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2023, Vol., No.56

  • 1.

    Tasks for Empathy, Symbiosis, and Resonance in the Life and Practice of Korean Christian Ethicists

    Chong Hun Jeong | 2023, (56) | pp.11~38 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In the current society, empathy for the weak is becoming increasingly scarce. The individualistic way of life is often prioritized over the value of coexistence. Therefore, it is difficult to hear the sound of resonance in a society that lacks empathy and does not value coexistence. As a Christian ethicist, reflecting on my life and academic journey, I would like to challenge my colleagues in Christian ethics on how to produce academic results as a researcher. For Korean Christian ethicists, the first identity is an ethicist, followed by being a Christian and a Korean. They must sincerely and earnestly conduct academic research as ethicists, clarify their identity as Christians, and handle social ethical tasks as Koreans. Korean Christian ethicists must empathize with the socially under-privileged, coexist with people and nature, and strive toward the resolution of social problems. I hope that Korean Christian ethicists can create new opportunities and hopes for Korean society and the world community based on their own identities.
  • 2.

    Christian Ethical Approach for ‘Becoming a Citizen with Sympathy as a Christian’

    ShinHyung Seong | 2023, (56) | pp.39~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    First, this article reflects on the appearance of Korean Protestantism, which has fallen into the object of vigilance and hatred by many people as it passes through the COVID-19 crisis. This study finds the cause of these problems in the citizenship of Korean Protestants and proposes the ethics of becoming a sympathetic citizen as a solution. This study presents a way to realize ‘becoming a sympathetic citizen’ with the key words’ empathy,’ ‘citizen,’ and ‘ethics of becoming’ from a Christian ethical perspective. To this end, this study examines the meaning of empathy as a civic virtue. It examines the possibility of ‘ethics of becoming’ through Haraway’s’ reason for becoming,’ ‘to be with the trouble.’ At the same time, while attempting Christian ethical reasoning to ‘become a sympathetic citizen,’ I examined the meaning of Jesus’ incarnation and Jesus’ teaching on ‘becoming’ through the likeness of the Good Samaritan. Finally, this study attempts to reflect on Christian ethics to ‘become a citizen with sympathy as a Christian’ while examining the possibility of practicing ‘enemy love’ through the practice of the golden rule in the sermon in Luke chapter 6.
  • 3.

    Climate Change, Structural Violence, and Symbiosis: The Dynamic Equilibrium Between Cosmopolitanism and Patriotism

    I SIL YOON | 2023, (56) | pp.66~96 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the value of the complimentary relationship between cosmopolitanism and patriotism for the protection of socially vulnerable populations in the context of environmental injustice. Cosmopolitanism does not diminish the significance of national and cultural values, and thus does not contradict patriotism. Rather, if patriotism does not end up becoming distorted nationalism that excludes “others,” and seeks nations’ roles to protect all society members of the entire global community, cosmopolitanism and patriotism can possibly complement and reinforce each other. This research examines the contributions of the dynamic equilibrium between cosmopolitanism and patriotism to promoting individuals’ and communities’ recognition of their responsibilities in the reality of structural violence in the climate crisis, and promoting their symbiosis with the marginalized.
  • 4.

    Bonhoeffer and Jewish Problem

    AN IL KANG | 2023, (56) | pp.99~125 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the implications of the “Jewish problem” for Bonhoeffer. To this end, this paper began by looking at how Bonhoeffer was related to the understanding of the Old Testament under the premise that his theology and life were intimately connected. First of all, the understanding of the Old Testament is due to Bonhoeffer’s close connection between the Old Testament understanding and Jewish matters. In this way, Bonhoeffer made it clear that knowing the Old Testament was the way to properly understand the New Testament. Finally, this paper shows the significance of the Jewish problem to Bonhoeffer in three aspects. One is that Korean Christians must be retrained to read the Old and New Testaments together. The other is to support organizations dealing with the “Jewish problem” so that the issue of Jews and Judaism in Korea can be renewed. Finally, as the Jewish church at that time was connected to the essential problems of the true church, the church’s position on the MV Sewol victims of the tragedy victims and the comfort women victims in Japan is clearly present. Because these victims are also members of the church. Like the historical background that Bonhoeffer accepted the “Jewish problem” as the church’s existence, the issue of MV Sewol and the comfort women is not just a political, economic, or social problem, but in Bonhoeffer’s point of view, the nature of the church’s position.
  • 5.

