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2014, Vol., No.29

  • 1.

    Augustine, Christian Realist? or Christian Communitarianist?

    Moon, Si Young | 2014, (29) | pp.07~37 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    There are so many possibilities of interpretation on Augustine’s social ethics. For example, Reinhold Niebuhr regards Augustine as the first source of Christian Realism. Instead of Niebuhrian view, Stanley Hauerwas regards Augustine as the Christian Communitarianist. More interestingly, Max L. Stackhouse considers himself as the heir of Niebuhr. He emphasizes the public faith through accepting Niebuhrian view of Augustine. The Christian ethics of Niebuhr and Stackhouse maybe belong to libertarianism. On the other hand, Hauerwas thinks Augustine’s ethics as the model of Christian Communitarianism. Hauerwas says that the most important task of Christian ethics is to enhance of gospel identity of church, in short, ‘being church’. In other words, Stackhouse and Hauerwas are different from their perspectives for Augustine’s social ethics. But this paper’s focus is not the differences but the possibilities of mutual supplementation between Niebuhr-Stackhouse and Hauerwas. The most important element of this interpretation on Augustine’s ethics is the relations between civitas terrena and civitas Dei. Niebuhr and Stackhouse consider that the task of church as civitas Dei is to realize the values of it in civitas terrena. But, Hauerwas emphasizes the gospel identity of church as civitas Dei in itself. This paper’s proposal is not seeking the third way between Niebuhr-Stackhouse and Hauerwas. Choosing either Niebuhr-Stackhouse or Hauerwas is not the purpose of this study. The critical and main focus is seeking the possibility of dialogue or the necessity of taking both view of Niebuhr-Stackhouse and ethics of Hauerwas for church’s moral reformation in Korea.
  • 2.

    Love developed in Augustine`s Sermones 359

    Young Sik Moon | 2014, (29) | pp.39~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the Christianity rhetoric is contributing to the truth of the Christianity. Urging to the people that teaching the good and evil and turning back against the truth, conversing to the truth, the duty of the christian preacher is to make a known present and future thing. In preaching, because the preacher delivers the truth of the scripture to the audience or holy people, the problem of the persuasion has still the importance meaning. Through the preaching, the persuasion is needed for the truth delivers to the audience. In preaching, the persuation means the process that audience or holy people agrees to the truth and moves the heart and practises the truth. Augustine mention rhetoric of love in Sermones 359. Augustine and Donatist debate with rebaptism. in the period, Catholic church and Donatist has been placed conflicts situation. Augustine unfolds rhetoric of love for persuading Donatist. The themes of this paper is rhetoric of St. Augustine’s love developed in Sermones 359.
  • 3.

    “the emotivist self” and Calvin’s moral self

    Jongkyunn Park | 2014, (29) | pp.73~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Modern society is characterized by the concept of “incommensurability" on human good. so it is studded with conflicts and oppositions, disruptions and struggles, resulting from our permitting fundamentally different pursuit of goods but not capable of getting through shared understandings of comparing and assessing them. To emphasize the autonomy of individuals is a peculiar feature of modernity which was never experienced in pre-modern society. The character of modernity is summarized as the moral chaos and ethical uncertainty by privileging individual rights and weakening solidarity of community. And such a moral crisis of modernity comes out what MacIntyre says 'emotivism' simply to express attitudes or preferences of individuals. In MacIntyre's view, emotivist cultures in modern era flows from theirs obliteration of the distinction between manipulative and non-manipulative personal relations and ultimately reduce all personal relations to manipulative relations, by regarding all moral discussions as mere attempts by one party to alter the preferences and feelings of other parties so that they are compelled to accord with his/her own moral position. Yet prevailing emotivist cultures today is due to failures of modern Enlightenment's project which have tried rationally to justify morality. The aim of this paper is to look into particularly MacIntyre's views on the emotivist self, through which I try not only to understand the meaning of the emotivist self, but to examine the justification of MacIntyre's views on that concept. In his account of the development of the modern concept of selfhood, MacIntyre argues that the Reformation-thinkers played some important roles in paving the way for modern morality, especially modern selfhood, that is "the emotivist self". This researcher, however, challenges MacIntyre's arguments that Reformation is closely related to the formation of modern selfhood so that his cognitive interest of handling Reformers' theory is critically examined. And it is argued that the Reformational view point may offer a new alternative to the medievalist perspective, which MacIntyre endorses, and to the concept on the modern individual(emotivist) self which he criticizes. Calvin's instruction that the human self stands inescapably before God and we must assess all other role-options and values from that standpoint, is recommended as deserving more attentions in post-modern society.
  • 4.

