The purpose of the study is grasp the true meaning of Marx’s statement that “the revolutionary past of Germany was theoretical, and it would be the Reformation.” This study is conducted in three stages. First, we understand the anti-clerical attitude of Luther and Marx-Engels, and consider the revolutionary meaning of it. Anti-clericalism is a key issue not only in a mainstream right-wing of Reformation camp as Luther, but also in left-wing of Reformation camps such as Müntzer. It can be said that it was the origin of the Reformation and the original root of the revolution to expose and protest against the evil of the church and the corruption of the clergies. And it can be judged that the radical Republicans of the nineteenth century, Marx and Engels, have faithfully followed the precedent. Second, we discuss how Engels understands Luther’s Reformation in his book The Peasant War in Germany. It is clear that Engels was willing to position Luther as a strong advocate of the emerging bourgeois ideology at the time. Nevertheless, it is noted that Engels acknowledges that Luther had a profound influence on the revolutionary conduct of Müntzer and especially the Peasant War in 1525. Finally, this study discusses the revolutionary connection between Marx and Luther in the sense that Marx positively assessed Luther as a first-level accomplisher in the development phase of the German Revolution.
Luther’s Reformation was not simply restricted to the reformation of churches, but involved the reformation of the general social systems, with a special emphasis on ‘educational reformation.’ This study particularly concerns one of his elaborate efforts for educational reformation: the curriculum reorganization of German universities, including University of Halle-Wittenberg. This study will also focus on Philip Melanchton, called ‘Praeceptor Germaniae (teacher of Germany),’ who played a leading role together with Luther in the Reformation and education. Based on this analysis, this research compares Reformers with Martha Nussbaum as it focuses on her educational viewpoint which emphasizes the incessant reading and learning of humanistic texts and works in that they are similar each others as such that they are of one accord in thinking that education should not be limited to a personal dimension but be oriented to community, and that education should be the activities of listening to and learning the truth with struggle and agony and unceasing sharing. In light of the education intended by the reformers of 500 years ago, this paper reconsiders the necessity of the education that pursues ‘what needs to be learned,’ rather than ‘what must be done’ or ‘what can be done.’
Luther’s two kingdoms have been re-examined in a contemporary context of reinterpreting the relationship between the church and the nation and are subject to continued research. Although the study of Luther’s two kingdoms is actively conducted in the Korean theological community, its political-social implications are not sufficiently illuminated. This article focuses on the political and social implications of the two kingdoms in European society at the time of Luther. The attention to the political and social context of Luther is meaningful as an opportunity to break the medieval order characterized by the domination of the state by the Church. Luther’s two kingdoms have certain implications in relation to the emergence of a kingship state seeking to escape the dominance of the Catholic Church as a manifestation of the split of the medieval order, and are deeply related to a series of flows that later lead to the development of a sovereign state in European political societies. By paying attention to the significance of the two Luther‘s two kingdoms in a particular historical aspect of Europe, it is possible to avoid both extremes of the unilateral rejection or follow-up of the two kingdoms. Thus, this study will find important clues in seeking appropriate attitudes to the relationship between church and state and to the state power and its method of governance in the theological-ethical dimension.
GMO food is on the table. Children are still taking genetically modified foods because of the lack of accurate standards and scientific evidence of the hazards of GMO foods. Scientists who invented GMO have been intentionally and thoughtlessly transforming natural food sources into something artificial and risky. This study is designed to disclose the threat of human technology rather than to focus on positive side of it. Since DNA manipulation is entirely based on human technology, ecological consideration and/or the Creator’s providence have been partially or entirely alienated from these debates. The cutting edge of human technology has been developed regardless of natural order. Here is the point to research an intact version of it in Christian viewpoint. Thus, the study which deals with pros and cons of technology normalization aims two goals: The first is to disclose a threat of DNA manipulation skill on one hand, and the second is to grope for a Christian alternative referring to the restoration of creation order on the other.
Recently, the Korean Church has lost public trust in Korean society. Despite an abundance of Christian followers in Korea, the Korean Church has failed to make faithful believers. Under the current conditions, the Korean Presbyterian Church approaches this difficult situation by matriculating mature believers through catechism education. However, the possession of knowledge does not automatically translate to ethical behaviors. Knowledge and actions can be effectively harmonized in the context of Christian worship. In this same fashion, the Early Church tried to make sincere believers not merely by catechism education, but by liturgical catechesis. In this article, while studying the process and content of liturgical catechesis in the Early Church, I will argue that Early Church did not merely transmit knowledge, but developed practices to develop ethical beings through the congruence of education and practice. Through the use of Howard Gardner’s educational theory and Louis-Marie Chauvet’sunderstanding of sacramental symbols, I will prove the propriety and effectiveness of liturgical catechesis.
It is widely acknowledged that there has been continuous interaction between Christian faith and Confucianism in the Korean church. This is true to the church’s sexual ethical discourse and its ethical formation. How did and should Christian sexual ethics respond to the Confucian conviction, customs and practices of marriage and sexuality that have been existed in Korean society? Can Christian sexual ethics operate as an ethical alternative that effectively opposes sexual discrimination and promotes gender equality? The aim of this paper is to explicate the First Reformers’ sexual ethics – Luther’s and Calvin’s – focusing on their understanding of gender relations, marriage and sexual intercourse. In particular, I hope to explore in the sexual ethics of the Reformation a theoretical and practical alternative that is conducive to reviewing critically the formation and reinforcement of patriarchal and hierarchical thought and practices in the Korean church and society. I will conclude with some suggestions which could help the Korean church and society correct its ethical thought and practices that endorse and support women’s inferiority to men and gender discrimination.
Reinhold Niebuhr set the direction of social ethics in the ecumenical movement by participating actively in this movement. He criticized economic power, because wealth and power are concentrated in one place through economic activities. The object of this criticism was communism and libertarianism. He tried to find a solution that was close to approximation instead of suggesting a specific scheme. To this end, the democratic society should strive for constant debate and new development of property issues, since democracy is a way to find second best solutions to unresolvable problems. The basis of all this is his anthropology, that is, the ability to achieve justice and a tendency to commit injustice.