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2009, Vol., No.18

  • 1.

    “한국 기독교 사회윤리학”의 학문적 정위

    YOUNG SANG RO | 2009, (18) | pp.9~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I explored how we would define Korean Christian social ethics rightly. For this purpose, I analyzed the essential conditions of scholarship, firstly. After I referred six conditions of scholarship, I showed a learning as theology satisfied those conditions. Secondly, I examined the scholarship of Christian ethics, using the definition of Christian ethics by James M. Gustafson. Thirdly, this paper explained social ethics, distinguished from personal ethics. Especially, I said Christian ethicists had developed the inquiry of social ethics in advance of the philosophical ethicists. In conclusion, I defined Korean Christian social ethics by line as followings.: “Korean Christian social ethics is a study, having both sides of faith and rationality, done by the research groups such as professional Christian social ethical scholars with its own ethical methodology, which analyzes Korean social situations different from the west by the tool of social sciences, reflects on the improvement of the present social structure and social institutions, realizing social justice and transforming society not to be solved in the field of personal ethics, with faith and theology adjusted in a Korean point of view, in the perspective of the Bible and doctrinal traditions emphasizing human sociality, investigates the social ethical practices, tunes up different views of practices among various denominations, makes a public consensus through the communication with people outside of church, decides on the contents of ministerial and social practices with his own social responsibility, and evaluates the results following the practical implementation.”
  • 2.

    교의학과 인문·사회과학에 대한 관계를 중심으로 살펴본 한국기독교사회윤리학의 학문적 위치

    Won-Don Kang | 2009, (18) | pp.39~76 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Christian social ethics make reflections on earnest attempts of the Christians to realize a better and more righteous life by regulating institutional things. Almost all relations of human beings to their inner lives, other persons and their environments are institutionalized; therefore there must be ethical approaches to these institutional aspects of human relationships from a Christian perspective. I define such attempts as Christian social ethics. In the article I would locate them in relation to dogmatics and to human and social sciences. Firstly, I deny the traditional thesis that ethics are defined as tasks of dogmatics, as Karl Barth has asserted it strongly. Even if Christian social ethics interpret institutions from a dogmatic perspective, such interpretations cannot take the place of analytical approaches to the reality of institutions. Christian social ethics stand on their own feet if they use dogmatics autonomously in articulating theological foundations of their ethical principles. Secondly, Christian social ethics can find out the place to integrate human and social scientific analyses of reality into ethical reflections if they distinguish criteria of ethical judgment from maxims of ethical praxis. The former is concerned in the transparence of the world to the kingdom of God and it must make clear what should be done in such a perspective. In the meanwhile the latter is, even in the vision of the Kingdom of God, rather interested in suggesting guidelines or alternative concepts to regulate institutional things under historical conditions of reality. In such connections Christian social ethics cannot escape from analyzing institutional realities with help of human and social sciences. Thirdly, Christian social ethics must be selective in using human and social scientific analyses of reality. They accept human and social sciences which can help to disclose ideological disguises, to break superstitions of laws which are suggested to be prevalent in history and society, to be responsible for the future and to promote democracy and public integrity through discourses in the civil society.
  • 3.

    학문의 자유에 대한 기독교윤리적 연구

    Yong-Hun Jo | 2009, (18) | pp.77~104 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine main thoughts of academic freedom and their history in Korea from the perspective of Christian ethics. Academic freedom refers to the freedom of scholars to study, teach and publish without being subject to or causing undue interference. Academic freedom is essential to the ‘function of truth’ of the universities. Without academic freedom, not one scholar or university can function properly and realize its goal for truth. Threats to the promotion of academic freedom come from both within and outside the academy: political ideology, religious dogmatism, ideologically conservative journalism, commercialism and indifference of members of academy. The history of the Christian universities and the theological seminaries in Korea show that academic freedom was mainly limited, due to the religious dogmatism. Because of theological thoughts, the religious dogmatists, connected with religious power elite, banished theologians unlawfully from the universities. For the preservation and promotion of academic freedom in the universities, we, as the subject of the rights of academic freedom, should be conscious of its importance for scholarship, and be ready to commit ourselves to protect it against adversaries within and outside the academy. Also, we should make efforts to build the ecclesiastical judical proceedings for academic freedom, in order that it operate fairly and reasonably.
  • 4.