    Theological and Ethical Critiques on the Scientism

    Won-Don Kang | 2014, (29) | pp.107~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the academic society, in which dialogues between science and theology and, further, a certain form of convergence and integration of the two are hot issues, problems of the scientism don’t be treated carefully. On the one hand the scientism shows the temerity to explain everything in the world according to the scientific logics, on the other it reveals its blindness in the efforts to solve all the problems of the world scientifically. If the science is tied to such a scientism, it sets up itself as an integral science, goes beyond the territory adequately given to it, invades and at last colonizes the world of meaning and the transcendental. In order to overcome such problems of the scientism from theological and ethical viewpoints, I distinguish the language of theology from that of the science in the first step. Second, I criticize the scientism from scientific-philosophical perspectives. Third and at last, based on a theological reflection on the liberation praxis of God in the world, I suggest how to regulate science and technique in the modern society, in which a scientification of techniques and a technicalization of sciences are highly realized.
  • 5.

    A Theological and Ethical Study on the Public Nature of the Church: Exploring Normative Understanding of Classical Doctrines of the Two Governments and its Development in Major Paradigms of Modern Theology

    Lee, Chang-Ho | 2014, (29) | pp.141~189 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to explore the public nature of the Christian church normatively. In other words, I intend to explicate theologically and ethically normative features that shape the public nature of the church essentially. In particular, my inquiry centers around the doctrine of the two governments. The doctrine supposes a vis-à-vis of church and state(or the spiritual government and the civil government), as distinct structures belonging to distinct societies. It implies that there is a differentiation of the inner life’s true piety and worship from social behavior and civic virtue. Given that there exists a distinction between the two governments, complex relations have been traced in history. What is the relationship between the ‘religious-spiritual’ government and the ‘civil-moral’ government? Is the relationship between the two necessarily conflicting or antagonistic? If not, is there any room for the spiritual government’s transforming the secular government? What justifies theologically the identity of the church as a public entity? With these questions in mind, first of all, I explore normative elements of the church’s public nature in analyzing the doctrines of the two governments shaped by such classic theologians as Augustine, Aquinas, Luther and Calvin. Secondly, in investigating major modern theological paradigms’ understanding of the church’s public nature in terms of the doctrine of the two governments, I will explicate their continuity with classic Christian social ethics and explore the way in which they can contribute to enriching the normative understanding of the church’s public nature. Lastly, I conclude with several ethical suggestions which are conducive to strengthening the church’s public nature.
  • 6.

    A Reformed Theological Proposal for the Recovery of Economy of Care

    김호연 | 2014, (29) | pp.193~222 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Modernity has overestimated subjectivity and rationality of human beings. By doing so, it has forgotten God in its memories and lost its faith in God. It entails the loss of the sense of integrity and responsibility before God, which has been an important Christian ethical value for the divine economy, the economy of care in another word. The modern political economy has concentrated on this visible and material world so that it has neglected the qualitative value of life. These are the deserved consequences of modernity resulting in the contemporary political economic problems. How have these consequences been developed? What are their main problems in the Christian ethical sense? What serves the Christian theology have to act for the recovery of economy of care as the good economy in God's created order? In this essay, I will briefly trace the course of modernity's losing the Christian ethical values with its metastasis to modern political economy. And so, I will consummate the five implications for the recovery of economy derived from the recent ethical, sociological, and theological discussions. Lastly, I will present a Reformed theological proposal for the recovery of an economy as an outcome of these researches. I hope that this study will contribute to the recovery of a current economy by rehabilitating the lost values of modernity, which have been passed on through the Christian faith. They are the faith in God, the sense of integrity and responsibility before God, and the qualitative value of life. We will retrieve the current economy with these values, which lead to the ethics of integrity and responsibility of life before the presence of God and the recognition of the eschatological dimension of economic life with the divine capitals that the church will develop and interpret for the socioeconomic recovery in our age.
  • 7.

