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2021, Vol., No.49

  • 1.

    Post-Corona and Community Ethic: Focusing on the ethics of others and the ethics of care

    Gwang Yeon Kim | 2021, (49) | pp.9~39 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Living in the post-corona age, We have become more important than ever to the duty of the community. Due to the collective infection caused by the coro- na19, our society had to try to prevent individual breakaway. Fortunately, our so- ciety is doing its best to respond to the Corona19 virus due to citizens’ cooperation and a sense of community. Despite the fact that most of the people are striving for quarantine, group infections are continuing one after another due to egoism that considers only their own interests. Therefore, in the post-corona era, we need an ethic of caring for others rather than a sense of duty or act according to the cause. Understanding the lives of others and caring for them has become more important than anything else in the Corona 19 age. Also, we need an attitude for the common good to overcome the fear of the virus. Among them, the most important thing is to avoid false egoism and practice the virtue for community order. In the post-corona era, rather than acting to avoid other people’s gaze or legal responsibility, it is necessary to voluntarily consider others for the com- mon good, take care of others, and take initiative. Accordingly, this article talks about criticism and reflection on false egoism behavior in the post-corona age, and the virtue ethics of the community and the ethics of others.
  • 2.

    A Critical Study of the Red-phobia Phenomenon of far-right Protestantism as an Enemy of Civil Society

    Jongkyunn Park | 2021, (49) | pp.39~72 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This researcher examines the political actions of civil society that can over- come the sentiments of red-phobia and red-hatred of far-right Protestants in the light of the concepts of Arendt’s “amor mundi” and Rousseau’s “civil religion”. Civil society can be said to be a “middle-level realm” that exists between the state and private realms, and basically respects the just and legitimate authority of the state and recognizes and respects the law. At the same time, civil society is the fi- nal bastion of organizing resistance against dictatorship of unjust and arbitrary state power, and it is also the subject that rejects the rule of unjust laws. Civil so- ciety is also a key support force of democracy that justifies state power based on the rule of law for just power. Civic consciousness, the virtue of civil society, is to prioritize the common good as an ethical factor that makes people like a citizen, and places the values of responsibility, diversity and tolerance at the public level, pursues common interests and, in some cases, can lead to disobedience and re- sistance against the abuse of public power. Through this article, this researcher urges that we Christians, as citizens of civil society, fundamentally question the cultural and religious ethos that hate humans, and to become awake citizens who can resist them with words and actions.
  • 3.

    The Issues of Religious Phenomenology and the Topics of Christian Social Ethics in the COVID-19 Era

    sangcheol lee | 2021, (49) | pp.73~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the problem of religious phenomenological approaches to COVID-19 in the first half and Christian social ethics in the second half. The reli- gious phenomenological approach is based on a survey of Korean Protestants’ perceptions during the COVID-19 era. Looking at how Protestant faith patterns changed in the wake of COVID-19, I summarized the characteristics of religious phenomenology after COVID-19 as 1) the arrival of non-religious societies, 2) the destruction of religious aura, and 3) the reconstruction of worship. The suspen- sion and disruption of worship due to COVID-19 is read as an incident that Korean society has entered the threshold of non-religious society. Bonhoeffer’s “Before God, with God, without God” statement is expected to be an important clue to interpreting non-religious society after COVID-19. The increase in non-face-to-face online worship triggered by COVID-19 has collapsed the aura of existing worship, and existing one-way worship services are being asked to com- municate with each other and to change the form of worship. After the religious phenomenological analysis, I will propose three alternatives to the COVID-19 era: (1) Christian social ethics suitable for the secular age, (2) Christian social ethics overcoming anti-intellectualism, and (3) the ethics of hospitality toward others.
  • 4.

