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2015, Vol., No.32

  • 1.

    From Nachfolge to Ethik: a thesis on Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s view of ethics, how it develops

    AN IL KANG | 2015, (32) | pp.7~54 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an analysis on Bonhoeffer’s view of ethics: especially on how his ethical perspective has developed. The research has been done on two of his outstanding works of ethics, Nachfolge and Ethik, both of which reveal Bonhoeffer’s understanding more prominently than any other works of his. For the research and for better understanding of his ethical view, the two books need to be read meticulously. Before delving into the main texts, this study briefly shows how theologians have discussed Bonhoeffer’s view and its developmental characteristic. Then the historical background is provided on how these two books came to the world. Nine ethical subjects from each book are dealt via the means of comparison. What becomes clear through this analysis is “continuity” in Bonhoeffer’s ethical view and its developmental characteristic, which are permeated in both Nachfolge and Ethik. While the study compares the historical backgrounds and the points at issue, it also brings into focus Bonhoeffer’s concern for ethics and his understanding of its role. Bonhoeffer pays attention to the real world, more specifically, the current situation of the world he is living in. However, at the same time, in an attempt to integrate the world into the Word, he brings the world to “God of today” which is revealed in Jesus Christ. In other words, Bonhoeffer’s ethics begins neither with an objective observation nor from an abstract idea on the principles of the world. Rather, it begins with God in Jesus Christ who actively connects the world to himself through purposeful intervention. Such understanding plays an important role in Bonhoeffer’s life, especially when he had to practice ‘mit-leben zu lernen’ (a life of integration) during NAZI regime and the period of Konspiration. Finally, the influence of Bonhoeffer’s ethical view on Korean church is discussed. It will help guide Korean church, still dampened by ethical crisis, to restoration.
  • 2.

    A Study on a Culture of Silence in Korea and a Process of Building up Moral Agents

    WooYoung Park | 2015, (32) | pp.55~84 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The article raises a question of how effectively a social space where different memories of social sufferings and new possible directions toward a more humane society can be shared now works in Korea. The lack of this social space in Korea could be related to: 1) an absence of trustable groups, 2) a censorship of governmental power, and 3) an oppression of diversity through a negative solidarity with corrupt people. A culture of silence in Korea gets much more strengthened by 1) a closed world-view through a connection between fundamentalism and nationalism as an ideology, 2) a way in which ideologies leads people in very distorted deep implications, and 3) schools and churches in Korea as a closed educational system that internalizes closed world-views and ideologies in society. A culture that forces a silence in the life of society is considered a social violence which leads into uniform orders and controls. To overcome this critical problem, a new understanding of moral agents is needed in the society. According to Judith Butler, a new subject as a moral agent needs to accept the fact that it is impossible to fully control and dominate others. The new moral agents will experience their passivity and go through losing their 'pseudo' subjectivity. Based on these experiences, they can escape from a temptation that they can fully explain and control their own lives. The new subjects as moral agents who acknowledge 'the failure of modern subjects' can talk about making new directions toward a more humane society and sharing new values in their lives. The moral agents have a possibility of making a chasm in a culture of silence in Korea by listening carefully to others and making totally new relationships.
  • 3.

    Porosity of Being, the Boundary of Ethical Persons: Regarding Bonhoeffer’s and Ryu Yông-mo’s thoughts

    Baik Soyoung | 2015, (32) | pp.85~121 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article raises an academic question about the possibility of building responsible communities, which are composed of autonomous and communicating subjects. Through comparative reading of Bonhoeffer’s concept of “collective persons” and Ryu yông-mo’s “ôlna(spiritual self),” this study aims at suggesting an ontological foundation of a porous self, which leads humans to overcome nationalistic collectivism and individualistic subjectivism as well. Both Bonhoeffer and Ryu proclaim that humans possess ontological capability of communicating with God (“Allperson” in Bonhoeffer’s and “Ôlna” in Ryu’s use of the term) and also with neighbors. The social/communitarian dimension of human beings, according to them, enables humans not to extend selfish power over their neighbors(“ the mechanism of empires” in Ryu’s use of the term) and furthermore to nurture their will to become “persons for others.” The formation of communitarian- responsible self is possible only when the self encounters Christ, the transcending and holistic power of ground of all beings but at the same time entering the center of each individuals and communities, insist both Bonhoeffer and Ryu. Just as breathing requires inhaling and exhaling as well, the self needs continuous practice of receiving Christ into the center of the self and of dispensing God-given wisdom, spirit, and personality in the process of constructing concrete and historical communities which participate in the universality of God. This study pinpoints in conclusion that Bonhoeffer’s concept of “collective persons” and Ryu yông-mo’s “ôlna” provides the possibility of constructing volitional community composed of ‘porous’ selves, alternative to calculative gatherings of selfish selves in our contemporary Neo-liberal society.
  • 4.

