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2008, Vol., No.19

  • 1.

    Love Appropriation and Gender in the 1960's Narratives

    김복순 | 2008, (19) | pp.7~56 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Love Appropriation and Gender in the 1960's NarrativesKim, Bok-SoonLove is a conatus-social system.In 1960, gender was the most predominant category in narratives. The key words of love in male-gender point of view in 1960's was 'settlement, alienation, and body', and the female-gender was 'taste, deliverance, and virginal purity.' Male-centered petit-bourgeois and violent, sensual love was a comon factor in male-gender naratives, therefore, they never have romantic love.In female-gender naratives, love was a way to 'the liberty of women' and to 'the romantic love'. Womens' stories were focused on anxietyand frustration regarding to 'romantic love', which is very different from male-gender narratives.Such a 'romantic love' does work in god ways. Since they were against the modern patriarchy,preoccupied negative valuation on 1960'sfemale writers shouldbe withdrawn.Key WordsLove as conatus-social system, Love as settlement·alienation·and body, Love as taste, deliverance, and virginal purity, romantic love, swaping, militarism, anti communist enlightenment, reconstruction enlightenment, Seoul is full, Kim, Sueng-Ok, Man and Wife, Mrs. Mist, Barren Woman, Park Keoy-Hyong
  • 2.

    One Aspect of Changed Media in the 60s

    고선희 | 2008, (19) | pp.57~94 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Explosive popularity of radio dramas that started late 50s drove 'radio heyday' of the 60s; and most of the radio dramas during this period were remade into movies and garnered wide popularity from the public. In order to explore detailed aspects of the changed medium and implication of the time, the paper attempted to analyze three pieces of the representative playwright of the 60s, Han, Woonsa, namely <Till My Life Expires>, <South and North>, and <Under Certain Sky>. During the first half of the 60s, public had a habit of listening to the radio average of 3~5 hours a day, and radio drama was in the process of structuring the public's emotion and taste through its daily undertaking and persistence. While the movie industry was busy copying Hollywood movies and other foreign movies, radio drama made a good deal of Korean formats and among these the typical format is thought to be new-school melodrama. Due to radio drama's movie boom in the beginning of the 60s, that characteristic began to spread to movie's text. The characteristics of radio drama's is the Shin-pa melodrama in the 60s, that seemed to be influenced by Hollywood melodrama format and operetta during Japanese occupation with the Shin-pa flavoring, are slightly more apparent in <South and North> which came into movie during the middle of the 60s. In this period, radio drama wasn't free from dominant ideologies of the time led by public power, such as anti-communist ideology and modernization ideology. At a point of convergence between these ideologies and public emotion and taste, we can discover that contradicting factors, such as cooperation and resistance, existed side by side. It is on this crevice that the Shin-pa melodrama element began to be seen most apparent. Made into movie only a year after its first broadcast, this piece slightly masks anti-communist ideology on the one hand; but on the other, it strengthens melodramatic conflicts and alienates female main character even more; the fact that it manifests more apparent the Shin-pa melodramatic format implicates the internalization of self-contradiction in the forms of cooperation and resistance within the boundary of powerful dominant ideology of the time and the possibility that public emotion and taste might have gradually changed. As mass politics of the Third Repulic began to strengthen in the late 60s, the dominant ideology's usurpation of public emotion grew stronger and this public taste was in the brink of being transformed into ubiquitous structure of the time. The emergence of 1968's <One More Time, Even Though it's Hateful>, which is a symbolization of 'Korean Melo' or 'Shin-pa Melo' in the movie industry, can be analyzed as an output of the continued intake of nutritious matters within the boundary of strengthened radio-drama format. Han, Woonsa's <Under Certain Sky>, which was broadcasted in 1959, was made into movie again 10 years later in 1969 and whose altered text would be an interesting example supporting that hypothesis. By cutting major narrative elements and changing the point of view, the movie focuses only on love between man and woman, and thereby strengthens the piece's melodramatic character. As a result, when female main character searches for her husband in the snowy road and falls down dead calling her husband's name in the last scene of the movie, it acquires the full Shin-pa element. However, this last scene also existed in 1959's radio drama manuscript, and the Shin-pa melodrama format was already formed in radio drama. In conclusion, radio drama since the beginning of the 60s has actively expropriated public emotion and taste of the time and has been forming its own form of new-school melodramatic format; progressing into the mid-60s, its daily undertaking and persistence enabled it to come before a gradual structuring of consumer Habitus and media Habitus. The origin of the Shin-pa melodrama that created a boom in movie industry during late 60s can therefore be said to be retraced back to radio drama and soap opera, in particular, in the golden age of radio in the first half of the 60s. However, this is but a rough hypothesis delving on few limited pieces and there needs to be continuous studies on the matter.
  • 3.

