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2016, Vol., No.35

  • 1.

    The Life of Martin Luther in the Light of Drama-Aesthetics: Focused on the Images of Fear and Mercy in the Movie, <Luther>

    Park Hyungchul | 2016, (35) | pp.7~37 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the movie, <Luther> as dramatic text with drama- aesthetics. Drama-aesthetics enables us to understand the world and human beings with the whole-sensory-acceptance in the represented images, and this enables us to understand the life of Martin Luther and his theories using convergence thinking with many other hermeneutics(historical, theological, psychological) in the images. This paper especially examines the images of Luther and his contemporaries with two images of fear and mercy and investigates how Luther had overcome non-essences like fear with drama-aesthetics in <Luther>. In the view of drama-aesthetics, Luther was the human-actor who was an imitator of Jesus as the main character in the direction of God, who is the author and director in Theo-Drama. And he was good at playing the given role in the public sphere in anthropological and ethical perspective during the Protestant Reformation when the political, religious and socio-existential contexts are intertwined and interconnected. By investigating Luther’s life and theological issues in the movie, this article newly suggests the possibilities of flexible approaches and critics about history and characters in the historical document. And by using images and imagination in dramatic text, this study could expand the horizon of the theological discourses and suggest positive aspects of aesthetical-ethical life and faith to the Christians today.
  • 2.

    A Study on Virtue Ethics of Martin Luther: Concentrating on his Thought of Justification

    Lee Keun Sik | 2016, (35) | pp.39~66 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    It has been thought that there is simply no connection between Aristotle’s thought that virtue and a general character of human being is deeply embedded in soul and Luther’s thought that human being cannot have any ability of good work spontaneously at the front of God. It is crucial point in the virtue ethics that viewpoint as a real nature of virtue to act the good work is instilled by external or is inherent. Despite this stark difference, the conflict with Luther and Aristotle in virtue ethics may discover the equilibrium point by Stanley Hauerwas’s theological virtue ethics. Luther used the concept that covenant causal relationship and minimum condition is to be demanded in Justification. Luther had basic discernment that appropriate disposition to obtain Justification is humility. Luther made a strong claim that Justification is direct and characteristic encounter with Holy Spirit and human being and it was presented by God. But his thought about God’s word, relationships of belief and individual character of belief had been occupied an important part in his ethical thought. Even if Luther denied human intrinsic disposition and virtue to explain motive power of Justification was endowed by God, we cannot overlook durability of act and consistency of performer. Stanley Hauerwas who have theological perspective and is representative scholar in virtue and character ethics insists that self should have consistency and durability to explain character. As a result of, the conviction and action of Christians in Luther’ s thought should be identified with christian’s identity and it was represented by lasting continuity of action. A method of explanation about consistency and durability in his thought is suitable in ethics of virtue and character.
  • 3.

    A study on a paradoxical and contradictional exculpation of apoliticalization of religion/theology found in Luther’s theology

    이동춘 | 2016, (35) | pp.67~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research examines how a church and a pastor should treat politic in a way of inheriting reformed confession, because the separation of church and state can be asserted or rejected according to an ideology, a stance, and a preference. To clarify this, this study delves into the stance of Luther who was a starting point of protestant and a strong advocate of reformation. To begin with, the research doubts on his thought that a church, a pastor, and a theology must be irrelevant to a politic, because there are paradoxes and contradictions in his writings such as: ‘Secular authority: To what extent it should be obeyed’, ‘An open letter to the Christian nobility’, ‘The Babylonian captivity of the church’, and ‘Whether soldiers, too, can be saved’. After studying these writings, this study answers to the question of “Can the theology of Luther be apolitical?” and “Can our ‘being theology’ and ‘doing theology’ be apolitical?” by examining the reality of the Korean church. This research criticizes on the opinion that Luther had declared the apoliticalization of theology and faith, but it argues that a church and the theology must do and speak about the politics.
  • 4.