    Ethics of Coexistence: Discover of Homosymbious

    Ji Seok O | 2015, (32) | pp.123~144 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research paper examines the concept of forgiveness in terms of philosophical and christian ethical discourses. This study also delves into the meaning of the forgiveness that is another possibility of political ethical theme. This paper argues the Homosymbious is an ideal model in this 21th century. In Korean political situation which various conflicts occurs everywhere, the way to teach about 'forgiveness and coexistence' is critical in that it can resolve these conflicts. In addition, this needs to be one of the main themes in Christian ethics.
  • 5.

    Social Calvinism and social Publicity of Korea Church

    김동춘 | 2015, (32) | pp.147~185 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines critically the theological character of Calvinism which is influential in Korean conservative Protestant theology as it concentrates on the publicity of Calvinism, and suggests an alternative theological aspect, called as social Calvinism. Although Calvinism was not only a legacy of the 'world-formative Christianity,' but also the product of the transformative Christianity that contributes to social progress, the development of politics, and economy in all sphere of life, Calvinism has been understood as an apologetic tool based on the five fundamental points such as total depravity, unconditional election, limited redemption, irresistable grace, perserence of saints in Korean Church. Therefore, in order to fulfill Korea church its public responsibility in society, this research paper delves into the heritage of cultural transformation of neo-Calvinism in the Netherlands Kuyperian tradition and the perspective of liberation theology that have been found in the Reformed Church and theology of South Africa, that is, newly rediscovered in today's church and social situation, and social Calvinism sought.
  • 6.

    A Political Theology of Oliver O'Donovan

    DONG HWAN KIM | 2015, (32) | pp.187~216 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to introduce and examine the political theology of Oliver O'Donovan who is a prominent England theologian. First of all, his political theology begins with his critique for a modern academic flow that intends to separate politics from theology. Against this flow, he proclaims that theology must be political, and strives to rediscover a modern political theology. His first rediscovery is the reflection on Augustinian political theology. By adopting a philosophical approach, he tries to overcome a so-called Niebuhrian realistic approach concentrating on tangible political issues in the world. Additionally, he seeks to overcome the gap between an Augustinian just war theory and pacifism by concentrating on the Bible itself. His second rediscovery is the reflection on authority. With the new keyword, authority, he seeks to deliberate and develop the current Augustinian dual approach to the world and the heaven. His third rediscovery is the reflection on resurrection. He proposes Christology rather than Jesuology by focusing not on Jesus' works in the world, but on Christ's salvific events in God's providence. Here, it is resurrection that is the climax of Christ-events showing the pictures of God's salvation. Resurrection is the vindication of God's salvation through Christ as well as that of God's creation. Indeed, it is the core of O'Donovan's political theology. Particularly, the emphasis on resurrection can maintain the balance between a cross-driven political theology of suffering and death and a resurrection-driven political theology of hope and life.
  • 7.

    A Study of Social Ethics in Seung-man Lee in terms of his Independence Movement and the Idea of Christian Nation Establishment

    myung bae Kim | 2015, (32) | pp.217~246 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research paper concentrates on the basic idea of national establishment and the social ethics thought of Lee, Seung-man. President Lee had habituated the system of Western democracy and republic as he involved in the Independence Club and the Pai Chai Hak Dang. He wanted to build Korea as ‘a role model for democracy in Asia,’ and ‘the parliamentary democratic republic’ which guarantees individual liberty and equality as best as it can. In addition, he advocated the theory of Christian nation as he accepted the idea of Christendom and American Christian democracy from the missionary of the U.S.A. after he converted to Christianity at Han-Sung prison. He wrote his thought of this in the journal, Shin Hak Wol Bo, and his book The Spirit of Independence. In particular, he tried to build Korea like ‘the Christian nation in Asia,’ as he pursued the value of democracy of the Western society as he pointed out that Korean Christian Leaders, especially, pastor groups, initiated the 3.1 Independence Movement in 1919. Finally, he developed his social ethical thought based on his idea of he individual liberty and equality, the Christian ethics in terms of the doctrine of salvation, and the reformative Christian ethics in history.
  • 8.