    Reconfiguring Korean Modernist Film

    Sunjoo Lee | 2008, (19) | pp.95~126 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The 'modernist film' or 'art cinema (yesul-younghwa)' discourse in Korean cinema has not been genealogically studied because the tradition of self-consciousness about film form or film as a medium has remained slim on the whole throughout its history. Faced with this scarcity, my study aims at shedding light on the ways in which Korean film criticism of the 1960s imagined the 'art cinema' through the analysis of the discourses on The Foggy Town (Angae, directed by Kim Soo-yong, 1967), still known as "a masterpiece of Korean modernist film." I would eschew an aesthetic approach to The Foggy Town which tends to enshrine it in the pantheon of 'auteurist/modernist film'; investigating the ways in which multiple agencies that constituted Korean cinema of the 1960s―industry, policy, film culture, director, and criticism―were intertwined, I would instead reposition it within the historical dynamics of the time when it was released and gained remarkable popularity. In doing so, I would also reach out to historically reconstructing the tradition of Korean modernist film which had presumptively ceased to exist for thirtyyears until The Day a Pig Fell into a Well (Doejiga umul-e ppajin nal, directed by Hong Sang-soo) came out in 1996. The aspiration of world cinema during the 1960s to its 'newness,' exemplified by the French nouvelle vague, lead to the paradigm shifts in the film history: the advent of the auteur's age and the emergence of art cinema. Unlike its antecedent of the 1950s, Korean film criticism of the 1960s strived to catch up with this current of the world cinema as The Foggy Town was produced. I would argue that The Foggy Town must be conceived as an 'incoherent text,' inasmuch as it leaves coexisting a few aspects that revolved around Korean cinema of that time―realism, modernism, genericity, and popularity―therefore shaping itself as the mixture of the industrial elements of high-concept film [gihoek-younghwa] and the aesthetic elements of art cinema (yesul-younghwa)―what I would call 'high-concept-art film' (gihoek-yesul-younghwa). In this sense, what makes The Foggy Town interesting and rich lies not in its direct imitation of Western modern cinema, but in the tension where its heterogeneous elements aforementioned collided and negotiated with each other in the tradition of Korean cinema. Paying close attention to that tension, I would claim that it was the point of contradiction and fissure between the desire for the new art cinema and the components of existing popular genre film where modernity in Korean cinema was revealed.
  • 4.

    Adaptation of Novels in Korean Literary Films of the 1960s

    김종수 | 2008, (19) | pp.127~157 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    It is a peculiar phenomenon in Korean film history that Korean literary films of the 1960s drawn by national policy and producing capitalists had been popular. The novels had been applied to literary films in order to guarantee popularity and art. It could be roughly classified to four types for the novels applied to literary films were became popular in the 1960s. There are enlightenment stories and love stories, historical novels, local color stories, War and Postwar Stories as well. These novels had extended from 1917 till the latter of 1960s, which had been included popular appeals for audiences as well as film-industrial demands. In spite of national interferences and conspicuous claim for profits, it had been contributed to making Korean diverse films through providing stable storyline and leading film techniques the novels had applied to literary films in the 1960s. After the 1960s, most of Korean have found that the novels applied to literary films were representatives of Korean novels, for the novels had many chance to contact with the populace through the literary films.
  • 5.