    Financial Problems of Korean church and it’s Solution: focusing on Weber’s Thoughts

    myung bae Kim | 2016, (35) | pp.99~128 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The excessive growth centeredness of Korean church has pushed many young pastors to plant new churches and it has caused the serious financial and numerical polarization of church since the 1990s. This trend of church planting has made pastors start new churches without any appropriate measures for survival. Almost of them have failed to manage their churches financially independent, so, they have closed the churches inevitably. The social distrust of Korean church has expended seriously due to the result of this phenomenon. More seriously, the majority of Korean churches and church leaders are still focusing on the church growth and clericalism as they are ignoring the voices for the reformation of the church. Therefore, this article seeks to find a way to overcome this financial issue of Korean Church through the thoughts of Weber. First, this research looks around the current financial issues of Korean Church. Second, it delves into how the current financial issue of Korean Church in this capitalistic society opposes the idea of Weber’s spirit of capitalism and worldly asceticism. Finally, this paper proposes a social ethical solution for this financial issue of Korean Church as concentrating on Weber’s ascetic spirit of capitalism and his ideas of reasonable capital management.
  • 5.

    Beyond the Korean Blessing-oriented Faith with the Help of H. Richard Niebuhr’s Perspective

    김현수 | 2016, (35) | pp.129~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to critically deal with the Korean blessing-centered faith with the help of H. Richard Niebuhr’s theology and ethics. To this end, it discusses the following points. First, the paper analyses the basic points of Niebuhr’s theology and ethics. (1) For Niebuhr, faith is social because faith is present in the relations between the self, others, and God. (2) A true faith is a monotheistic faith which affirms that God is the One beyond the many and whatever is, is good because all have their being in the One God. (3) A true monotheistic faith implies the universal ethic of responsibility and love. Second, the paper critically describes the characteristics of the Korean blessing-oriented faith. The Korean blessing- centered faith emphasizes this-worldly material success and the dualistic value- system. It comes to the following extreme conclusion: success is blessing, and failure is curse. From Niebuhr’s perspective, its result is the individualized faith, and the church’s indifference in its social responsibility. Last, the paper suggests the woori form of faith as an alternative to the Korean blessing-oriented faith. Specifically, the paper constructs the woori form of faith based on the social theory of the trinity. The basic idea is that three persons in the Trinity forms the community of woori, and a triune God is always in, with, and for woori or us. To conclude, the Trinitarian woori form of faith confesses: (1) a Triune God is the living One. (2) Three persons in the Trinity forms communion in terms of “self-sharing, other-regarding, community-forming love.” (3) A triune God is presence in the world, and invites all creatures into God’s life and communion of love. (4) Trinitarian woori faith is socially responsible because a triune God engages with seeking justice and peace in the world from the perspective of life and love.
  • 6.

    A Re-reading of H. Richard Niebuhr’s Ethical Thoughts in the Era of Postmodernism

    WooYoung Park | 2016, (35) | pp.165~192 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    How can we understand and explain not only Christians as social existences but human beings as moral agents by using both Christian theological structures and moral philosophical traditions in this postmodern world? To answer this question, we need to revisit H. Richard Niebuhr’s ethical thoughts because his understanding of God as the Absolute Being by which all beings exist leads us to grasp close relations between the self and others on which prevalent postmodern thoughts can be converged. Further, Niebuhr’s ethical thoughts could be reinterpreted as a possibility of having a continual dialogue with postmodern thoughts and providing them with constructively critical focal points in the following: 1) his ethical thoughts can reexamine a complementary theory in terms of responsible responses, 2) radical monotheism is the principle of being itself and rather supports a more inclusive community; while postmodernism affirms various voices, Niebuhr considers them as a whole with relativizing all the practices of social existences in the light of the relation to God as the ultimate cause and the Absolute being, 3) revelation itself is meaningful and further makes us interpret others’ stories as valuable and meaningful ones in history, and 4) his God-centered thoughts are based on God’s free and arbitrary actions in history, on which a dialogue with other religions could be carried out. To make his ethical thoughts valid in the midst of a harsh postmodern society, continual self-critical and self-corrective movements should be performed through responsible interpretations by which fitted actions can be followed.
  • 7.