    Form the repugnance To the Empathy and Hospitality: Focus on the Empathy and Hospitality in the era of the COVID-19

    Jong won, Lee | 2021, (49) | pp.105~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the problems of discrimination and exclusion, and repug- nance caused by corona-virus critically, and to find which values and spirit that we have to overcome these problems. The disaster resulted from the COVID-19 is worst for people who located in the most vulnerable place of our society ac- cording to gender, class, racial discrimination. We experience the strongest psy- chological drives that our resentment and anger and hostility strike out to partic- ular group. The sino-phobia reaches its climax, super-spreader criticized openly, and boomer remover, covidiot was on someone’s lip wide spread. These hatred virus works psychological mechanism that devastate the lives those who are discriminated. The main key is how we can solve this vulnerability of all to virus to make it public issues. To overcome corona-virus, we should make our society the community of sympathy and care through serious self-examination. It is the virtue of empathy and hospitality that we all must have in a era of COVID-19. These virtues resolve conflict with others and purify human relation, and roles lu- bricating oil that harmonize and make meaningful mutual relationship. Therefore, church community needs to become a servant model that practices love through hospitality at this time of crisis and disaster.
  • 5.

    Seeking Ecological Love

    Lee, Chang-Ho | 2021, (49) | pp.139~169 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Facing the reality of a serious ecological crisis, where the complete order of the life world is not preserved but rather the symptoms of various forms of collapse are clearly witnessed, it would not be too much to say that Christian churches and believers have the responsibility to respond to these crises. Moreover, it can be said that it is a self-evident theological truth to respect the value and position of God’s created world and all beings in the world and to im- plement concretely such respect through altruistic acts for all the beings of the world. Honoring these theological ethical truths and justifications, I will respond to the ecological crisis by carrying out the task of seeking ecological love. My task here is two-fold. I will justify ecological love theologically, focusing on Gene Outka and Jürgen Moltman. Also, I will attempt to explore Outka’s and James A. Nash’s theories of ecological love and expand the horizon of ecological love through critical dialogue between the two.
  • 6.

    The history and characteristics of the Protestant human rights movement after the 5.18 Gwangju Democratization Movement

    myung bae Kim | 2021, (49) | pp.173~204 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The main task of this paper is to investigate the activities of the Korean Protestant churches to protect the human rights of democrats and student activists who were violating human rights in the oppressive governing structure during the military dictatorship of Chun Doo-hwan in the 1980s. This is because there have been few studies on Protestant human rights move- ments in the 1980s. Therefore, this thesis first made it a primary task to investigate the human rights movement of Protestants in the 1980s historically. To this end, in Chapter 2, this paper briefly deals with the Protestant understanding of human rights and the history of the human rights movement in the 1970s. And Chapter 3 deals with the history of the Protestant human rights movement in the 1980s under the oppressive rule of the Chun Doo-hwan regime. Finally, Chapter 4 summarizes the characteristics of Protestant human rights in the 1980s.
  • 7.

    An Applied Approach to Social Spirituality based on Ethics of Good Samritan Discipleship

    Moon, Si Young | 2021, (49) | pp.205~237 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Calls for social spirituality of public responsibility, communication, empathy and hospitality are becoming urgent toward Christianity in Korea. The problem is that Korean Christianity tends to regard social spirituality as strange. This article proposes that social spirituality belongs to Christianity’s own resources and is a task that Christianity must implement. In particular, this article deals with the ori- gin and restoration of social spirituality by paying attention to discipleship based on discipleship training program which is familiar with Christianity in Korea. On the origin of social spirituality, this article pays attention to the good Samaritan discipleship. Based on the view of virtue ethics, the good Samaritan discipleship could be read as the origin of social spirituality; being neighbor and being other. Being neighbor refers to the ethics of public responsibility and communication, while being the other refers to the ethics of empathy and hospitality. This is not an attempt to fit today’s issues into good Samaritan discipleship, but a work to confirm that social spirituality is embedded in the discipleship that Jesus requires. And this article presents the fact that the restoration of social spirituality is the ur- gent task of Korean Christianity. Regarding the restoration of social spirituality, this article suggests that Korean Christianity has a responsibility to actively imple- ment social spirituality, not to regard it as strange. The conclusion of this article is that Korean Christianity must overcome the dangers of privatization and to pur- sue ethical reformation through restoration of social spirituality.
  • 8.