    The Popular Arts Appropriated for the Classrooms in the School

    박성봉 | 2008, (19) | pp.161~190 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In a sense the classroom concerning the genre of horror deals with the popular arts on the whole. The popular arts are part and parcel in the young generation's daily life. The students in the classroom seems to agree with the negative criticism on the popular arts, but once they are out of the school they are still the very important group of consuming the popular arts. Generally speaking the youth-students do not exercise any serious influence upon any other groups of society at the same time they are not any more children. Besides they have difficulty to ascertain their own identity as a human-being in distress for surviving life itself, not to mention that they possibly have power of influence. Power is located on the other side of schools and institutions. At the same time the traditional system of value is radically changing. The youth-students responds sensibly this radical changes in search for the new system of value. But where they can find the object of their identification? The schools and institutions still demand the youth-students to follow the traditional way of discrimination, which the schools and institutions themselves do not believe any longer. On the other hand, the global cultural industry copes with the situation very effectively. To be sure, for the cultural industry it is a matter of commercial interest. The youth-students are fully aware of that, but the senior generation does not listen to what the younger generation really feels in their heart. In this circumstance the genre of horror has made a considerable impact on the younger generation. To the youth-students their experience of horror may be an initiation ceremony, or a demonstration of peer-group experience. The problem is the passive attitude the youth-students usually assume concerning the horror. The genre of horror should be appropriated to the classroom like any other areas of the popular arts. It is unquestionably required that the horror is to be understood as it is in the classroom on the condition that the due consideration should be paid constructively. First and foremost, it is the horizontal conversation between the school and the youth-students through which the cultural significance of the classroom dealing with the horror is to be acquired not only as an expansion of productive horizon but also as a new value-orientation in the era of uncertain prospect. In this context, this paper proposes a concrete model directly appropriated to the classroom for the discussion of horror inspired by and constantly referring to a Swedish case which is really thought-provoking.
  • 6.

    Yadam, Consumption of History as Entertainment in 1930's

    고은지 | 2008, (19) | pp.191~224 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    In the latter half of the 1920's, various forms of history products on top of various layers of culture and entertainment were poured out. Commercialization of history confirmed especially by the success of 『The Prince Ma-eui』led active production of historical novels and historical tales, and, among those, historical tales were welcome by public with ardent cheers, being continuously produced everyday by news papers, radio broadcasting and expert magazines. Such business of 'historical tales', with the basis on the public demand for storytellers, becomes more prosperous as the time passes through the mid and latter half of 1930's, favored by appearance of new connection spaces such as theaters, broadcasting stations and magazines. With the appearance of radio stations, an important chance is provided for historical tales to be consumed on a daily basis and, favored by the successive publications of the first editions of Monthly Historical Tales and Historical Tales, which removed the limitations, in time and in space, of consumption of historical tales, it acquired much wider consumer marketand placed itself as a day to day entertainment. The way historical tales are produced, a method of expressing in words or letters the stories contained in many literatures including 『Samguk Yusa』and 『Samguk Sagi』, enabled prompt mass production within a short period of time. Consumers found fun in historical tales, coming from transformation or regeneration of history into modern products of vulgar epical structures and such fun was the motive power for the ceaseless production and consumption of history as entertainment under the name of historical tales in 1930's. Especially, these historical tales were the origin of the popular programs like "Jeonseoldara Samcheonri“ and "”, and is an interesting subject of study in the sense that it provided a basis for historical dramas to become a popular genre among Korean public epical products.
  • 7.

