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2022, Vol., No.31

  • 1.

    A Critical Examination of a Prominent Theory about the Four-level Two Truths: did Jizang develop his four-level two truths theory in action to other schools of thought in his time?

    Cho, Yoon Kyung | 2022, (31) | pp.9~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The theory of the four-level two truths (四重二諦說) created by Jizang (吉藏), was based on the Sanlun school’s traditional theory of the three-level two truths (三重二諦說), and is one of the most renowned teachings of the Sanlun school (三論宗). Most of the preceding studies related to the theory of the four- level two truths were the result of integrating the theory mentioned in other literature of Jizang, focusing on the theory introduced in Dasheng xuanlun 大乘玄論. However, the extant Dasheng xuanlun is neither a work of Jizang nor a compilation by his disciples. Instead, it is a document that was later attributed to Jizang, distorting many of his thoughts, including the theory of the four-level two truths. Therefore, many issues need to be addressed in the previous studies on the theory of the four-level two truths. This paper focuses on the intended audience of each level of the two truths and examines whether Jizang developed the theory in reaction to other schools of his day. Generally, Jizang’s theory of the four-level two truths is considered to have developed one step further from the theory of the three-level two truths to criticize the two truths of the Abhidharma, Chengshi, Dilun, and Shelun schools in China. However, Dasheng xuanlun, which has been the basis for this argument, misinterpreted the four-level two truths theory since it has nothing to do with the emergence of Yogācāra schools which occurred at the time as the Dilun and Shelun schools. The intended audience of each stage is ordinary people, the two vehicles, and Bodhisattvas, the same as in the early theory of the three-level two truths. It is far from the original intention of Jizang to claim that those three recipients correlate with the masters of the Abhidharma, Chengshi, and Mahāyāna (e.g., Dilun and Shelun) schools, mentioned in Dasheng xuanlun. Jizang’s theory of the four-level two truths is not a separate theory that deviates from the context of the traditional theory of the three-level two truths but is a multi-layered theory developed more systematically in a continuous context with the theory of the three-level two truths. By focusing on the intended audience at each stage, this paper lays the groundwork for further research on the logical structure and characteristics of the four-level two truths theory.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study of the Meaning of the Phrase “Is Not as Such” in the Diamond Sūtra: Centering around the Kumārajīva Version and the Sanskrit Manuscripts

    Jo, Yeon-sug | 2022, (31) | pp.37~58 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the Kumārajīva version of the Diamond Sūtra, we find twenty-four instances in which the stock phrase “A is not A as such. Therefore, it is called A” appears. It seems, however, that this phrase was not initially used in such a standardized form. The researcher’s examination of the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the scripture has revealed that such a typical form does not appear frequently in the earlier Sanskrit manuscripts and that a similar pattern is also found in the Tibetan versions, as the latter is a uniform and mechanical rendering of the Sanskrit versions. Whereas the earlier Sanskrit versions of the Diamond Sūtra adopt an inspiring literary style that draws its reader naturally to the words of the Buddha, the Kumārajīva version fixes the corresponding passages in a standardized form and emphasizes that these are the words of the Buddha. The phrase “A is not A as such. Therefore, it is called A” states that when one immediately sees A is the dharma-nature devoid of self-nature and thus sees A is not what its real concept is, it is called A. Therefore, it was already said, is being said, and will be said that since the true nature of A is not identical with A, it is called A. Therefore, the Huayan Sūtra says that everything is constantly preaching the dharma; the Lotus Sūtra also says that the Tathāgata is always giving truthful words “It is called A.” In the case of the Diamond Sūtra, however, the phrase “It is called A” means that the Tathāgata goes beyond the true characteristic itself and performs a linguistic activity caused by the subsequently attained wisdom, which goes beyond the nondiscriminating wisdom that occurs prior to the division of one’s consciousness into subjective and objective aspects. The Sanskrit phrase meaning “A is not A as such” which appears in Chapter 8 of the Diamond Sūtra is rendered as “A is not of the nature of A” in the Kumārajīva version. He then adds that the Tathāgata says that there are therefore great merits. This seems to contradict with Bodhidharma’s criticism of Liang Wudi as having no merits, but it rather corresponds with the meaning of the passage “emptiness is itself non-emptiness.”
  • 3.

    Analysis of the meaning of reincarnation in the ‘Ghost in the Shell’ Reincarnation as Mergence

    JUNG SANG KYO | 2022, (31) | pp.59~78 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Mamoru Oshii’s ‘Ghost in the Shell’, presents an era in which information can be moved without any restrictions because it can be freely distributed via a network that is like an Electronic Brain. In this time, how can the identity of the self be guaranteed if the Electronic Brain is hacked and memory, one of the representative functions of mental activity, is manipulated? In the work, a puppet master, in the form of a computer program, becomes aware of itself at some point when it acquires vast amounts of information. And it insists that (s)he is a live creature. How can individual beings be defined when the movement of information (or memory) goes beyond their boundaries due to developing technology? The work also asks questions about the regulation of species reproduction. The director pportrays beings as Ghosts. And then presents the procreation of races that passes on the characteristics of individuals, as a merging of Ghosts. The birth of a new existent being through this convergence resembles reincarnation, an important theory of Indian philosophy, including Buddhism. Therefore, this study first analyzes Ghost as an entity and examines how Ghosts can be interpreted within reincarnation theory. Results Findings show that Ghosts seem to be closer to the perceptual faculty suggested by Buddhism than the immortal soul (ātman), and it is deduced that there is a similarity to the action of the consciousness of the past life or the action of the antarābhava (中有). In addition, it is suggested that this work can be interpreted as a type of reincarnation theory based on the fact that the existing, which arises from the mergence between Ghosts, cannot remember its state before the mergence.
  • 4.