    기독교사회윤리로서 책임윤리에 대한 성찰

    박원빈 | 2009, (18) | pp.105~126 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    What is responsibility in an ethical sense? What does it mean that Christian should be responsible? This article aims at evaluating ethic of responsibility as Christian social ethics in the Korean context. For this task, I explore the concept of responsibility by bridging Emmanuel Levinas’s ethic of the Other. According to Levinas, responsibility is the very nature of subjectivity. He asserts that “I” am responsible for the other because “my” being as an individualized subject is perfectly bonded with my relation to the other. Levinas describes this relationship as obsession, since it totally controls the I. This is what is meant by Levinas’s famous phrase, “I am a hostage” of the other. The subject is persecuted because it cannot avoid the Other’s sovereignty over the I. It is an abandonment of subjectivity in a radical way. Ethic of the other and responsibility can be equally translated into the doctrine of Kenosis. Jesus’ self-gift to the other and for the other is his ethical representation of Levinas’s famous slogan, “Here am I.” This total responsibility for the other as employed in the cross, makes the cross the central component of Jesus’ story. Jesus is the representative being for the other until death, a death that takes the sin and the punishment of the other and expiates it. The cross is then a revelation of the glory of the Infinite in Jesus. In this manner, Levinas has given us another language to express the expiatory death of Jesus in a manner which can also honor other substitutional selves who were obsessed for and by the other. As Jesus has shown to us what responsibility is for the other, Levinas awakens us that we have an infinite responsibility for the other. Notwithstanding, it is not an easy task to do this ethic. However, when we humbly confess that we are so weak to execute ethic of the other, grace of God pours his strength. This is why R. Niebhur defines Christian ethic as “impossible possibility.”
  • 5.

    다문화 담론과 기독교 지식인의 책임

    김광현 | 2009, (18) | pp.129~150 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    As we have become a Multicultural society since we have more than 1.1 million foreigners residing in Korea, there have been a lot of discussion regarding foreigners’ human rights and multicultural education. ‘Learning to live together’ in the ‘Education for International Understanding’ of UNESCO has been a great help to develop an international vision for the multicultural education in Korea. ‘Understanding foreign cultures’ which is a theme of education for international understanding aims the harmony of one society and the peaceful education for the world civilians. In order to strengthen education for international understanding since 2000, UNESCO has performed it through disseminating ‘a Culture of Peace’ with five themes, ‘Globalization issue’, ‘Peaceful World’, ‘Respect human rights’, ‘Multicultural understanding’ and ‘Sustainable development’. Especially, multicultural understanding contains mutual respect and prejudiced discrimination. This is because when all the representatives of the countries made a decision for the certain policy, third world influenced them to reflect human rights for the minorities, peace, respect and so on. Multicultural understanding is one of important areas of education for the world peace, at which UNESCO has taken aim. UNESCO started using the term of international education based on its educational concern and it has expressed peace education, human right education, world civilian education, education for international understanding and education for sustainable development and so on. And at 2001, it published the rule book for the multicultural education with the <Declaration of UNESCO world culture diversity>. UNESCO has used a term ‘multicultural education’ meaning intercultural education as well. We have ignored and not made serious efforts to materialize ‘World inside Korea’ so far compared to make efforts to materialize ‘Korea inside World’. Diversity of the cultures, languages and religions in Asia and World is the important property and potential motive for the creative future. It is also an important social capital to actively solve the global issues and to contribute partnership, cooperation and harmony to asian region as well as world stage. Korean people will develop a balanced awareness of world civilians and be inspired with their pride as world civilians through Korean education for multicultural understanding as well as one for the asian understanding. Foreigners are also equivalent members of our society. It will induce Korean to transform a sense of value for the multicultural society. Once they got out of the nationalismic view of thinking in a narrow sense, they will admit them as members of our society. That will be a foundation for bringing up persons with new global creativity. In order to raise up a national brand status, education for multicultural understanding and educating world civilians dealing with world-wide issues are necessary. Social ethics is one to pursue change in our society. Ethics of the christian society not only explain the world, but also transform the society. Christian educated people are responsible for the pursuit of our common virtue of world civilians such as peace and justice, love and living together and for exerting and practicing them. “World is a Multicultural Society.” If we will promote a Global Multicultural Education, multicultural education model in Korea will be set up in the right direction.
  • 6.

