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Editorial Policy

Research & Publication Ethics

Research Ethics Rules of the CRBS


Chapter 1 General Rules


Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this code is to secure the ethics and veracity of research in the publication of the Critical Review for Buddhist Studies(henceforth referred to as the ‘CRBS’), which is published by the Geumgang Center for Buddhist Studies at Geumgang University, and to define its operational standards.

Article 2 (Application) This code is applied to authors who contribute papers to the CRBS as well as editors and reviewers.

Article 3 (The definition of research misconduct)

Paragraph 1 (Plagiarism) ‘Plagiarism’ refers to the act of using research results including the writings, conceptions, ideas, hypotheses and theories of others, which are protected by copyright law, without valid approval or citation.

① ‘Idea Plagiarism’ refers to the act of expropriating ideas(explanations, theories, conclusions, hypotheses, metaphors among others) by taking or superficially modifying the whole or a part of an idea without recognizing the contributions of the progenitor. Hence, the author is ethically obliged to generally reveal the source of ideas in the form of a footnote or a reference citation, and must not expropriate the ideas of others, which have been disclosed through colleagues or reviews for the research proposals and contributed papers of others, without adequate sources and citations.

‘Text Plagiarism’ refers to the act of copying a portion of a text from another person’s publication without disclosing the author.

③ ‘Mosaic Plagiarism’ refers to the act of not disclosing the original author or source by mixing a portion of a text from another person’s publication, adding or inserting words, or replacing words with synonyms.

④ ‘Self Plagiarism’ refers to the act of citing a portion of one’s previously published paper without citation, or using a portion of one’s previously published paper, as it is, in a different paper.

Paragraph 2 (Redundant Publication)

① ‘Redundant Publication’ refers to submitting and publishing the text of one’s paper, which is completely or nearly identical to one’s previously published paper, in a different academic journal without notifying the existence of the previously published paper to the editors or readers.

Even if the text published later on shows a slightly different view or perspective or a slightly different analysis on previously published data, the text falls under redundancy if the main content is identical to one‘s previously published paper.

③ When redundantly publishing the text for a different reader group that is unable to recognize the previously published paper, the editors of both academic journals must agree to the redundant publication, and the author must disclose the fact that the same paper was published on a different academic journal to the readers. This also applies to the publication of a text on a different academic journal by translating a paper published in one language to another language.

④ Contributing the same paper multiply on different academic journals is prohibited, and the author, by principle, may contribute to a different academic journal only after publication on one academic journal is rejected.

Paragraph 3 (Fabrication and Falsification)

‘Fabrication’ refers to the act of falsely creating non-existing data or research results.

‘Falsification’ refers to the act of distorting research content or results by artificially manipulating research material, equipment, or processes or by arbitrarily altering or deleting data.


Chapter 2 Ethics Rules


Article 1 (Author Ethics)

① Authors must not engage in research misconduct as defined by article 3 of the general rules, and when research misconduct is exposed ex post facto, they may receive a corresponding sanction.

Authors can cite a portion of another person’s work through methods of introduction, reference and commentary by citing the original text as it is or by translation.

③ Authors must aim at accuracy when indicating sources and drawing up a bibliography. Authors must personally check all elements(author name, book and issue of an academic journal, page number, and publication year) of citation in the original paper without relying on secondary sources. However, they may use citations by disclosing they are secondary source citations when inevitable.

④ Authors must use citations in a reasonable way based on the principles of faith and sincerity so that cited works and citing works are clearly distinguished.

Authors must cite official works as a rule, and when having acquired unreleased academic data through paper reviews, research proposal reviews or personal contacts, they must obtain the consent of the relevant researcher.

Authors must clearly state their source when introducing, by adaptation in their own work, theories or ideas contained in another person‘s previously published work.

⑦ Authors must write their paper in a way that clearly enables readers to know what ideas are the author’s and what ideas come from a referenced source when intensively borrowing from a single source.

Authors can present references for important published documents that have gravely affected the direction of the research or are capable of aiding the reader in understanding the research content even though they are not cited in the author‘s work, with the exception of cases where relevant researchers know this theoretically and empirically.

⑨ Having used an abstract in preceding research reviews, authors must avoid using an early version or a preliminary version published in academic conference paper collections while citing an academic journal paper in the bibliography or as a published version of the paper.

⑩ When using another person’s idea or information on a fact provided by that person, authors must disclose the source of whose idea it is, with the exception of cases where the knowledge is publicly known or the reader is aware of the data.


Article 2 (Editor Ethics)

① Editors have the authority to determine the reception, review request, and publication of contributed papers.

② Editors must maintain absolute confidentiality over the person data of an author and must respect the character of the author and his or her independence as a scholar.

③ Editors must fairly treat submitted papers, solely on the basis of the qualitative level of the paper and the standards of submission, examination and ethics, regardless of the author’s gender, age, or affiliation.

Editors must entrust the assessment of submitted papers to reviewers with fair judgement and expertise in the relevant field.

Editors must not disclose their thinking about the author or the contents of the paper until the publication of the submitted paper is determined.


Article 3 (Reviewer Ethics)

Reviewers must fairly and sincerely evaluate submitted papers according to the prescribed rules of review and then notify the results to the editorial board.

Reviewers must review submitted papers according to their academic conscience and objective standards, above differences in personal views, opinions and interpretations.

③ Reviewers must maintain confidentiality over all information about the author they have become aware of during the review process.

④ Reviewers must politely and softly express their judgements for papers when drawing up their assessment opinion and must not use demeaning or insulting expressions against the author.

⑤ Reviewers must not misuse particular information made aware of during the review process, in research directly or indirectly related to the reviewer, without the consent of the original author.

⑥ Reviewers must not discuss or entrust the review of a paper to a third party.


Chapter 3 Operation of Ethics Rules


Article 1 (Ethics Rules Compliance) Authors contributing papers to the CRBS, editors, and reviewers are regarded as having pledged to comply with the present ethics rules.

Article 2 (Ethics Board Formation) The ethics board is formed by five members or more, including the director of the Geumgang Center for Buddhist Studies, the chief editor of the CRBS, and the head of the Buddhist studies department appointed ex officio. Other members are appointed by the chief editor to two year terms that may be served consecutively.

Article 3 (Ethics Board Chief) The chief of the ethics board is elected by mutual vote of the ethics board, and presides over meetings as its representative.

Article 4 (Ethics Board Functions) The ethics board deliberates and decides the details of the following items.

① Details on the establishment and operation of a system concerning research ethics and veracity

② Details on the enactment and amendment of rules including research ethics rules

③ Details on the reception, investigation and process of research misconduct tips

④ Details on the processing of results verifying research veracity and follow-up measures

Article 5 (Reports and reception of research rule violations and research misconduct)

When research misconduct relevant to the CRBS occurs, informers may report it in written form or email to the ethics board.

The ethics board must protect the identity of the informer, and the informer does not suffer any disadvantage for having reported the misconduct.

③ The informer and the accused must sincerely cooperate with the ethics board’s investigation, and the accused is given the opportunity to explain oneself.

④ The board must prevent any unfair pressure or harm to come upon the informer during the investigation process and must simultaneously protect the name and rights of the accused.

If the ethics board investigation finds clear research misconduct, the board can decide upon disciplinary action. Disciplinary action may take the form of a warning, submission restriction, and withheld or cancelled publication, and these measures may be divulged to other institutions or individuals.