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2019, Vol., No.26

  • 1.

    Did Depictions of Sukhāvatī Exist in Indian Buddhism?: An Examination in Light of the Visuality of Sukhāvatī and Chinese Examples

    Rhi, Juhyung | 2019, (26) | pp.9~52 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The question of whether the Amitābha cult ever existed in Indian Buddhism, or in what form it did so, has long remained a mystery for the specialists of Indian Buddhism. Due to the extreme dearth of explicit or tangible evidence, a number of specialists have made efforts to find depictions of Amitābha or Sukhāvatī in visual images. From early on they sought to specifically identify such examples in the region of Gandhāra, which has long been considered to be the origin of major texts of the Amitābha cult. This study attempts to explore whether the so-called Gandhāran examples can be identified as such, by examining the following two problems. First, the fact that depictions of Sukhāvatīgreatly flourished in East Asia prompted many scholars to believe that the visuality of Sukhāvatī presented in the Sukhāvatīvyūha texts was special enough to easily generate its visual depictions. However, a careful examination of textual accounts reveals that this was not necessarily the case. Most of the visual features of Sukhāvatī are also commonly found in descriptions of other paradisiacal places in Indian religious tradition, and there is nothing original or specific in the descriptions of Sukhāvatī. Second, though remarkable affinities may be observed between East Asian depictions of Sukhāvatī and the so-called Gandhāran parallels, the former seems more likely to have been the original creation as an iconographic type by Chinese Buddhists rather than the adoption of the earlier Gandhāran type along with its associated Indian identity. Therefore, the affinities of the so-called Gandhāran examples do not support allegations that they are also the depictions of Sukhāvatī. By focusing on these two problems, this study attempts to assess the extent and nature of the existence of the Amitābha cult in early Indian Buddhism.
  • 2.

    Observations on the Term Bhvaṅga in the Visuddhimagga

    Kyungrae Kim | 2019, (26) | pp.53~77 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The term bhavaṅga occurs eighty one times through the Visuddhimagga, the representative abhidhamma treatise or commentarial text within Southeast Asian Theravāda tradition. This article scrutinizes the twenty two usages of bhavaṅga which are found in the fourteenth chapter of the Visuddhimagga. The discussions which are found in these occurrences adopt the perspectives of Paṭṭhāna or the Great Treatise (Mahāpakaraṇa), the seventh abhidhamma treatise, such as the proximate condition (anantara-paccaya), the cognitive procedure (citta-niyama) and so on. The Visuddhimagga, however, discusses a much developed and systematic cognitive process (citta-vīthi) defining fourteen modes of it, namely, rebirth-linking (paṭisandhi), bhavaṅga, adverting (āvajjana), seeing (dassana), hearing (savana), smelling (ghāyana), tasting (sāyana), touching (phusana), receiving (sampaṭicchana), investigating (santīraṇa), determining (votthapana), javana, registration (tadārammaṇa) and death (cuti). Furthermore, it enumerates eighty nine kinds of consciousness (citta) such as twenty one kinds of wholesome consciousness (kusala citta), twelve kinds of unwholesome consciousness (akusala citta), thirty six kinds of resultant (vipāka) and twenty kinds of functional (kiriya). According to the Visuddhimagga, nineteen kinds of resultant are in charge of bhavaṅga. It implies that bhavaṅga is also an active consciousness same as the other seventy modes of consciousness. This very discussion sets the Visuddhimagga apart from other previous treatises.
  • 3.

    A Study of Jayamaṅgala Gāthā, or verses on the Buddha’s Victory and Blessing

    An Yang Gyu | 2019, (26) | pp.79~102 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Jayamaṅgala Gāthā is one of the most frequently recited texts in the Southeast Asian Buddhist world. It is usually recited on important occasions like a marriage ceremony, or when setting out on an important journey, or when inaugurating any venture of significance. The contents of the stanzas recited clearly show that the ritual is intended to bring happiness and prosperity to the persons concerned or the successful completion of a project. Hence, these verses have come to be called “the stanzas of success and prosperity,” While the origin of these stanzas is shrouded in mystery, it can be deduced that they were composed in Sri Lanka by a devoted Buddhist poet, during the 11th and 13th centuries. These stanzas are regarded as efficacious because they relate eight occasions, when the Buddha triumphed over his powerful opponents. The stanzas consist of eight episodes: 1. Māra defeated by the Buddha, 2. Āḷavaka converted by the Buddha, 3. pacifying of Nāḷāgiri by loving-kindness, 4. conversion of Aṅgulimāla, 5. exposure of Ciñcā’s lies by serenity, 6. Saccaka humbled by wisdom, 7. Nandopānanda tamed by Mahā-Moggallāna, 8. Baka Brahma cured of conceit by wisdom. These eight verses recall the great events which took place between the Buddha and his powerful opponents, who had tried to kill, or humiliate, or defeat him. They also show how the Buddha overcame all these disturbances peacefully through his great virtues; and finally how the Buddha converted his opponents to follow the righteous way of living. One who recites these verses regularly and mindfully following the example given by the Buddha, can overcome many difficulties. Each time the Buddha triumphed over his adversaries, he left them with realizations, and in awe of the pure powers of generosity, patience, self-control, loving-kindness, serenity, truthfulness and other virtues. One can use the gatha as a reflection on the Buddha’s qualities (Buddhānussati). Jayamaṅ- gala Gāthā is a set of eight benedictory stanzas extolling the virtues of the Buddha. It may also be cited as a popular rite partly related to the chanting of paritta (protection). It is learned by novice monks in monastic education.
  • 4.