    거짓말에 대한 기독교 사회 윤리적 소고

    김홍진 | 2009, (18) | pp.151~172 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes unethical aspects of lies spoken during personnel hearings conducted in the General Assembly of Korea and suggests social and ethical alternative ways in Christianity to reach an advanced society. Chapter 1 is for an introduction, and Chapter 2 analyzes general meanings of lies. A lie can be defined as an act of speaker that deceives intentionally a listener or an act of speaker that hides what a listener likes to know. A key factor constituting a lie is “an intention to hide a fact.” In the Bible, the Ninth Commandment deals with a lie. Exodus 20:16 states, “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbors.” This commandment includes legal implications. In a personnel hearing conducted in the General Assembly, a person questioned can have a chance to advocate or defense for himself and to excuse himself with respect to controversial issues. A feature of lies in the personnel hearing is self defensive. Chapter 3 deals with types and features of lies. In terms of contents, there are lies about objective facts, things and circumstances while there are lies about inner feelings. In terms of intent, there are lies to avoid penalties, lies to achieve a goal and lies to protect himself from others. Additionally, there is a sickness of lie. The lies spoken in such a personnel hearing can be categorized as a lie to protect themselves. Mostly, they lie to maintain their status as honest and clean officials and to advocate for their innocents. Chapter 4 deals with social and ethical alternatives in Christianity to avoid such lies in the personnel hearing. Lying is wrong because it is unethical and sinful. Reasons why such a lie in the personnel hearing is wrong are as follows. First, because of truthfulness that is required by a natural person. Second, because of morality that is required by public officials. Third, because of honesty that is required by legal professionals. Thus, restoration of the Ninth Commandment is emphasized. Chapter 5 emphasizes Christianity’s social and ethical responsibility with respect to a society where lies are pervasive. Christian’s ethics, morality and truthfulness should be revived to prevent this kind of lie spoken in the personnel hearing.
  • 7.

    인권과 신학의 구조적 일치성

    Hyung-Min Kim | 2009, (18) | pp.173~198 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Die universale Begründbarkeit der Menschenrechte ist eine Hauptfrage der gegenwärtigen Menschenrechtstheorie. Der Grund, oftmals theologische Begründung der Menschenrechte abgelehnt zu werden, liegt darin, daß sie keine Universalität der Menschenrechte garantieren könnte. Um die Schwierigkeiten bei der Begründung einer allgemein verbindlichen Menschenrechte auszuweisen, ist im diesem Beitrag der pragmatische Ansatz entwickelt und diskutiert worden. Er beobachtet die formale Anlaogie zwischen der philosophischen, theologischen, rechtlichen Letztbegründungsmodellen. Beispiele für einen solchen Vergleich sind das Unternehmen der Menschenrechtsstandards im Völkerrecht und die durch eine ökumenische Konsultation aufgestellten Menschenrechtskataloge. Das theologische Interpretationsmodell von Trutz Rentorff ist ein Beispiel für den pragmatische Ansatz. Gegenüber dem Versuch, die Menschenrechte rein theologisch-dogmatisch herzuleiten, wendet Rendtorff ein. Ihm scheint die Frage interessanter, ob die Menschenrechte mit einer christlichen Auffassung von Welt und Gesellschaft struktuell übereinstimmen. Dabei betont er Primat der Praxis und Absage an jede Form des Dogmatismus und bemüht er sich, aus den unterschiedlichen und historisch bedingten Begründungsmodellen der Menschenrechte heraus eine gemeinsame ethische Struktur zu suchen.
  • 8.