    Ethical Issues and Alternatives in Artificial Intelligence Counseling

    SONG, Yong Sup | 2021, (49) | pp.239~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes ethical issues that the emergence of empathic artificial intelligence counselors can lead to and presents alternatives from virtue ethics. First, this paper points out that the issue of psychological and behavioral control may arise when transference or countertransference occur between empathetic artificial intelligence counselors and human clients. Secondly, if problems are ex- pected to arise between artificial intelligence counselors and human clients, it is argued that preemptive measure should be established to determine ethical and legal responsibilities. Third, it is argued that in artificial intelligence counseling, sensitive private information of the clients will be recorded and analyzed, so it is imperative to seek ways to enhance privacy protection higher than usual cases. While some possible ways to respond to ethical issues are to establish a code of ethics in general, the code of ethics has some limitations and is likely to be valid only in the early stages of artificial intelligence development. Therefore, this pa- per argues that in order to prevent the ethical issues that may arise from the de- velopment of artificial intelligence counselors, it is necessary to employ virtue ethics to the development of moral or virtuous artificial intelligence counselors. This paper estimates that empathic artificial intelligence counselors that develop religious virtues, may be more effective and ethically sound, which are able to re- spond to various problematic situations.
  • 9.

    Beom-Jin Lee’s Ethical View of Money and Its Present Implications: Focused on His “Human View of Money”(1921)

    Su Kang Ahn | 2021, (49) | pp.269~304 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze Beom-Jin Lee’s ethical view of money and its pres- ent implications, focusing on his “Human View of Money”(1921). This text is based on Luke 12:15. Lee’s important ethical view of money is based on his rare and precious work “Human View of Money” published in Sermons by One Hundred Pastors & Teachers Vol. 1(1921). The important points of Beom-Jin Lee’s ethical view of money and its present implications could be summarized as follows: Firstly, I analysed Lee’s idea of triple viewpoint such as public ethical view of money, great man’s ethical view of money, Christian ethical view of mon- ey, and so forth. Secondly, on the basis of Lee’s confession, I concentrated on practical paradigms for motivational ethics, good use of money as an effective means, young people’s stewardship and calling, the responsibility to return profits to society, and so on. I am looking forward to future extensions of this research into Beom-Jin Lee’s other thoughts such as educational activities, youth move- ment, journalistic activities, meeting of Iugurakbu(以友俱樂部), and so forth.
  • 10.

    A Discussion of the Change of the Relationship between Technology and Humanity and the Christian Social-Ethical Human Resposponsibility in Posthuman Era: Focused on Hefner’s Notion of “Imago Dei” and the Criticism of Posthuman Thoughts

    Ahn,Taekyun | 2021, (49) | pp.305~336 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between human and technology in the posthuman era. Recognizing the problem with conventional negative perception and examining the positive posthuman thoughts on technol- ogy, both from a Christian perspective, imago dei found a theological alternative to these views. As a result, transhumanism, which pursues immortality beyond human limits through the development of technology, revealed the problem of anthropocentrism and rejection of human finiteness. Although human finiteness is recognized, critical humanism, which identifies cyborg beyond the boundary between human and technology and seeks to establish embodied subjectivity with everything, revealed problems in ambiguity of the subjective role of humans. It also revealed that we are unable to harmonize individuals and groups to connect with social and political reality, despite their respective merits. In or- der to overcome this, Hefner’s concept about imago dei was introduced, and consequently, it was proved that it is an idea that shows the relationship between God, the ecosystem and technology well. I came to a conclusion that humans have to fulfill our socio-ethical responsibility to realize God’s good will through a right relationship with technology and caring for creation was a mission given by God the creator.
  • 11.

    The Foundation of Christian Ethics of Marriage in Korean Modern Period - Focused on the Debate of William Baird and William L. Swallen