    Understanding on the Pudgalavādins of Vātsīputrīya Based by Analysis of Sutras Referred to in the Chapter Nine “Ātmavādapratisedha” of Abhidharmakośa

    LEE, CHI WON | 2019, (26) | pp.103~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Even though the Pudgalavāda has been a famous doctrine through the Buddhist history from the very early time, our knowledge of the Pudgalavādins has been limited because of rather poor remains of their own texts. This paper analysed the sutras referred to in the Chapter nine “Ātmavādapratisedha” of Abhidharmakośa for the better understanding on the Pudgalavādins. A total of 90 sturas was analysed in 34 places of the Chapter nine and in them 30 sutras were analysed in 10 places to be referred by the Pudgalavādins of Vātsīputrīya. The discordance between 4 nikāyas and 4 āgamas, and the duplications of same or similar sutras in different nikāyas and āgamas have been well known. This analysis of 90 sturas in 34 places also shows such features. The statistical analysis tells all the sutras referred to by the Pudgalavādins are belonged to the group of Chinese translations of Aṅguttara and Aṅguttara nikāya. It suggests, in the debate on Anātman within Buddhist circles, the Pudgalavādins of Vātsīputrīya might regard sutras of Aṅguttara as their base of Pudgalavāda, even Vasubandhu criticised them as neyārtha sūtras. The debate on ‘Anātman’ might have begun with strongly rejecting Pudgalavāda, because other Buddhist schools considered the Pudgala of Pudgalavādins as an entity (dravya) which seemed to be the ātman of Brahmanism. It is contradiction of the meaning of the Pudgala in the sutras that triggered the initial of the debate. However, as to principal agent of samsāra, Pudgalavādins used the term based on the sutras, on the other hand the term of Vasubandhu was based on Abhidharma itself. So it could be a way for the better understanding on the Pudgalavādins to review the sutras referred by the Pudgalavādins in the Chapter nine “Ātmavādapratisedha” of Abhidharmakośa.
  • 5.

    A Survey of Studies on Beobgyedogi-chongsurok

    Hwang Seo Kwang | 2019, (26) | pp.131~157 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Along with books by Gyunyo, the Beobgyedogi-chongsurok (Collection of Essential Records on the Dhārma Diagram) is regarded as the original text of the Uisang School of thought. Previous studies on Chongsurok can be divided into three areas; first, Uisang and his book, Ilseungbeobgye-do (Single Vehicle Dhārma Realm Diagram), second, historical background which forms the Gyunyo’s thoughts, and third, the others. Previous surveys of studies on Chongsurok have been briefly dealt with in Korea, in contrast to surveys conducted in Japan. Mostly they were surveys of studies on genealogy of the Uisang School of thought. But studies on Chongsurok offer a much wider range of themes. Chongsurok is a compilation of the Hua-yen doctrine of the Uisang School of thought, spanning a period of three-hundred years, according to thirty-two books cited. Without considering rigorous deployment of methodology, periodization and doctrinal division, it is impossible to understand Chongsurok systematically. A chronicle of the Uisang School of thought can be divided into two different periods, namely, the direct-teaching period and the annotation period. To be specific, the former is supposed to be teaching delivered directly from Uisang to Sillim, who was his grand disciple, and the latter starts from Beobyung, who was the grand-grand disciple of Uisang. Subdivision of the annotation period can be achieved by analyzing the texts titled Beobgi, Jingi, and Daegi, each of which has different authors, and is published at different intervals along the timeline that tracks the evolution of the annotations. It should be pointed out that the subject of the study is biased toward Doctrinal Classification and Manifestation of Reality theory of the Uisang School of thought. There are important subjects of study left that are Ilseung (Single Vehicle) theory, which inquires into the true meaning of Buddha’s teaching on Avataṁsaka sūtra and Dependent Origination theory, which is developed into Ohae (Five Seas), Mucheuk (No Sides), Isipiwi (Twenty-two grades) doctrines.
  • 6.