    A Study of Social Ethical Evaluation and Its Future Tasks on the Social Movement of Donghak and Chondogyo: with a focus on searching for the ideology of social transformation and integration

    Taewook Nam | 2014, (29) | pp.223~256 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    I assert that our society requests a social ideology which can resolve so many social conflicts and fulfill social transformation and integration. The purpose of this study prove adequacy of ideology which was found in Donghak·Chondogyo’s social movements. And after that I can be recognize its possibilities and limitations, also I can be find out its future tasks of as an ideology for social change and configuration. Because Donghak·Chondogyo’s social movements were given much weight absolutely in our modern time. So we can’t deny the fact that the Donghak revolution and samil independence movement, new cultural movement etc. were contributed to modernize our society totally. I insist on that Donghak·Chondogyo’s religious objectives that is, podeokcheonha(布德天下), boguganmin(輔國安民), gwangjechangsaeng(廣濟蒼生) etc. can be an alternative plan that change and unify wholly human being and society, nature and nation, culture and civilization. At the same time it can be a universal ideology that have to seek for social justice. In this research I will prove that Donghak·Chondogyo’s ideology for social change and integration is an universal ideology for just life of human beings. For proving it, first, I will try to generalize Donghak·Chondogyo’s social movement historically. Second, I will evaluate it by the viewpoint of social ethics. Third, I will examine and limit its concept. Fourth, I will suggest the future tasks of Donghak·Chondogyo’s social ideology.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Relationships between the Spirituality of Religion and the Practice of Law: Focusing on the Mysticism of Christianity and the Praxis of Justice

    WooYoung Park | 2014, (29) | pp.257~286 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Mysticism as a spirituality in the realm of religion has motivated moral agents into raising critical questions against traditional theological understandings of relationships among God, selves, and others in the world and further into saying ‘No’ against distorted social relationships through a direct experience of the union with God. Those who experience the true beauty of relationship based on the union cannot help but try to criticize dominant oppressive relationships and to build up new alternative ways of life in their social relationships, which can be interpreted as a resistance. This could be related closely to the praxis of justice as the purpose of law represented by God which Jacques Ellul considers conditions of the covenant with God. In the covenant, people as Mystiker, that is, people as moral agents who practice justice as a practical application of law are invited to creatively make new moral relationships which supports the abundance of life. The conjunction between mysticism in Christianity and the praxis of justice in the realm of law can be a responsible creating task for re-making alternative moral relationships.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Roll of Church in Resolving the economic Polarization of the korean Society

    안계정 | 2014, (29) | pp.287~320 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Nobody could deny that the economical polarization is the most urgent issue in our society. It was the pending issue in the past 18th presidential election and is also one of the crucial government goals of Park administration. The polarization problem is important task and challenge for the korean church, because it has obviously social responsibility. At the same time participation and roll of church for resolving the polarization is also crucial to the society itself. As the polarization is the problem of total society, the voluntary and active participation of each social sectors is indispensible. In general the polarization appears as collapse of middle class, gap of industrial continuity and increase of social vulnerable class. Especially the statistics coming from "Gini coefficient" and "income-magnification" manifests the polarization more objectively and factually. These can be considered as fundamental causes of the polarization: policies of Neoliberalism and globalization. From policies of the Neoliberlaism the flexibility of labor market is a such policy that affects directly the polarization, which comes into appearance where the dismissal of laborer is legally ensured and irregular workers are increased. As a result the middle class is decreased, the polarization is more and more accelerated. The globalization is the process in which the Neoloberalism has been spreaded world widely. The FTA that demands in core the liberalization of import and banking brings about fatal damages to some domestic businesses, and they consequently would come to be taken off from the market. First, the value of humanity indicates the most important direction in efforts resolving the polarization. The survival of the fittest and the law of the jungle is the rule of animal world; they can not be the law of human world. The man who was created from the image of God is the being that has reason and will different from the animal. He is able to open the way to co-existence and equality not to auto-destruction and co-destruction. The society is not the world of animals but the world of human beings. Second, the polarization problem has to be resolved on the basis of commonality-value. Where the Neoliberalism is spreaded, there emerge monopolistic markets, non free markets. So the truly free market is possible only there where the commonality-value is dominating; it is realized in regulations for life and co-existence. The market was for the commonality from its birth, and it will be so continually. From that reason the legal protect of byway commercial sphere becomes important. Third, the polarization should be approached from the view of solidarity, not of charity. The christian ethics grasps the solidarity as contract one. It is very well-known fact that the social insurance of German as the first social insurance in the world is dependent of the christian idea and value of solidarity. And it demands, first of all, expansion and reinforcement of unemployment insurance.
  • 10.