    Buddhism and Ancient Chinese States

    Guang Xing | 2022, (31) | pp.81~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is a study of the inscriptions on various types of Buddhist images and stelae made by the common people during the Northern dynasties and Sui and Tang dynasties from the fourth to the ninth century. These inscriptions demonstrate that many common people dedicated their merits of making Buddhist images to emperors, ministers and the state apart from their present parents and parents of past seven generations. Hou Xudong thinks that this is a recognition of the state, the Northern Wei, by the common people. Satō Chisui thinks that it is the emperor worship amongst the common people as instructed by their society’s monastic teachers. But he is still not sure about the reasons why the Buddhist monks and nuns also had the mentality of emperor worship. Ishimatsu Hinako thinks that it is due to Emperor Taiwu’s persecution of Buddhism; Chinese Buddhists were afraid that such tragedy might happen again so that their faith in Buddhism became stronger and they wished that the emperor could protect Buddhism. I argue that it was the Buddhist way to pay their debt of gratitude to the Chinese emperors for their protection of Buddhism because Buddhism had faced many challenges and criticisms from Chinese people since its introduction to China in the Han dynasty and it even underwent severe persecutions. Emperor Tai Wudi of the Northern Wei, for instance, persecuted Buddhism so the monastics had a vivid memory of such events.
  • 5.

    Case studies into Anti-Buddhism Policies & Patriotic Buddhism of Joseon dynasty

    EungChual Kim | 2022, (31) | pp.105~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Various types of patriotic Buddhism emerged at different levels of acceptance of Buddhism. This study divided patriotic Buddhism into five types. The types are as follows : receptive, recognized as state religion, autocratic, preservation-intended, human-oriented. Characteristics of patriotic Buddhism in Joseon manifested as ‘preservation-intended’ and ‘human-oriented’ Buddhism. Preservation-intended is to preserve it against anti-Buddhism, pro-Confucianism policies, and Human-oriented is to help and protect people from national crises. During the Joseon Dynasty, Buddhists carried out various activities for the very existence of Buddhism and for national defense to overcome national crises. The conduct of rituals for royal stability and establishment of temples guarding royal tombs seem to be an inevitable choice to preserve Buddhism, and forming monastic army during war times can be seen as patriotic activities to defend the state. Patriotic Buddhism during the Joseon Dynasty manifested as provision of political advise, formation of monastic soldiers to protect people and the state, publication of scriptures to disseminate Buddhist teachings and enlighten people, and social work to help people in need. In a modern, multi-faith society, patriotic Buddhism needs to explore ways to expand the common-good-promoting aspects of Buddhism, and help people ease their psychological agony.
  • 6.

    Korean Buddhist Cheontae Order’s Pursuit of Patriotic Buddhism and World Peace

    LEE SEUNGNAM | 2022, (31) | pp.141~160 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to explore the historical background behind the patriotism of Cheontae Order, how Cheontae Buddhists can pursue patriotism as the mission of the times, and the ultimate direction for patriotic Buddhism. Through this study, it’s intended that the true meaning of patriotic Buddhism is revealed. Grand monk Sangwol was born during the Japan’s colonial rule, and experienced the sorrow and hardships which led him to move to China to practice Buddhism. This time he came to understand the importance of sovereignty and patriotism. While helping the sentient beings suffering from the Korean War, grand monk Sangwol understood that building a strong, unified country is what sentient beings need in order to stay well and safe what monks need to learn and practice Buddhism. Japan’s colonial rule coincides with the WW1 and WW2 times, especially the latter one which resulted in the greatest number of casualties in history. These wars led grand monk Sangwol to realize how severely the sentient beings could suffer from, and the necessity to pursue national revival and salvation of the nation and the world towards world peace. Grand monk Sangwol highlighted three doctrines in Holy Book of Cheontae Order : realization of popularization of Buddhism, practice of Habituation of Buddhism, and establishment of patriotic Buddhism. Among them the patriotic Buddhism is directed to spread the ‘one vehicle truth’ of the Lotus Sutra to the world and realize the Buddha’s Land where the world peace is achieved. What Buddha is to do is teaching sentient beings about the ‘one vehicle truth’ to lead them to attain Buddhahood. It means patriotic Buddhism therefore should be directed to spread the ‘one vehicle truth’ to the nation and the world, so that everyone can live as Buddhists and all people around the world as learning and practicing the ‘one vehicle truth.’ This way, the Buddha’s Land where the world peace is achieved can be realized. In conclusion, grand monk Sangwol taught members of Cheontae Order about the patriotic Buddhism as the mission of the time, and therefore the Cheontae Order members should establish patriotic Buddhism where the ever-lasting world peace is achieved, by spreading the ‘one vehicle truth’ to sentient beings around the world.
  • 7.