    웹2.0의 시민사회와 소통하기 위한 교회의 윤리적 과제

    Moon, Si Young | 2009, (18) | pp.199~227 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to propose church’s ethical tasks for communication with civil society of ‘Web2.0’. But, this paper does not belong to web-technology but a paper of Christian social ethics. Especially, there are some requests from civil or liberal society for church’s change and participation to civil movement in Korea. Some people rebuke church as a conservative and morally-corrupted group, others blame church as a non-communicative group with civil values of Web2.0 which pursuing bi-directional communications. In this context, the paper studies reasons of civil blames for church as moral problems and proposes some ethical tasks of church’s communicative possibility in Web2.0 era. The focuses are as follows; (1) Enhancement of church’s publicness in civil society. This is from view of ‘Public Theology’, especially Max L. Stackhouse. Faith is not of privatization but of public concerns. Church must concern with global and civil issues because God rule whole society including church and civil society. (2) Recovering of gospel identity which connected with Stanley Hauerwas’ view of ‘Ecclasial Ethics’. By letting church be the church through doing accord to Jesus narrative, Christians must become an excellent alternatives to the world which infected violence and war. These two tasks are moral conditions which requested for communication with civil value or liberal society. On these bases, (3) Christian communication with civil society of Web2.0. Church have to try again and again to apologize with enthusiasm for gospel truth to civil society. For this purpose, there would be effective ways as like ‘office of public relations’, ‘media study’, and ‘opinion leadership’, etc. In conclusion, church in civil society of Web2.0 must pursue to be a good and servant leader in morality.
  • 9.

    지구화 시대와 기독 지식인의 나아갈 길

    Jongkyunn Park | 2009, (18) | pp.229~257 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Nowadays the post-centric trends require our attention in two points of view. In the one hand, there is no absolute center considering absolute self. There is no unique true world, but many different worlds that are formed in the context of life timely and spacely, and so it is required an open conversation among worlds of knowledge. In the other hand, there is a reflective point on the cultural power of human to transform our world. If the way of various centristic thoughts such as self-centrism, ethnocentrism, human-centrism, and logocentrism make our human and nature into a status of crisis, it deserves to be desperately claimed that those centristic attitudes should be criticized and other alternative attitudes be searched. The purpose of this research is that the major task of Christian organic intellectuals is to adopt the universal useful values among our traditional thoughts and tried to suggest and practise them. Though this process, we may find an alternative how to build up the subjectivity of thought under the situation that we hardly meet creative intellectuals suggesting our way in spite of prevailing post-discourses of western style. This paper is to emphasize that the intellectuals have to free from the colonialized circumstances of thought and look straight at our historical and down-to-earth issues, and elucidate them by ourselves. First of all, this researcher asserts that our intellectuals should make efforts to come up against our historical and realistic situations liberated from the colonialized status which the knowledge and life do not get along well, and expound our problems for ourselves. Secondly, after this researcher insist that we should be instructed by our language so as to arrange content of our lives in order, from this standpoint I investigate the structure of our language and the view of world streaming under that structure. Thirdly, this researcher have confidence that the grammar of our lives is ‘making a living’, and so intent to suggest that we intellectuals should regard ‘making a living’(emptying, serving, sharing), as an alternative value which we have to practise in the era of globalism. In this place, especially, I recommend Daseok(多夕) Ryu, young-mo for our authentic christian intellectual.
  • 10.