    Ethics, Happiness and The four Phases of Life —Christian Ethical Understanding Life and Death

    Ji Seok O | 2014, (29) | pp.321~343 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The Ethics of Happiness and the four phases of life makes us have the paradigm shift which we could get the essence of christian bioethics. Futhermore if I could find out the proper questions, and I could increase the desire to search for it's answers, then I would hope sooner or later to arrive at the goal, even whatever it is. Such attitudes also will be applied directly to the understanding of the Ethics of Happiness and the four phases of life without any consideration on the meaning of life in christian bioethics. Through these discussions and investigations, I would try to propose the model of lecture that opens and improves the possibility to understand and examine the meaning of happiness and bioethics for the students themselves who attend the liberal arts.
  • 11.

    Christian New Woman and the Ethics of Marriage in Modern Korea: Focusing on Park In-Duk

    이숙진 | 2014, (29) | pp.345~375 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Protestantism introduced various ethical codes of marriage to modern Korea. While protestantism set the patriarchal ethics of marriage against traditional or secular ethics by the rhetoric of discontinuity and the strategy of control, protestant New Women tried to resist and transform them. By lens of marriage, this article aims at exploring the life of protestant New Women, who shattered the gender hierarchy by challenging the patriarchal ethics. The author made a focus on reconstructing the life of Park In-duk, a protestant New Woman, who was conflicted with the protestant patriarchal ethics of marriage, but lived a life different from New Women pursuing love for love's sake. She revealed the structure of gender unequality and shook the gendered landscape by way of choosing the divorce by herself. Park In-duk could resist the patriarchal culture by realizing the fact that she was created in the image of God through a conversion experience, and by realizing that she is a independent woman through modern education. Protestantism played the major role of establishing the patriarchal ethics of marriage in modern Korea by identifying those ethics with God's order. Redescribing the life of Park In-duk, therefore, could be a critical activity to overcome the gender unequality and a channel to reinforce the ethic of human dignity based on the concept of Imago Dei.
  • 12.

    High Young Adult Unemployment and a Christian Vocational Ethics Education

    Sang Hoon Lee | 2014, (29) | pp.377~413 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The starting point for this paper lies at the intersection of two different socioeconomic issues, i.e., high young adult unemployment and effective vocational ethics education. To this end, this paper makes an attempt to reinterpret the traditional Christian concept of vocation. This attempt can be successfully made to pursue proper understanding and view of work as a basis of vocational ethics. Then we try to critically examine biases against and cultural stereotypes about certain jobs that are often found in young adult job seekers. This paper also describes the reality of unrealistic job search and unsystematic career plans of young adults(and college students), which are characteristic of excessive pursuit of job stability and high-paying job. Further this study sheds light on internal and external factors associated with many young adults' excessive pursuit of job stability and high-paying job that stems from narrow view of work and low work ethics. This paper continues to describe socioeconomic situations facing Korean young adults that are seen to be conducive to causing high unemployment. Here we present a series of emergent phenomena or traits related with work capacity, such as emphasis of work ethics or vocation over resume-building efforts, economic growth without employment and change in job market, CSR and ethical management, population aging and work-life balance, etc. By introducing these emergent phenomena or traits, this paper tries to come up with various aspects of work capacity required for viable jobs and sustainable works in the midst of global economic volatility. This effort can help us understand what curriculum for vocational ethics education should consist of in order to alleviate young adult unemployment. The argument shows that sustainable work capacity in its various forms can be regarded to have an affinity with and point toward a traditional Christian concept of vocation. In other words, a traditional Christian concept of vocation should be reinterpreted for the purpose of it's contemporary application in attempting to deal with young adult employment issue.
  • 13.

    Christian ethical understanding of A straight road to Christian truth in Japanese colonial period

    Janghyung Lee | 2014, (29) | pp.415~441 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    How would Japanese occupation and the principal ethical teachings of Christians have been developed? This paper will focus on this problem. There are two different approaches with respect to this subject, but a lot of this paper will adopt 'historical method, which is so far unknown and sheds light on Christian ethics literature. Published in 1935, A straight road to Christian truth is not a traditional doctrine summary or Bible verse to repeat the level of teaching, but doctrinal content, scriptural content, personal ethical areas and social ethical area that encompasses a wide range of topics Features to be dealt with. Especially when Christianity and the Church were threatened to suffer recession in many respects, A straight road to Christian truth did not lean to either personal ethics or social ethics, but through an integrated view suggest a solution to the troubled era. In other words, when the text of the Christian doctrine of the Bible was in a crisis situation and could not offer a solution to the national problem, we should pay attention to the way it tried to introduce a moral responsibility. A straight road to Christian truth is deemed to have a significance in the sense that it attempted to overcome the situation where the text and the context could not be shared.