    A Formation of critical phronesis through the encounter between suffer of a text and real suffering: An encounter between a ‘narrative’ of Job and ‘stories’ of Sewol ferry accident through the concept of Paul Ricoeur’s configuration

    변경원 | 2016, (35) | pp.193~218 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to find ethical point by exploring the interpretation of Book of Job. People regard the Book of Job as a ‘Suffer narrative’. We intended to connect this narrative to the ‘stories’ of the accident of Sewol ferry. In this article, the concept of ‘narrative’ and ‘stories’, ‘suffer’ and ‘suffering’ is differentiated. We used the theory of Paul Ricoeur’s configuration. In the theory of configuration, there are three areas: configuration, preconfiguration and reconfiguration. In the area of configuration, we examined the difference of thought about understanding suffer by Job and Job’s friends. Then, in the area of preconfiguration, we explained the theory of theodicy to understand the consideration of suffer by Job’s friends. Also, we considered the thinking of Dorothee Soelle’s understanding of suffer and suffering. She opposed the theory of theodicy. In the area of reconfiguration, we explained Ricoeur’s critical phronesis.
  • 8.

    Christian ethical Critique on Dualism of Church and Secular World in Christian Tradition: Focusing on the Influence on Plato’s Dualism

    SHIN, KYUNG SOO | 2016, (35) | pp.219~249 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The notion of “Idea” provided a function to make all forms of the earth in Plato. Plato’s Idea means superiority over invisible beings can be found in his “soul theory,” which divides two categories such as immortality and mortality. The former is a natural principle to move physical body, while the latter is a human dimension of it. He argues that the immortality part has a ability more than reason, whereas the mortality has an impact on emotion or desire sphere. He also insists that material thing is bad, and spiritual one is good. Such a dualism affects onto St. Augustinus to believe two worlds respectively. To him, unlike the material world, non-material world was a interim space where is common ground to perceive God and invisible things alike. Boethius stands also on the line of same argument. Plato’s theory with reasonable ground in its legitimacy has contributed in making a great trend of thought, and it also serve as a meaningful apparatus to explain that the heaven is an ultimate reality and the earth is its derived reality accordingly, that is, the visible world of creation seems to be a realm of the evil; whereas the invisible “Idea”does the Supreme spiritual area with full of God’s grace and perfect morality. Dualistic comparison between form and material gave a wrong clue to distinguish body and soul and/or church and secular world as well. Such a dualism make a crossroad in which soul and church upgraded to sacred space, whereas body and world downgraded into negative and lower realm. Upon this wrong application, immoral criterion of ethics became rampant not only in mundane life but in the church as well.
  • 9.

    ‘Encheridion’of Mateo Ricci and Epictectus: An Encounter between the Western Ethics and the Eastern

    Ji Seok O | 2016, (35) | pp.251~272 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research paper delves into the meaning of ‘Korean Christian ethics.’ People usually think that Christian ethics is only based on the Western tradition; however, it is impossible to think of Korean Christian ethics without the conception of other Asian religious traditions. Jesuits’ endeavors were prominent in that they used their own methodology, called, ‘the accommodation mission method.’ Matteo Ricci was the frontier of this since he tried to teach about morality with the short sentences of the Stoic philosophy, Encheridion, wirtten by Epictectus, to the Chinese nobles and scholars. Ricci learned this book as he studied ethics, so he could introduce Encheridion to Chinese because they were interested in their personal economic welfare and individual moral development. The Book of 25 Paragraphs(or Twenty-Five Saying) designed as an story-telling anthology instead of dogmatics, as it was dealing with virtue as it tried to communicated with Chinese society. Ricci altered Enchridion to the Chinese contexts as he switched Greek philosophical concepts into the Chinese examples. Therefore, The Book of 25 Paragraphs is not a simple Chinese translation of Encheridion; rather, it is a new work which cited Chinese classics as it expressed the idea of ‘respecting Confucianism but rejecting Buddhism.’ such that it is perfectly fit into the Confucian tradition in terms of the practical wisdom of virtue. Thus, Ricci showed the two different religious traditions can be compatible with each other as such that both traditions have the common ground in terms of the moral philosophy and the practice of virtue.
  • 10.