    Development of the Way of Practice in Buddhism

    MINOWA Kenryo | 2022, (31) | pp.161~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    What is the significance of studying the Buddhist way of practice? Recently, the term “Siddhartha Intent” has been heard among Tibetan Buddhists. It means that we should be aware of the purpose of the Buddha’s renouncing the worldly life, which was to transcend the suffering of affliction. The way that makes this possible was practice, or the method of observation called satipaṭṭhāna. The practice of satipaṭṭhāna was later called “cessation and observation.” I will consider the historical development of this cessation and observation that first appeared in India, then developed in China and was renovated to Chan (Jpn. Zen) Buddhism.
  • 8.

    Hae-sim-mil-gyeong so (解深密經疏) by Woncheuk 圓測(613-696): part 4 –With a Critical Revision Based on Its Tibetan Translation

    JANG, GYU EON | 2022, (31) | pp.187~216 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    이번 회 연재분은 형식적으로는 「역주1」에서 소개했던 경문(廣慧當知! 於六趣生 死彼彼有情墮彼彼有情眾中, 或在卵生, 或在胎生, 或在濕生, 或在化生, 身分生起.)과 이어 지는 경문(於中最初一切種子心識成熟·展轉和合·增長廣大.) 문구에 대한 직접적 주석이다. 내용적으로 보았을 때, 전자의 큰 주제는 윤회하는 중생들의 거주처 분류 방식인 ‘육취(六趣)’ 또는 ‘오취(五趣)’와 그들의 출생 분류 방식인 ‘사생(四生)’이며, 후 자에서는 ‘일체종자식(一切種子識)’으로 불리는 ‘아뢰야식(阿賴耶識)’이 사람의 탄생 과정의 어느 단계에서 어떤 기능을 수행하는지를 논하고 있다. 두 주제 모두 우리 의 일상적 감각 경험을 통해서는 확인할 수 없는 존재 또는 그들의 거주 공간(예. 천신, 아귀, 지옥)과 시간(예. 중유, 수태, 태 내 성장)에 대한 논의를 포함하고 있어 이 해하기 어려운 점이 적지 않다. 하지만 한편으로는 원측이 불경 인용을 통해 제시하는 관련 주제에 대한 비교 적 구체적인 설명은 눈에 보이지 않는 생명 존재와 그들의 세계, 인간 탄생의 원인, 구체적 과정, 본질 등과 관련된 우리의 근원적 의문에 대한 나름의 답을 제공 하고 있어 종교학적으로 무척 흥미롭기도 하다. 그 중 필자의 관심을 끈 인식 또는 통찰 몇 가지를 꼽자면 다음과 같다. 첫째, ‘아뢰야식’이 수태 후 최초 형태의 신체인 ‘갈라람(羯羅藍)’ 또는 ‘육심(肉心)’과 결합한 후 그 소멸 때까지 운명을 같이한다는 인식이며, 이것은 의식과 신체의 불가분리성을 함축한다. 이 관점에서 보면, 출생 후 인생의 여덟 단계 중 청년기 의 특징으로 ‘욕망의 대상[欲塵]을 즐기는 데[受用] 능숙함’을 꼽은 부분도 인간 신 체의 성장이 의식과 깊이 연동되어 있음을 보여주는 선명한 예로 읽을 수 있을 듯하다. 둘째, ‘중유’에서 수태로 이어지는 감정적 추동력을 이성애적 욕망과 연관된 ‘애욕[愛]’과 ‘분노[恚]’로 보는듯한 인식이다. 이 부분은 이성애의 배타적 본질에 대 한 불교적 설명 방식으로 이해할 수 있을 듯하다. 셋째, 탄생의 본질이 어떤 점에서 ‘괴로움’인지에 대한 태아 심리학적 설명이다. 이것은 진제(眞諦 Paramārtha, 499~569)가 ‘구공(九孔)’으로 상징되는 신체 기관의 활성화가 큰 괴로움의 출발점임을 강조한 점, 󰡔오왕경(五王經)󰡕의 임신 중 산모의 소화 기관 사이에 끼어 있는 태아의 부자유, 산모의 부적절한 음식 섭취가 태아에게 미치는 재앙적 영향, 출산 순간의 위태로움, 출산 후의 아픔 등에 대한 태아 관점 의 서술, 󰡔대집경(大集經)󰡕의 출산 후 처음 부딪히는 외부 환경이 야기하는 큰 괴로움에 대한 서술 등에서 잘 드러난다. 덧붙이자면, 󰡔오왕경󰡕과 󰡔대집경󰡕의 태아 의 태내 성장과 출산 과정에 대한 묘사는 산과(産科) 지식이 없는 필자가 이해하기 어려운 부분을 포함하고 있어 번역에 오류가 있을 지도 모르겠다. 눈밝은 독자들의 도움을 기대해 본다.