    Restoration of Community and Space of Relationship in the Age of Endemic

    Gwang-yeon Kim | 2023, (56) | pp.127~158 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Until now, we have been through the non-face-to-face society of the last COVID-19 era. As a result, the church could not hold services in the sanctuary. Small gatherings and group activities were suspended, and even small gatherings for religious life were prohibited. Also, while our society went through Covid-19, people experienced too much psychological shrinkage. As the endemic era comes after COVID-19, our society has become busy transitioning to the face-to-face system. Churches were allowed to worship in their buildings, and small bible studies and group activities for faith resumed. With the complete restoration of the face-to-face system as a social structure, we have been given a new task for the Korean church to pursue. Levinas now offers us an alternative. Levinas says that others‘ pain and suffering are areas of responsibility within the community. In the age of endemic, he tells us to “have a face-to-face meeting with the other in an intimate space.” The faces of others are always waiting for us, and now we can get close to them. The pain shown on the faces of others is the responsibility of our community.
  • 6.

    The Crisis of the Public Church and the Reorientation of its Task

    Sungsoo Kim | 2023, (56) | pp.159~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to present theological issues that were discussed in the German context during the pandemic and to reconstruct the function of the church in the public sphere. For this purpose, the core content of the debate on the ban on face-to-face worship, on the theological analysis of the pandemic, and on the public task of the church were specified. The church must implement the spread of the gospel. The maturity of faith and speaking of God, who is compassionate and supportive, is necessary. The further task of the church is the implementation of charity, which cannot be regarded as a means for social recognition. Its effort could lead to the achievement of the common good and the development of society.
  • 7.

    A study of the spatiality of the Trinity and the placeness of Christ’s ministry

    Seung Hwan Kim | 2023, (56) | pp.185~214 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study reflects on the essential nature of space and place by examining the spatiality of the Trinity as the origin of space and place. The ontological character and work of the Trinitarian God as the creator of space/place leads to recognizing the significance of sites for human societies occupying space. As Jürgen Moltmann suggests, the Trinitarian God exists in a relationship of perichoresis, interpenetration, and intersubjectivity. This way of being of the Trinity reveals a divine significance that emphasizes the relationality and reciprocity of space/place. Based on the relationality of divine love, the socialization and mutual response that unfolds in space must be translated into human space/place practices. As the origin of space, the sacred space of the Trinity is also relational and is the foundation for being everywhere. This Trinitarian space/place is further embodied in the activity of Jesus. T. F. Torrance identifies Christ-centered spatiality around the events of the cross, the Lord’s Supper, and the resurrection. By examining the spatial implications of divine spatiality and the ministry of Jesus Christ, the researcher will propose divine fellowship and relational fullness in the places of life for the Korean church and Christians.
  • 8.

    Theological Task in the Hi-Tech Age: Theological Imagination and Establishment of Techno-Theology on the Cooperative Relationship between Human and Technology

    Kim,UnHey | 2023, (56) | pp.215~249 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is a theological response to the changed relationship between humans and technology by reflecting on the concept of human and technology as Homo Fabers in the high-tech era. Beyond the human-centered view of technology I will examine the ontological relationship between humans and technology and criticize the understanding of modern technology from a generative perspective on technology. In order to accomplish this task the ontological nature of technology and the relationship between technology and humans are confirmed through dialogue with a philosopher of technology, Gilbert Simondon, from the perspective of generative creation, and the mutual cooperative relationship between humans and technology in modern technological society. Through this process of theological reflection, it is hoped that it will be an opportunity to redefine the mission of the church given by God even in the technological era and discover a new way for the church, a religious community, to regain its power.
  • 9.

