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2016, Vol., No.19

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    Bhāviveka’s Critique of the Veda and the Buddhist-Sāṃkhya Alliance against the Mīmāṃsakas

    Ham, Hyoung Seok | 2016, (19) | pp.13~45 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the possibility that the Buddhists formed an alliance with the Sāṃkhyas when they criticized the practice of Vedic sacrifice. Inspired by the article on Bhāviveka in Xuanzang’s travelogue which reports that Bhāviveka wore the Sāṃkhya garment in the presence of non-Buddhist outsiders, the first part of the paper analyzes Bhāviveka’s critique of the Veda, particularly the contents of the Madhyamakahṛdayakārikā 9.31, as well as the Tarkajvālā commentary on that verse. In his critique, Bhāviveka lists quotations from the Veda in order to prove its evil authorship. It is evident that many of his quotations correspond with quotations that the Sāṃkhya commentators provided in the second verse of the Sāṃkhyakārikā, which makes an argument for the impurity of Vedic sacrifice. To support the possibility that Bhāviveka made an alliance with the Sāṃkhyas, the second part examines the similar precedent case, in which Āryadeva and Vasu ally with the Sāṃkhyas in their critique of Aśvamedha. In addition, Kumārila’s equation of the Sāṃkhyas and Buddhists with each other for rejecting the sacrificial orthopraxy is noted to show that this alliance made across the āstika-nāstika divide had also been observed by their opponents, Vedic Brahmins.
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    This paper discuss the various definitions of Pudgala - Based on postmid - Mādhyamika texts

    JUNG SANG KYO | 2016, (19) | pp.47~76 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The doctrine of ‘not-self’ (anātman) has been considered to be one of the central Buddhist philosophies. This concept of anātman, however, raised the following complex problem: in Buddhism, who can be the doer of good and bad kinds of deeds, and who can be the enjoyer of the results? Vātsīputrīya and Sāṃmitīya, which were representative branches of Pudgalavādin in Indian Buddhism, asserted that ‘inexpressible Pudgala’ cannot be explained in the same manner as the aggregates, nor does it exist apart from the aggregates. The Pudgalavādin seemed to try to solve the problem of the doctrine of ‘not-self’. This ‘inexpressible Pudgala’, therefore, became generally known as the Pudgalavādin’s distinctive theory of personal agency. However, according to Madhyamakāvatāra chp. 6, we see evidence that Sāṃmitīya demonstrated the viewpoint that aggregates are the Pudgala or that consciousness is the Pudgala. On the other hand, Prajñāpradīpa and Prasannapadā both regard ‘Preceding existence’ (differentiating existence from aggregates) found in Mūlamadhyamakakārikā chap. 9, to be the very Pudgala of Pudgalavādin. Moreover, Prajñāpradīpa-ṭīkā chap. 12., documents the existence of a few schools in Pudgalavādin, some of which insisted that Pudgala was the same as the aggregates, while others insisted that Pudgala was different from the aggregates. Despite the revelations contained in these few records, ‘inexpressible Pudgala’- being neither the same as the aggregates, nor existing apart from the aggregates- has been considered to be the only unique doctrine of Pudgala. A minority of scholars (or people), however, believe that these kinds of records simply reveal a misunderstanding or distortion of the truth by opponents who criticised the Pudgalavādin. In that respect, this thesis focused on the possibility that various kinds of Pudgala theory, with relevance to aggregates, exist. The focus of the research was on postmid-Mādhyamika texts.
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    Interpretation of the Tetralemma by Jizang吉藏 and Wonhyo元曉: A View On the Development of Mādhyamika Philosophy in East Asia

    中西俊英 | 2016, (19) | pp.77~109 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The tetralemma 四句 is a method of classification used in ancient India, to investigate various arguments. The NikAyas and Abhidharma-kośa also used this method, making it is one of the most used utilized structures in the Middle Treatise 中論. This paper discusses the usage of this method in East Asian Buddhism, and focuses specifically on (the work of) Jizang 吉藏 and Wonhyo 元曉. Based on the methodology of the Two Truths 二諦, Jizang integrates all of the Buddha’s discourses through using the tetralemma. According to Jizang’s thinking, truth cannot be expressed, and each lemma provides a provisional means to eliminate all human desire and passion. Wonhyo, utilizing Jizang’s approach, uses the tetralemma in harmonizing 和會 (會通), not only the entirety of the Buddha’s teachings, but also all doctrines related to Buddhism. However, the point of view that the tetralamma is a transient means of classification, is seen only minimally in Wonhyo’s work. In addition, a distinguishing feature of Wonhyo’s as that he harmonized all doctrines under the structure of One Mind in Two Aspects 一心二門, as is asserted in the Awakening of Faith 大乘起信論. The nature of the relationship between Wonhyo’s interpretation of the tetralemma, and the Awakening of Faith, remains a matter for further discussion. One explanation for the progressive use of the tetralemma, in connection with interpretation of Mādhyamika philosophy in East Asia, may be that Wonhyo’s work created a watershed for change. This facilitated the evolution of the original tetralemma of India, to what became the distinctive tetralemma of East Asia.
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    The Emergence of Essence-Function (ti-yong) 體用 Hermeneutics in the Sinification of Indic Buddhism: An Overview

    A. Charles Muller | 2016, (19) | pp.111~152 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The essence-function 體用 (Ch. ti-yong, K. che-yong, J. tai-yū; in non-Buddhological studies in Japan, tai-yō) paradigm can be seen as the most pervasively-used hermeneutical framework in the interpretation of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese religious and philosophical works ranging from as early as the 5th century BCE up to premodern times. It developed in richness during the course of its application in Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, first in China, where it was applied extensively in the sinification of Indian Buddhist doctrine, and formed the basic framework for the philosophy of the Chinese indigenous schools of Buddhism such as Huayan, Tiantai, and Chan, often in analogous forms such as li-shi 理事. It was then further transformed and expanded in its usage in Song Neo-Confucianism, especially in the form yet another analogue li-qi 理氣. As both Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism took root in Korea, Korean scholars made extensive use of the che-yong paradigm, both in the interpretation of the individual religions of Confucianism and Buddhism, as well as in interreligious dialog and debate. This paper seeks to revive discussion of this vitally important philosophical paradigm, which has been almost fully ignored in Buddhological studies, both East and West, by examining its early appearances in Chinese Buddhist commentary, and then its role in the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith, as well as some examples of its usage in Korean Buddhism, in the writings of Wonhyo and Jinul.
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