    Ji Seok O | 2021, (49) | pp.337~369 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article clarifies the process by which missionaries resolve through debate and debate on the problem of the polygamist, which was one of the challenges faced by Korean missionaries in the early days as Christianity was accepted in Korea during the transition period. Christian family ethics, or marriage. Its pur- pose is to track the process by which ethics is being implanted and established. Traditionally, in Korean society, monogamy system existed in form, and con- striction was openly allowed. In the light of Christian doctrine, the custom of constriction could not be allowed, but the issue of dealing with polygamist also revealed differences in theology among missionaries. In 1895, the Methodist Church organized that polygamist, regardless of gender, could not enter or enroll in the Methodist Church. The Presbyterian Church began in 1894, and in 1897, it was established at the annual meeting of the Korean Mission, attended by Speer of the North Korean Presbyterian Mission. It should be noted here that W. L. Swallen is a moderate position on the self-serving of a member of the church of , and insists on the principle of principle. At the annual meeting in 1897, the position of William M. Baird who insisted on principle rather than the moderate theo- ry of W. L. Swallen was accepted. This stance that a big man cannot become a member of the Church persists after that. The debate on the serious marriage between Swallen and Baird is the basis of the marriage ethics of Christianity in Korea, and it can be evaluated that Korean society has played a certain role in the transition from formal monogamy to practical monogamy.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Political and Economical Issues behind Religious Violence

    Kyoung-Dong Yoo | 2021, (49) | pp.371~400 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Religion, the symbol of peace, becomes a cause for conflicts around the world. Although the analysis of reasons when religious activities expressed ac- cording to religious convictions are related to violence are diverse, the researcher will attempt to study the ‘religious violence’ associated with the society‘s ‘political and economical components’ in this paper. In the western globalization trend, re- sistance against the economic system of capitalism is the primary economic factor for religious violence, and the collusion of religious and political powers during the process of secularization can become the political cause for religious violence. The researcher will examine the definition of religious violence, Western scholars‘ theories on how religious violence becomes associated with religious convictions, political and social factors, and make a brief proposal regarding the task of the community for peace in this paper. There are several papers on ‘religious violence’ in Korean Christian academia. Still, many are limited to peace concepts particular to specific religions, so the research on the compositive social factors such as political and economic factors is expected to promote further understanding of religious violence. Since this paper relied on Western English-speaking scholars‘ analysis, the limit to document analysis exists. However, this paper may assist as preliminary research, considering the possi- bility of religious conflicts associated with Korean society‘s political and economic issues.
  • 13.

    The Battlefield and Testimony of Women in South Korea

    Lee Sookjin | 2021, (49) | pp.401~430 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is focused on the background in which women who were victims of the war were unable to become a “speaking subject” in relation to their damage. In contrast to the testimony of men, women are still silent to their past affairs in the deep abyss despite the effort of Korean government to investigate them. Deep trauma may be a main cause. In order to heal such a powerful and deadly trauma, a process of looking into the roots and breaking the silence is required. Research on the damage suffered by women during the Korean War could be the first step towards this. Therefore, this article takes a critical ap- proach to the Korean Protestants’ victim discourse on the Korean War, and re- veals the silent cartel that blocks the testimony of women, a victim of the battlefield.
  • 14.

    The Dilemma among Irrationality of Poverty-Suffering of the Poor-Existence of Transcendent God: On the Focus of Jon Sobrino’s Theodicy

    Hong, Sung Woo | Tak Jang Han | 2021, (49) | pp.431~472 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Crowded spaces including Jjokbangchon, subway stations, and Goshichon often suffer more visible pain than seen in general residential areas and experience untimely deaths, despite not being noticed. If the transcendental and all-powerful God truly loved humans, this phenomenon would be considered absurd. God’s love gives birth to peace and vitality; but how should we explain the lives of those in poverty in God’s perspective? It would be tragic if the lives of those in poverty is a result of God’s love. Indeed, a person’s life cannot be defined as sim- ply negative/hopeless or painful just because he/she spends the whole day drinking or faces life or death situations everyday. This perspective interprets the lives of the poor in a different manner; yet it creates the assumption that God is love while failing to address the core issue of poverty and the suffering of the poor. It is also unethical as it overlooks the problem of structural poverty while wrapping it as the love of God. Is there any interpretation that can coexist with God’s existence whilst taking account of the state of poverty as well as providing an awareness of the issue? This paper explores the possible answers to those that seek transcendental God’s great love amid harsh reality where the poor’s humanity is destroyed and face death unfairly. This paper will explore using the recent theodicy, in specific to Jon Sobrino’s theodicy.