    구약의 사회적 약자와 법전의 사회윤리

    Sa-Ya Lee | 2009, (18) | pp.259~288 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The Old Testament seldom uses ethical terminologies like ethics, virtue, moral excellence, ideal, etc. But it definitely presents the way which Israelites justly had to walk as the people of God and the touchstone of good and evil. The ancient Israelite community had the laws and law codes which sustained their society and especially the Old Testament law codes are filled with social ethical thought which reflects the sitz im leben and the current sense of the times of ancient Israelites. The social ethics in the Old Testament law codes emphasizes the dignity of man and simultaneously requires Israelites to excute for and love the social weak as the people of God who loves and executes justice for them. So in the Old Testament, matters of social ethics become theological issues. Furthermore, the Old testament social ethics which have been developed as the shape of law codes in the light of politics, society, liturgy and economics of the peculiar ancient Israelite community is more concerned about the social weak namely sojourners, widows, orphans and Levites than any other ancient Near East law codes. In this paper, I’m going to investigate the personal and communal social ethics in the Old Testament law codes such as Covenant Code, Holiness Code, Deuteronomic Code and find the differences with other Near East codes and then ascertain historical and theological meaning of social ethics which uniquely the Old Testament law codes preserve.
  • 11.

    기독교 언약(言約)과 유교 향약(鄕約) 비교 가능성에 관한 고찰

    Sang Hoon Lee | 2009, (18) | pp.289~316 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the Christian concept of covenant and examine the plausibility of its Confucian development to compare these two otherwise incommensurable concepts and find their differences and similarities. Some suggest that this Christian concept is also relevant to non-Christians and their cultures and societies. No clear reason may be proposed for denying the possible presence of its rough counterpart within other religious-cultural backgrounds, Confucian culture and society, in our case. Thus this paper brings in such Reformed thinkers as Paul Lehmann and Johannes Althusius to present the Reformed view of covenant and takes up the Confucian community compact to explore the Confucian version of covenant. It is revealed in this paper that some aspects of the community compact inherently have a similarity with “covenant,” traditionally recognized as a Christian ethical theme. However, the decline of the community compact came with an increase in state intervention and its derivatives. Moreover, since the Confucian community compact is locally initiated, regionally focused, and culturally specific, it is not certain whether its principle and value are globally valid and acceptable beyond a single locality or across cultural and communal boundaries. In contrast, since the Christian notion of covenant promotes diversity and reciprocal responsibility within the framework of a larger federal relationship, it can help to globalize the principles and values of the Confucian community compact, which can then remain viable beyond locality or even across cultural and communal boundaries. The implication is that key elements of the Confucian community compact, stripped of its imperial and patriarchal distortions, can contribute to enriching the moral and ethical life of Korean-Confucian society in the global era. In this connection, arguably common grace that implants a law of nature for all humanity suggests that cultural heritages other than the Judeo-Christian tradition carry within themselves some principles and values essential to such concepts traditionally deemed Judeo-Christian as covenant and vocation.
  • 12.

    한국기독교 초기 윤리학교과서 문헌해제 및 한국적 수용과정 연구

    Janghyung Lee | 2009, (18) | pp.317~351 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    I researched into Christian Ethics written by D.S. Gregory and Korean translation by W.L. Swallen(1859-1954). Out of the analysis on the contents and sub titles of the book, I discovered that the missionaries at the Korean United Theological Seminary in Pyeong-yang used well organized curriculum and textbooks for the education of Christian ethics. We can also see the following characteristics in their education. First, in Korean translation, words related with society were either abbreviated or changed. Under the Japanese annexation situation, it seems that missionaries had to emphasize individual virtues in class rather than social ethic even though the book itself had social ethics in its contents. Second, the book Christian Ethics also had well balanced philosophical and theological contents. According to the notebook of students who took the ethics class at the time, we can see that there were lively arguments on the terms like ‘definitions of ethics’, ‘Supreme Good’, etc. Third, for the further development of the education of Christian ethics in Korea we need to do deeper researches on the sources of early Korean theological education.
  • 13.

