ŭi)gi 無量壽經述(義)記 which was written by the seventh century Silla monk Ŭijŏk 義寂. The said text is thought to be a late Heian period transcript and while recorded in various records the extant copy had not been verified. There was only a reconstructed version of the text compiled by Reichi Kasuga and Ryūkai Etani from quotes from such texts as Minamoto no Takakuni’s 源隆國 (1004-1077) Anyōshū 安養集 and Ryōe Dōkō’s 了慧道光 (1243-1330) Muryōju-kyō Shō 無量壽經鈔. Here I will give thought to more reliable reconstruction given those parts which were incomplete in Etani’s reconstructed version as well as introducing the Minobu collection’s copy as a preliminary step.
  • 6.

    The Doctrinal and Historical Significance of Silla Texts Quoted in the Kegonjugengi-shiki (華嚴十玄義私記, A Personal Commentary on the Ten Profound Meanings of the Huayan Sutra)

    Kim, Cheon-hag | 2010, (7) | pp.129~151 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The tenth century A. D. in the Heian period of Japan is particularly called the age of personal commentaries (私記 shiki in Japanese), in which many writings appear in the name or form of personal commentary from various Buddhist sects, including the Hotso-shu (法相宗). Among those works, the Kegonjugengi-shiki (華嚴十玄義私記) quotes some phrases from ① the Kojo-mondo (香象問答), a kind of transcript of Uisang (義湘)’s lectures, and ② the Sinlagi (新羅記) and the Qeongu-gi (靑丘記), respectively a commentary of Zhiyan (智儼)’s Kongmuzhang (孔目章). The doctrinal importance of these quotations can be found in their being the first quotations of the texts belonging to Uisang tradition ascertained within the texts of the Kegon-shu of Japan. In addition, the Kegonjugengi-shiki is the one extant text evidencing the first quotation of Uisang’s Beopgyedo (法界圖). Thus, the Kegonjugengi-shiki is important both in its doctrinal and philological contexts. According to its analysis, it shows familiarity with the texts of Uisang tradition in Silla dynasty, attempting doctrinally to identify Fazang (法藏) and Uisang, which enables us to infer that Gyeondeung (見登), a scholar monk of Silla dynasty, might be found to be responsible for its composition. Besides, the Kegonjugengi-shiki quotes various texts of Chinese Huayan thought that have not been reported to exist in the form of manuscript in the Nara period, including the Huayanyichengshixuanmen (華嚴一乘十玄 門) and the Fajieguanmen (法界觀門) attributed both to Dushun (杜順) and the Fajieyihaibaiwen (法界義海百問) and the Huayanzhang (華嚴章) attributed both to Fazang (法藏). We should give further attention to the circulation of these texts in order to analyze historically the various doctrinal trends in the manuscript of the Kegonjugengi-shiki.
  • 7.

    Works of the Silla Monk Wonhyo Discovered in the Dunhuang Manuscripts

    定源 | 2010, (7) | pp.155~180 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The commentary written by the Silla monk Wonhyo 元曉 (617-688) on the Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana, which is entitled Daeseung gisillon so 大乘起信論疏 is of extreme importance in the historiography of the commented text. Although Wonhyo’s commentary was written in Silla, but it influenced Buddhist cultures in the neighboring countries, including China and Japan. Wonhyo’s commentary was found in both the Taishō and Korean canons, but the text is from an Edo-period Japanese edition dated to 1696. It is odd that an older manuscript has not been found until now. Fortunately, I was able to find fragments of Wonhyo’s commentary in the Dunhuang and Turpan archives. There are five fragments found in the Dunhuang manuscripts, plus one from Turpan (see attached), which make a total of six. The distribution of these fragments suggests that Wonhyo’s commentary was transmitted across East Asia and went all the way to Central Asia. The discovery of the fragments of Wonhyo’s commentary will be useful in studying the history of Buddhist cultural exchange between countries in Asia, thus they are important materials leading to our further research on this issue.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Study on the old scroll of Hwaeommunuiyogyeolmundab

    김성주 | 2010, (7) | pp.183~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Most of modern Buddhism researchers use the texts in Sinsu Tri-pitaka (新修大藏經 hear after, Sinsu) and Man Abhidharma sutras (卍續藏經 here after, Man) to study. The texts in Sinsu and Man, however, could not be complete. In order to study the more whole Buddhism, we should try to make sure of a perfect text in Buddhist data. I think that a way to make sure of the perfect text is the correction through the text of those old scrolls. I insist this point by use of the scroll Hwaeommunuiyogyeolmundap (華嚴文 義要决問答) edited by Pyowon (表員) in 8th century. The variants of this scroll are as belows; a. Sato-bon (佐藤本) b. Enyakuji-bon (延曆寺本) c. Siseizon-bon, Todaiji (東大寺 四聖藏本) d. Ryukokudaigaku-bon (龍谷大本) e. Kyotodaigaku-bon (京都大本) f. Matsubarabunko-bon, Todaiji (東大寺 松原文庫本) Among them, Sato-bon (佐藤本) and Enyakuji-bon (延曆寺本) are the old scrolls of this book in Nara and Heian Periods. I corrected the Chinese characters in the texts of Hwaeomkyeongmunuiyogyeolmundab (華嚴經文 義要決問答) vol. 1. of Man through those of the old scrolls. The characters which I corrected by this correction as belows; First, The editor(s) of Man made a mistake of the character 圡, the old form of character 土, for the character 主. Therefore, They mistook 報土 for 報主 and 北土師 for 比主師. In the latter case, they mistook 北 for 比 in 北土師, too. Second, They misidentified 全 for 令 in the text. Therefore they mistook the letter 全 in ‘爲椽令獨能作舍’ (p.329:b4-7), ‘若不令作’ (p.329:b10-11), ‘此多箇少不成一令舍’ (p.329:b12-14), ‘皆無有令執有令舍者無因有’ (p.329:b14 -15), ‘舍既令不成。 故知非小力並令成故’ (p.329:b15-16) for 令. I could correct about 30 Chinese characters in vol. 1 of this scroll. Arithmetically calculating, we can find 120 errors through the whole scrolls. Of course, the old scrolls, also, has many errors. But through the correction by use of the old scrolls, we can acquire the more complete text.
  • 9.

    The study on buddhism image of university students(II) - Focus on difference of perception between students of University Sponsored under the buddhist organization and ordinary university in Chungnam region -

    Kwon, Jeong-man | 2010, (7) | pp.221~248 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This Study is analyse on difference of perception between students of University sponsored under the buddhist organization and ordinary university in Chungnam region. The significance of this study has raised. The reason that there is lately much discussion about the crisis for identity of University Sponsored under the buddhist organization and much application of ‘image-related’ researches. Through for analyse on difference of perception by result of preresearch, this study shown for devices for uplift of University perception for Buddism. Futhermore, in institution-section, this study shown for devices for uplift of the crisis for identity of University Sponsored under the buddhist organization.