    Fusionization of Popular Novel

    Ko Hoon | 2008, (19) | pp.225~254 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Until now the "moo-hyup" novel and fantasy novel constructed the territory of characteristics respectively and they grew and they came. 2000years after that two style is mixed but or the fusionization transformation which the element of different style comes to combine becomes accomplished, undergoes the change. The fusionization the aspect which transforms on a large scale is 4 kind degree, "fan-moo-hyup" systems, "dimension transfer" systems and "game novel" systems, there is a possibility of dividing with "modern" systems. These feature moves toward the new world and occurs the tale of adventure which draws or the element of different style is mixed in one style, makes the style is visible the tendency of the fusionization transformation is a thing. Like this fusionization transformation derived, with style of existing different style was fresh in the individuals who are surfeited simultaneously in style of existing an interest, with to approach and the mortar made a big duty widens a class of readers did. New the challenge consciousness and curiosity are combined and fusionization transformation of the popular novel which is born with the imaginative power which is infinite about being new, as the outcome goods of effort there is a possibility of doing. Specially fusionization transformation of "moo-hyup" novel and fantasy novel demand of the individuals who pursue the new thing and creates the new thing the author ceremony to go in gear, the new species style which is born will do. So far new style of course about popular novel is the actual condition where also the research is insufficient. In future many research is demanded.
  • 8.

    The Aspects of Enlargement and Transformation in the Adaptation from Novel to Film

    서동훈 | 2008, (19) | pp.255~280 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The process of turning a novel into a movie involves a change to the narrative to fit the sociocultural environment and logic of economy and the recreation of the original work according to the writer's unique interpretations of it. Also essential to the process are expansion and transformation according to media shifts. This study set out to review the patterns of expansion and transformation of narration at the result of media shifts based on The Scarlet Letter, which was adapted from A Murder at the Photo Shop and A Reflection on the Mirror. It also aimed to investigate the characteristics and differences of novels and movies. First, the point of view of the original novel gets changed in the adaptation process. Such a change is essential to media shifts. The basic difference between novel and film derives from the position of the speaker. Both A Murder at the Photo Shop and A Reflection on the Mirror are written in first-person observer narration, while The Scarlet Letter in omniscient-author narration according to the characteristics of the concerned medium. Secondly, there occur expansion and transformation in time and space. The time changes happening in the process of adapting a novel to a movie mean compressing diverse time compositions of the former in scene compositions in the latter. Such a phenomenon is reversed when it comes to a short story. In The Scarlet Letter, the trunk is changed into the space of a realistic and dreadful atmosphere as the meaning of its space described in the novels fades away. Finally, there occur expansion and transformation in terms of characters and events, as well. The movie borrows the relationships among the characters of the novels. The connotative meanings of the characters' personalities and backgrounds have close relations with the theme of the works and play important roles both directly and indirectly to cause an event. Adaptation is a process of turning a complete artistic work into another. In that sense, the movie The Scarlet Letter is a new creative work and further demonstrates as great artistic features as the original novels by bringing out the characteristics of a medium called film. But it ended up burdening the audience with its excessively highlighted consciousness of theme.
  • 9.

    A Study on Motif Extension of Television Visual Narrative

    류철균 | 이진 | 장정운 | 2008, (19) | pp.281~304 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with motif extension on television visual narrative. The Motif can be extend by the casual relationship time and logic as a controlling idea. These narrative aspect changes by the digital paradigm like a digital game which is nonlinear and procedural narrative. This study aims to look at this point of view throughout "Lost", an American serial television drama whose spatial scene in on a mysterious tropical island after plane crash. In narratives, dealing with the changes of events accompanied by the time elapsed, and that moment extended motif. The former linear literature like novel or film which is ruled by syntagmatic extension. however in the "Lost", totally different from former linear literature. In the "Lost", represented with juxtaposition between the narrative of the past and that of the present. Like this, the narratives are extended by paradigmatic rules and then narrative's nonlinear development dualized in each character become multi-stratified and rich with articulated combination. This fact causes unpredictable conclusion arousing various imagination. In this way, the motif with paradigmatic extension contributes to the formation of the nonlinear and multi-stratified narratives.