    사형에 대한 메타 윤리적 연구

    Soon-Won Hong | 2009, (18) | pp.353~378 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The criminal law relies upon the causality of crime and punishment. It would rather consider an act than an actor, since the act makes the very condition for the punishment. But in the perspective of christian ethics a punishment is not concerned with a criminal act but with its subject. Christian ethics, just like Jesus’ commendment, has much to do with the motive, rather than the act. It inclines to the personal being as a unity of being and act. On the contrary the criminal law is so absorbed in the act itself, that it has defectiveness in decision. The law is established by nature both for human being and for his restoration. Thus the order of law comes to absolutize itself, if it passes over the purpose. When the criminal law neglects the personal integrity as a constituent of the law-community, there would be always the possibility of dissonance between crime and punishment. The human being transcends the order of law. Accordingly the law-community should respect such a transcendent factor. Christian ethics has at once to distinguish the ethics from the law and to search for the mutual relation. The objection to the capital punishment, which christian ethics brings forward, does not fall into the absurdity of law. It can preferably recover the original meaning and function of law, since the capital punishment is opposed to the original function of law. Christian ethics constructs a metaethical dimension, which stands above the retention and abolishment of capital punishment. It provides, as it were, through capital punishment the basic understanding of reality, which builds the law-community.
  • 14.

    Acculturation among Korean Immigrants in the United States: A Study on the role of church considering ethnic community and hospitality

    Jieha Lee | 2009, (18) | pp.379~405 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The immigration experiences include the immediate and long-term impact of Korean Immigrants in the United States. Acculturation refers to the process by which foreign-born individuals and their families learn and adopt language, values, beliefs, and the behaviors of the new socio-cultural environment. This study introduced three models of acculturation process: unidimensional, bidimensional, and multidimensional to address the acculturation experience of Korean immigrants. This study illustrates, when Korean Immigrants faced challenges inherent in acculturation process, Korean churches have played crucial roles based on two interdisciplinary concepts, hospitality and ethnic community. First, Korean immigrant churches, based on social perspectives, have established their ethnic community where they could find their social, cultural, and material needs and affirm ethnic affiliations and identities. Second, this study showed the feature that the reciprocal hospitality opened the opportunity for korean immigrants to outreach from ethnic community to mainstream society. This study highlighted both social and ethical role of ethnic church in the acculturation process among Korean immigrants.
  • 15.

    A Study of the ethics of Reinhold Niebuhr focusing on his thought of individuality

    Seong, ShinHyung | 2009, (18) | pp.407~434 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Reinhold Niebuhr is generally renowned as the establisher or the exponent of social ethics throughout the world. This research is, on the contrary, arguing how he develops his concepts of individualization in terms of ethics as it is focusing on the anthropological thoughts of Niebuhr. Niebuhr completely analyzes the understanding of human beings that human beings individualize themselves as creaturely beings who contain the image of God based upon the neo-Augustinian theology. Thus, Niebuhr develops his ethical thoughts concentrating on the concept of “individualization.” The process of individualization begins from the understanding of human finiteness and freedom which are one of the main ideas of human nature. This individualizing process is the basis of the ethics of agape (divine love) that is the foundation of Niebuhr’s ethics for society. Humanity’s acknowledgement of society and love is the fundamental way of individualization, especially since both loves of self-giving and forgiving are the main origination of individualization of the self which formulates morality not only human relations but also the individuals relation to God. Only this love makes people meet others and have a relationship in community. Sometimes, the community supports individuals to fulfill their individuality; however, it frequently frustrates their desire to attain individuality because the individual’s morality conflicts with the communal order or morality. This situation is the place of Christian realism in Niebuhr. Love, equality, and justice are the main basis of Christian realism, that is, Christian realism tells us the harmony of equality and justice based on love as the possibility of Christian ethics. In short, this research paper delves into how individualization unfolds one of the main thoughts of the ethics of Reinhold Niebuhr.