    Ethics of Community for the Law and Religion: A Study on the Religion related to Violence and Christian Pacifism

    Kyoung-Dong Yoo | 2015, (32) | pp.247~275 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    It is questionable whether religion is related to violence and the target or attacker are motivated by religious doctrines and texts. Religion is thought to be against violence and for peace and reconciliation. The 9/11 terrorist attacks and recent Charlie Hebdo attack in Paris, however, have captured world wide attention and religion is suspected of the accomplice to the violence. In this regard, Christian non-violence pacifism is not only incompatible with violence, but also important in the theological and ethical dialogue to alleviate the suffering of those who face political and economical crises. And we are also called to equip ourselves with high moral standard in the world of violence. In the discussion of the comparison between the characteristics of Christian non-violence and the current violent issues, the principles and doctrines advocated by Quaker, Mennonite, Howard Yoder, Stanley Hauerwas and Walter Wink are engaged to explore the meaning of peace and the role of Christian community. After reviewing all the factors of the above thoughts briefly, this paper comes to a conclusion that Christianity need to make diligent efforts to bridge the gap between the violent world and Christian pacifistic principles in the public realm. To achieve this goal, Christian communities are encouraged to promote the public talks and revise the standard of the modern life, and reestablish moral standard in accordance with Christian pacifistic spirit.
  • 9.

    The Land and Social Ethics in the Old Testament: Focusing on Sabbath Year and Jubilee

    Sa-Ya Lee | 2015, (32) | pp.277~305 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The land of Canaan is a gift from YHWH to Israelites in the Old Testament. It binds Israel in many ways to the giver YHWH, because they did not take the land either by their power but because YHWH had fulfilled the promise which had spoken to the fathers of Israel. The Old Testament and history of Israel has central memory that the land is given to them from God. At the same time, the land is a theological and social-ethical responsibility to them. The same land that is gift freely given from God is task sharply put in the Old Testament. Israel knows very early that the need to rework indentity in the land of gift can lead to a new identity that perverts Iaraelites as well as the land. The Old Testament commands Israelites to keep sabbath year to the Lord when they come into the land which he give them. They shall neither sow their field nor prune their vineyard. And they shall count seven sabbaths of years for theirselves, seven times seven years, because it shall be a Jubilee for them. Each of them shall return to their possession and to their family in addition to the command of sabbath year. The command to keep the sabbath year and jubilee shows social ethical thought well. The social ethics in the Old Testament emphasizes the dignity of man and simultaneously requires Israelites to excute for and love the social weak as the people of God who loves and executes justice for them. So in the Old Testament, matters of social ethics become theological issues. In this paper, I’m going to investigate the features of sabbath year and jubilee in order to prove that the ancient Israelites had the differences with other Near East community and then ascertain the messages of the prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah and Micah who told the words of God concerning the social violences and the historical and theological meaning of social ethics which uniquely the Old Testament social ethics preserve.
  • 10.

    A Christian Ethical Understanding of Social Happiness in an Era of Super-Aged Society

    Lee Sang Hoon | 2015, (32) | pp.307~339 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper seeks to approach the challenges of the super-aged society from the perspective of happiness for sustainability of era of Homo hundred and also attempts to find solutions to its related problems in enhancing happiness index by securing social happiness. For this purpose this study puts emphasis on the need of securing social elements or aspects of human life and happiness. Above all super-aged society highlights the importance of, and brings attention to, social elements due to decline or absence of human relationship and community life and (greatly) reduced social activities and public roles. It means there is a significant limit in recognition of super-aged society issue and the effort to find its solutions and an understanding of happiness, all of which solely depend on objective aspects of happiness such as income and health. In contrast, social aspects of human life exemplified in community participation, relationship, and activities are much needed in super-aged society and also instrumental in promoting both individual and social happiness. In this sense, we can find a way to deal with demographic crisis stemmed from super-aged society when social aspects of happiness are widely recognized and pursued. In order to find its theoretical foundation, this study selectively tries to explore the concepts of caritas(love of God) and covenant from a Christian ethical perspective. The discussion of caritas and covenant comes to remind a new understanding of life cycle and as a result offers persuasive principles and contents for the so-called “the third age” and/or “the second life” that will be dedicated to securing social aspects of happiness.