    Theological and Ethical Differences Between Stanley Hauerwas and Michel de Certeau

    Heejun Kim | 2023, (56) | pp.251~272 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the theological and ethical differences between Stanley Hauerwas, an American Christian ethicist, and Michel de Certeau, a French philosopher. Hauerwas defends himself against the criticism of being sectarian by using de Certeau’s conceptual distinction between “strategy” and “tactic” in his book, After Christendom? However, it has been argued that Hauerwas goes beyond merely employing de Certeau’s functional description and develops the concept of “pilgrimage” for his ethics. This paper contends that such an argument is somewhat problematic. To support this claim, the paper examines actual instances where Hauerwas cites de Certeau and explores the connections and differences between Hauerwas and de Certeau, seeking to determine whether there is indeed a close connection or notable distinctions. By demonstrating that de Certeau, who directly supports postmodernism and political movements, differs theologically and philosophically from Hauerwas, the paper highlights the necessity of normative claims in ethical and theological discourse and suggests that descriptive approaches must be accompanied by normative assertions to serve as creative alternatives. Consequently, it argues that Hauerwas is significantly more normative, public, and creative than de Certeau or postmodern theology and Christian ethics.
  • 10.

    Criticism of Meritocracy in Korean Christianity: Focusing on the issue of pastoral succession at Protestant churches

    Hyejin Shin | 2023, (56) | pp.273~313 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In South Korea, many megachurches are sometimes called “revived churches” or “blessed churches.” However, they are mired in controversy as incidents like “pastoral succession” or “trading of pastorship,” apt to take place in medieval churches, are constantly occurring at these megachurches. Furthermore, criticism has been mounting about the conventionalization of such practices at South Korea‘s Protestant churches. Nevertheless, the attitude of some church leaders, the stance of church denominations, and the consciousness of church members regarding these incidents are far from objective and realistic. They appear to be justifying the hereditary succession of pastorship at churches, raising questions over the social and ethical responsibilities of Christianity. This study calls to account for the problem of pastoral succession in South Korea‘s Protestant churches and reviews the issue through a discourse on “meritocracy.” It analyzes the social meaning and consciousness structure that it sheds light on. Moreover, the logical structure and application method of the discourse on “meritocracy,” as well as the format and purpose of the discourse, are distinctively specified. The purpose is to separate the intention of the subject of the discourse that attempts to justify pastoral succession from the goal of such discourse, thereby proposing the standards for understanding them and securing the reasonable grounds for re-examining the identity and directivity of South Korea’s Protestant churches through such standards.
  • 11.

    A Theological Study of ‘Animal Ethics’ in the Old Testament

    Lee Keung Jae | 2023, (56) | pp.315~348 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Christian theology has not only been indifferent to animal welfare and life but has also had to contend with the popular prejudice that it provides theological justification for the destruction of ecosystems and the ruthless exploitation of animals since the Industrial Revolution. With dozens of animal species becoming extinct every day and ecological space for wildlife being continually destroyed, we wanted to find out what the Old Testament had to say. The solution which we ignore is already there in many Old Testament texts. The core of the ‘animal ethics’ proposed in this study is that God creates humans and animals to live and multiply. This fact is valid from the time of God‘s creation until the end. The wisdom literature of the Old Testament tells us that the ’righteous‘ take care of all that animals need to sustain life. The Old Testament promises rest and flourishing without distinguishing between domesticated animals that benefit humans and wild animals that harm humans. And the Old Testament never views animals as tools for economic gain. Ultimately, 'animal ethics' in the Old Testament begins with recognizing animals as God’s creatures and objects for which humans have responsibilities and obligations.
  • 12.

