Various types of patriotic Buddhism emerged at different levels of acceptance of Buddhism. This study divided patriotic Buddhism into five types. The types are as follows : receptive, recognized as state religion, autocratic, preservation-intended, human-oriented.
Characteristics of patriotic Buddhism in Joseon manifested as ‘preservation-intended’ and ‘human-oriented’ Buddhism. Preservation-intended is to preserve it against anti-Buddhism, pro-Confucianism policies, and Human-oriented is to help and protect people from national crises.
During the Joseon Dynasty, Buddhists carried out various activities for the very existence of Buddhism and for national defense to overcome national crises. The conduct of rituals for royal stability and establishment of temples guarding royal tombs seem to be an inevitable choice to preserve Buddhism, and forming monastic army during war times can be seen as patriotic activities to defend the state.
Patriotic Buddhism during the Joseon Dynasty manifested as provision of political advise, formation of monastic soldiers to protect people and the state, publication of scriptures to disseminate Buddhist teachings and enlighten people, and social work to help people in need.
In a modern, multi-faith society, patriotic Buddhism needs to explore ways to expand the common-good-promoting aspects of Buddhism, and help people ease their psychological agony.