    The Estimation on the Contents of Wonhyo’s “Reconciliation of Dispute in the Aspect of Seeds” in Reconciliation of Disputes in Ten Aspects

    Yeongil Kim | 2019, (26) | pp.159~183 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper estimated the contents of Wonhyo’s “Reconciliation of Dispute in the Aspect of Seeds” in Reconciliation of Disputes in Ten Aspects which is not handed down in a complete form today. What has helped the paper do so much is the Seokwhaumkyobunki-wontongcho (釋 華嚴敎分記圓通抄), Daeseongkisinron-dongeeyakgip (大乘起信論同異略集) and the Discourse on the Theory of Consciousness-only (成唯識論). In the first section of ‘standpoint’, the three theories proclaim their basic position. The first theory states that there are only ‘the originally existed seeds’, and that they are only augmented by perfumation. According to the second theory, there are only ‘the newly perfumed seeds’, which are only achieved by perfumation. In addition, the third theory states that there are both ‘the originally existed seeds’ and ‘the newly perfumed seeds’. In the second section of ‘debate’, we can see the three theories attacks each others. The second theory refutes the relation between the 7 consciousnesses and the 8th consciousness. The first theory criticizes that the seeds of no agony will not be able to occur. The third theory debates the second theory saying, “There are not only the newly perfumed seeds but also the originally existed seeds.” In the third section of ‘conclusion’, Wonhyo decides that all the three theories are right. The reason is that the first theory is correct under the condition of taking the results according to the nature, that the second theory is right under the condition of taking the outcomes according to the function, and that the third theory is true under the condition of taking the consequences according to harmonizing the two factors.
  • 7.

    The Characteristics of Mi Pham’s Commentary on the Dharmadharmatāvibhaṅga

    Kim, Seong Ock | 2019, (26) | pp.185~205 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Dharmadharmatāvibhaṅga (Tib. Chos dang chos nyid rnam par ’byed pa) is one of Maitreya’s five works. It is regarded as a representative text of Yogācāra, because it analyzes the characteristics of dharma (法, chos) & dharmatā (法性, chos nyid), and explains its ultimate transformation (轉依). The tibetan monk, Mi pham (’ju mi pham rgya mtsho), defines this text not only as a Yogācāra text but also as a Madhyamaka text in his commentary. In particular, he explains that it corresponds with the union between Yogācāra and Madhyamaka. This is because Yogācāra and Madhyamaka offer commonly accepted interpretations regarding the non-discriminate wisdom, which is the core of Mahāyāna. When the perceived (所取, gzung ba) and the perceiver (能取, ’dzin pa) disappear, a characteristic of the dharmatā, namely suchness (眞如, de bzhin nyid), manifests itself. At this time Mi pham uses the term ‘self-awareness (so so rang gis rig pa)’, which means that self-awareness has been newly added as a way of explaining dharmatā and suchness. In this sense, Mi pham seems to approve of self-awareness on the ultimate levels, as well as the secular levels. But he does not claim it to be the ultimate reality. As long as it is considered to be the ultimate reality, there remains a slight subtle assumption. It must be removed by the logic of emptiness. Breaking down even the slightest subtle assumption is emphasized as a more authoritative teaching, namely ‘the right way of Madhyamaka’. Mi pham acknowledges the difference between Yogācāra and Madhyamaka, but he does not understand that they are actually in conflict with each other. In this way he shows the compatibility between Yogācāra and Madhyamaka, which is a unique feature of Mi pham’s commentary. The way of describing the state of suchness, which is expressed through the negation of something (x) for example ‘non perceived & perceiver’ and ‘no accidental defilements’, can be sufficiently understood as other-emptiness (他空, gzhan stong) as in the Jonang tradition. However Mi pham’s stance is distinguished from the Jonang tradition. Because he does not accept the reality of what remains behind after negation. There is also a corresponding similarity with the Geluk tradition, which claims the self-emptiness (自空, rang stong). But he maintains a different point of view from them by acknowledging the appearance of suchness (=emptiness). A unique feature of Mi pham’s writings is his incredible ability to integrate different systems of thought from the various schools regarding the nature of ultimate truth. This may be one reason for calling him an advocate of non-sectarian movements.
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