    ‘Biophilia Effect’ on Aging Space: With Emphasis on the Ethical Understanding of ‘Growing Old’

    Lee Sang Hoon | 2023, (56) | pp.349~380 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine what contribution biophilia (effect) can make to preventing aging public space brought about by social and economic exclusion of middle-aged and older people, and underestimation of their functional abilities. This paper first attempted to explore such concept as spatial limitation and expandability, age malleability, and chronological age, which are deemed as conditions to cause or reverse aging public space. Then I examined how biophilia (effect) can help effectively cope with aging public space and encourage middle-aged and older adults to stay active and productive. Above all, it was found that relationships spanning age groups play an important role in grappling with prejudice and stereotyping about age and promoting active and meaningful aging. This finding pointed to ethical aging supported and pursued by biophilia (effect) as opposed to aging in terms of chronological age. Therefore this study showed that biophilia (effect) can have a meaningful effect on preventing aging public space as biophilic individuals are inclined to actively engage in ethical aging.
  • 13.

    A Methodological Study of Hate Speech and Counter Language on the Internet (Digital): From the Speech Act Theory and a Christian Perspective

    Anna Cho | 2023, (56) | pp.381~406 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is designed to explore the methodological principles of hate speech and counter language on the Internet from the speech act theory and Christian perspective. The hateful, indiscriminate, digital pouring out of speech under the right to freedom of expression leads to discrimination, exclusion, inequality, and separation between members of society. Targets of hate speech can be hurt by experiencing anxiety, anger, fear, discrimination, and separation, causing social damage. Thus, this article examines the methodological principles of the counter speech through Christian perspective, the speech act theory, and the performative language with social and ethical implications of language.
  • 14.

    A study on the moral characteristics of global ethics for the era of global disasters from the perspective of Christian ethics

    Yong-Hun Jo | 2023, (56) | pp.407~435 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Global disasters such as the world economic crisis, war, pandemic, and climate crisis threaten the planet and all life. However, traditional ethics before the era of globalization show limitations in responding to global disasters. Starting from recognizing this problem, the purpose of this study aims to seek the direction and outline characteristics of new global ethics to realize the vision of a safe and prosperous planet. The new global ethics differs from the traditional ethics in several respects as follows. Firstly, in global ethics, the moral identity of the actor is defined as a global citizenship, not as a people or nation. Secondly, in global ethics, the object of moral responsibility extends beyond humans to humans, society, or to nature. Thirdly, the temporal scope of moral consideration in global ethics extends beyond the past or present to the future. In this case, moral responsibility is characterized by preventive and precautionary, not by post-prescriptive responsibility. Fourthly, in global ethics, emotional elements such as empathy and compassion, which were ignored in rational-centered ethics, are emphasized, and through this, harmony between reason and emotion in moral discussion is sought. Lastly, we can find the normative foundation on which mankind can reach moral consensus beyond diversity and difference in the Golden Rule. It emphasizes not only normative universality but also the practice of compassion, which is helpful in coping with disasters.
  • 15.

    ‘Christian principles’ in Chosen Christian College and the practice of ‘Christian Worldview’ of Pastor Kang Seong-Gab

    Hong SeongPyo | 2023, (56) | pp.437~472 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Established after a fierce debate among missionaries, C.C.C stipulated and practiced ‘Christian principles’ as the basic principle of school management. Kang Seong-Gab, whom H. H. Underwood recognized as the “greatest talent produced by Yunheui,” was a representative figure who practiced C.C.C’s ‘Christian principles.’ He led the Christian social movement to create a new country where everyone was happy in Jinyeong-eup, Gimhae-gun, and Gyeongsangnam-do, During the Post-Liberation Period (1945∼1950). Since the creative transformation of humanity, which is a self-centered being, is possible only through faith in God, he advocated and practiced ‘National belief’ to reform the consciousness of the people of the new nation liberated from Japanese rule. His practice is an essential example of the ‘Christian principles’ pursued by C.C.C. and is a meaningful historical lesson for Korean Christianity today, which has lost the trust of society.