    Theories of Soul and Christian Ethics: A Study on Augustine, Aquinas and Martin Luther

    Kyoung-Dong Yoo | 2016, (35) | pp.273~305 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper introduces the thoughts of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and Martin Luther, asking the nature of souls in relation to Christian Ethics. In the discussion of the comparison and relationship among the above traditional Christian theologians, those issues surrounding souls, will, sin and God’s grace are engaged to explore the meaning of morality and responsibility. For Augustine, soul is immortal but limited because of the disobedience of man to God. Soul in this regard plays an important role as an ontological vehicle to make the mortal to be reborn by the grace of God. Thomas Aquinas thinks soul as immortal and views it as reason that leads man to recover one’s fallen image of God. For Aquinas, soul also acts as epistemological and moral power that cultivates whole beings. On the other hand, Luther points out the total depravity of man by sin and seeks a prevenient grace of God instead of human possibility. For Luther, soul is only meaningful when it is saved by God through faith. Therefore soul changes from disobedience to faith in God. After reviewing above issues briefly, this paper comes to a conclusion that the Christian notion of soul ought to be emphasized when we consider the world of materialism where man endlessly desires desire. To achieve this goal, Christian ethics has a mission to cultivate a sense of morality through stressing spiritual awakening of soul.
  • 11.

    The Need for Change in Baby Boomers’ Perception of Work: A Holistic Understanding of Homo Laborans and Homo Ludens

    이상훈 | 2016, (35) | pp.307~339 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to bring a desirable change in Korean baby boomers' perception of work by critically adopting the concept of homo ludens and attempting a holistic understanding of homo laborans and homo ludens. Many baby boomers are financially not prepared for retirement mainly because they have been preoccupied with supporting both their parents and their children sometimes for longer than expected. Though in need of urgent reemployment, they should not let themselves fall into the category of what is defined as animal laborans. Baby boomers’ reemployment without a fundamental change in perception of and thus attitude toward work only deemed to gain means of subsistence are often compelled to engage in dehumanizing labor as no more than soulless movement. This being the case, it is required that the concept of homo ludens or man the player should be properly understood and widely practiced and as a result perception of work/vocation can be fundamentally reformulated. Doing so will be instrumental in integrating homo ludens into homo laborans, which helps to create a holistic view of work/vocation. Here homo ludens refers to a vocational pursuit of what one enjoys and takes pleasure in doing. It also means finding a meaning of life as well as self-realization and economic reward in carrying out work/vocation. In other words, work/vocation can be regarded not only as a means of securing the basic necessities -- food, shelter and clothing -- of life, but also as self-realization including happiness and re-creation. Therefore this study seeks to come up with theoretical and practical measures to establish a holistic understanding about work/vocation.
  • 12.

    A Study on the justice of participation in the terms of christian ethics

    Choi, Kyung Suk | 2016, (35) | pp.340~369 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    A ethical norm of justice is one of the controversial issues. In discussing justice in the area of economy, the justice in terms of ability and distribution is a significant issue. This study argues the importance of ‘justice of participation’ which will compromise the two aspects of justices. It is the aim of justice of participation that all the members should participate in a society in a comprehensive way. It is likely that the economic participation is one of the significant ways of participating in the society. In this respective, it is very important to participate in the economic work through labor. If a person expelled from the labor market, his/her social and political participations would be endangered. The role of state is to provide and protect the rights of voluntary social and political participations of the people who are isolated from the society. This study argues that justice of participation is based on christian ethic. Therefore, the philosophical discussion of justice is needed. The justice in the christian is closely associated with love of neighbour. According to bible and the ecumenical movement, to support and love the poor and the isolate is the first thing to do. It is a crucial point of the conception of the justice of participation that to offer a job to those who are isolated from society, This is because the labour is the basis of life of human. In order to implement the justice of participation, the key concept is the labor. In the bible, labor is blessing through which man can live. However, labor is also imprecation through which man should live. The labor can contributes to the developments of community and is needed for the solidarity of community. To accomplish the justice of participation, the institutions of the state, church and labor union have each mission. In particular, the church should keep close relationships with the state and labor union.