This article aims at how to overcome Christian extremism through the lessons from Rwandan genocide. The Most Christianized country in Africa killed at least 0.8 million people. In the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, Christians killed their fellow Christians who had worshiped together. More than one tenth of the victims were killed in churches which should symbolize forgiveness and reconciliation, acceptance and fellowship. Three elements of the genocidal mentality are legitimation, the healing-killing paradox, and dehumanization. Rwandan Christianity legitimized genocide as a way of addressing Rwandan societal problems, dehumanized Tutzi as evil, which led to justification of the healing-killing paradox. Christian teachings that made Christians bystanders were negative view of reality based on pre-millennialist interpretations, the exclusive emphasis on other-worldly salvation, the preference of Rwandan Christianity for personal testimony, and the authoritarian teaching style of Rwandan churches. Christianity in general and Korean Christianity in particular can overcome Christian extremism only when it avoids the overwhelming temptation of demonization.
Korea is rapidly changing into a multicultural society. The Korean governmental immigrant policy, however, is merely targeted multicultural families as it tries to overcome discrimination and accommodate diverse cultures. If it is inevitable of the transition into a multicultural societye, it is necessary to practice the alternative long-term policy to create an equal and harmonious multicultural society. This study seeks to find the answer in the Bible and in the spirit of “hospitality” demonstrated by the Christian community. The Bible teaches us to provide hospitality to strangers. Transition to an equitable and harmonious multicultural society is possible not only when this society warmly welcomes strangers, but also when they are welcomed as equal members of our society and participate into this society voluntarily. For this purpose, this study proposes Christian social welfare practice of hospitality based on interculturalism. This study was conducted with the following three goals. First, it introduces interculturalism in order to respond to the multicultural society of the Korean churches and the Christian social welfare system. Second, various multicultural ideologies in the Bible are interpreted from the perspective of hospitality and applied to various theories of multiculturalism. Lastly, it presents biblical grounds and practical suggestions of fair hospitality in response to inequality based on the perspective of interculturalism.
This research studies the theology of Dr. Jung Mo Sung, a professor of Religion and Culture at the Methodist University of Sao Paulo, concentrating on his ethico-religious critique of the international capitalist systems. According to his insight against current global ideology, neo-liberalism, the modern altar of the ‘global market god’, is invisible, but still demands human sacrifices in the name of ‘objective’ desires. In this treat, first, this research figures out what the first generation liberation theology has done by Gustavo Gutierrez and the second generation by Leonardo Boff. This study finds some genealogical interconnectedness between the first and second generation liberation theology and Dr. Sung’s third generation liberation theology. Dr. Sung, Gutierrez and Boff have accomplished great fruit in terms of spiritual practices of the Christian communities. The liberation theology in Latin America and its discussions are still valid for the people in Asia and other areas those who are “the oppressed and maimed and blind and lame” by the political and economic powers. Likewise, the Korean church also needs to look for various ways of faith practice with true spirituality of liberation.
This research delves into the theory of human nature in order to develop Christian ethical argument as it concentrates on Ernst Faber. Faber had mainly worked for literary mission in China. His main argument, in terms of Christian ethics, is his theory of ‘Confucius and Jesus’ during the 19th century, as a turning period of Chinese protestant mission as he tried to a common ground between the protestant theology and Confucianism. Furthermore, he argued that protestant theology may help the reformation of the rotten Confucianism as such that the social influence of Confucianism was diminished. He compared Jesus with Confucius as he argued the superiority of Jesus as the foundation of mission. He also tried to show the way to develop human nature toward Chinese intellectuals who have moral false‐awareness, that is, the development of human nature through gospel. He criticized that Mencius’s good nature theory made humanity ignore the existence of God because Mencius emphasized humanity’s moral endeavor. This Mencius’s interpretation could not fully grasp the doctrine of sin of Christianity in that it did not pursue moral remorse. Therefore, Faber argued that humanity could obtain the way of character maturity through the personal relationship with God. This is the essence of the Western tradition as well as the foundation of Christian ethics. Chinese intellectuals have to learn about this essence and foundation. Thus this article shows the relationship between the theory of human nature and Christian ethics.
In a discussion of reunification of Korea, Christian community can be approached in two dimensions of the Church and the Christian intellectual communities. However in the evaluation of Christian ethics for reunification, the narrative ethics will be able to provide a richer reluctant to talk through the diverse ethical approaches rather than the other way. Because the narrative ethics can be called ethical approaches to put priority attention to the story. In the traditional church communities that goes beyond the doctrinal rigidity and stark ideology or system. And that shows a wide range of discourses that reflects the truth and situation of the communities rather than, etc. As we can see in the philosophy of Habermas, the conversation than ideology or system set a way for the truth. So the Christian narrative ethical concepts and approaches have a very dynamic spectrum and be able to suggest the most appropriate theoretical background. And that has laid in between theoretical and practical foundations for the reunification of Korea. It is necessary to reinterpret the theological basis for the relevant debates.
Martin Luther acknowledged that Aesop’s fable was secondly important after the Bible in terms of moral value. Martin Luther first used the Aesop’s fable in his sermon during 1514-1517 before the Reformation day on Oct 31. 1517. It was six months for Luther to use Aesop’s fables mainly in Coburg Castle during 1530. Luther had adapted the fable more than 13 pieces directly. In addition, he used Aesop’s fables frequently in preaching and letters, including Table Talk. The last Aesop’s fable were written in 1546, just before his death. For this study of Luther’s Aesop’s fables, the Coburg Collection, a collection of letters in 1530, is an important for the first step. This study examines the relationship between Luther and Aesop’ fable, focusing on the Coburg collection and its pre and post writings. Luther criticized the wealth as he personalized their negative attributes as animal-like at first. However, since the Coburg, Luther used this fable for education and sermons, as well as politically controversial tools. Luther said that “earthly lives are similar to the animal world as Aesop’s Fables.” The human world is not different from the world of animals. Lastly Luther tried to explore the function of the ‘law’ as he compared it with the ‘law’ by Aesop’s Fables.
Korean society has recently been observing distinct behavioral changes of sexual minority groups. This paper analyzes the behavioral changes of the sexual minority using game theory, and interprets them from the traditional viewpoint of Christian ethics on sexual orientation. A hypothetical game model is developed and analyzed. The concept of critical rate for accepting the sexual orientations of the minority is suggested and discussed regarding the society’s propensity to avoid social conflicts. The critical rate provides a decision making criterion for the intelligent sexual minority to alter their group behaviors. Since a society with greater freedom of expression has also a smaller value of critical rate, it could be important to keep the society’s acceptance rate of the minority’s sexual orientations below the critical rate. In this light, an honesty practice is asserted for casual conversations that one should express plainly one’s belief in traditional Christian ethics on sexual orientation. Continual and extended practices of this honesty conceive hope for a society where the biblical sexual ethics are invariantly respected without harming the freedom of expression for sexual minority.