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2009, Vol., No.22

  • 1.

    The Yosun Incident and April Revolution, or Spatiotemporal Politics of Kim Seung-ok's Novels - Focused on Antagonistic Relationships Between anticommunism and liberalism -

    Miran Kim | 2009, (22) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In the childhood, Kim Seung-ok had lived in Suncheon and Yeosu, and when he grew to be a novelist, he often chose these small towns for his novels' literary places by representing them in the specific direction. In this paper, I tried to explain the discursive effects of his literary choices. In the concrete, I wanted to investigate the conflicts or antagonistic relationships between the signifying method oppressed by the censorship and anticommunism and his own method as he wished to persue. For this purpose, I took the con/text-reading method because this is a effective Methodological approach to explore author's spatiotemporal politics. And to conclude, I insisted that Yeosu and Suncheon had been political places because of the Yosun Incident before the appearances of Kim Seung-ok' novels. It means he replaced the politically signified Suncheon and Yeosu with the literary places. But this is the narrative strategy to remove the history and ideology. That's why it's the outcome of compromise of the censorship and anticommunism.
  • 2.

    Anti-communism and 1960s Spy Thriller in South Korea

    Young Suk Oh | 2009, (22) | pp.39~69 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the aspects and contexts of anti-communism in the Spy thriller film in the 1960s. The motivation for this work is to try to define the meaning and forms of the typical representation of anticommunism constituted in popular film such as spy thriller, and to understand the function and forms of Korean cinema in 1960s in relation to the internalization of ideology. ‘James Bond’ was perhaps popular and widespread mass-hero at that time, and the most important symbol to take notice of. Korean film tried to mimic ‘James Bond’, which producted spy thriller in 1965 and 1966. Important motives to the spy thriller are ‘strong man’ and ‘family reunit’. Especially, motif of ‘family’ reunit concerned the trauma which people want to cure, and emotion which people had in that era. They gave 1960's spectators pleasure by making them console their trauma and a sense of frustration in relation to historical experiences such as Korean War and 5.16 military coup and making the anticommunism internalized in spectator.
  • 3.

    The Discourse Topography of 1964 : Anti-Communism, Nationalism, Democracy, Liberalism, and Developmentism

    김건우 | 2009, (22) | pp.71~90 | number of Cited : 47
    Abstract PDF
    1964 was the year when the discourse struggle to monopolize the causes of nationalism and modernization broke out between the Republican Party based on Anti-Communism & Developmentism and dissident groups based on democracy & progressive nationalism. As a result, the discourse topograhpy was overally being changed. Sa-sang-gye was changing, and Cheong-Maek based on progressive nationalism was founded and began to have influence on intellectual society. Although, as lats as in 1964, counter-discourses based on liberalism/democracy appeared in Sa-sang-gye, dissident groups' main thesis was shifted from democracy to nationalism. Around 1964, Sa-sang-gye camp took part in discourse struggle surrouding nationalism. And it also was the case that counter-discourse groups' nationalism was thought as anti-imperialism/anti-colonialism linked with national liberation campaign. Cheong-Maek was the main medium of that kind of discourse. Meanwhile, the sprout of the debate between engagement literature and pure literature first appeared in literary field of 1964, which was the phenomenon pararrel to the differentiation of intellectuals. It was the year when Kim Seung-Ok seriously started his career as a writer writing Mujin-Gihaeng, and it can be argued that the advent of 4‧19 generation writers represented by Kim Seung-Ok proved that the role of liberalism in korea was changed from ideology of pro-modernization intelligentia to intellectual soil of ‘new intellectuals’. And it was also the year when progressive nationalist camp was formed in literary domain.
  • 4.

    The Styles of Anti-Communism in Korean comics during 1960's

    한상정 | 2009, (22) | pp.91~113 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine and analyse the korean comics in 1960's. In this period, the South-korea takes an anticommunist line, since the president PARK Jeong-hee became the president in 1963. The first, this paper summarize the representation of Anti-communism ideology in korean society. And then, we refer to the situation of korean comics to see the relation between the society and the comics in this period. The following analyse focus in four styles of the representation of Anti-communism ideology in korean comics in 1960's. The first, the narrative of Anti-communist in exposed strongly. Secondly, the ideology of Anti-communist in joined secondary to the narrative. Thirdly, the ideology of Anti-communist is appeared in the guise of the critic of the society. And last, the idea of Anti-communism is revealed for decorative purposes. However, there is a limit to represent the comics in 1960's because of the rareness of the comics book during 1960's.
  • 5.

    A Domestic Novel of Middle Class Families and the Imagination of anxiety : Subject to a full-length novel series by Kang shin jae.

    김은하 | 2009, (22) | pp.115~145 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Showing a result of the modernization serious in the latter third of 1960s, middle class families were represented as the core for the modernization, ‘Happy house and home’ was an image of symbolic space in which hold the point of conflict for Modernity in Korea and then solving them to appear a contradictions and abuses as well as collective desire lead to the consent of popular for modernization. In such process, a woman was presented as a subject who raising the healthy middle class culture. The middle class woman-housewife was a symbol of a sweet home that was rich materially and healthy morally, and came about the phenomenon of ‘family worship’ as enough to be 'a wise mother and good wife' was being an idea of self-reality for women. This suggested that a modernization project progressed to connect mutually between a modern nation, home and a woman. On the other hand, middle class families were a subject of woman's desire for the private, in which it would be equal and intimate. Getting toward the end of 60s, however, a serial novel that a woman was a reader was made visible doubt of a sweet home. The more a society praised, the higher was to be a tragedy for women's acrifice, and the romantic fantasy for sweet middle class families confused with a shadow of dread. This study tried to see it as the result of desire to seize a secret that contained in modernization, middle class families and femininity rather than a popular and simply restored to an original nature of a common and popular aspect of women's literature subject to a sequence novel by Kang shin jae. It was represented that women's adoration and doubt for gender equality and women's expectation and anxiety for power as presenting successful middle class families to the stage of narration.
  • 6.

    A Study of the Methodology of Character - with the case of the novel Mooyoungtop by Hyun, Jin-geun-

    최시한 | 2009, (22) | pp.147~174 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to make an alternative for a rational methodology of character clarifying the reason that there is no such one. To do so, I developed a methodology by newly establishing the concepts of character, characteristic, trait, or characteristic element and tested its validity by analyzing the novel Mooyoungtop(無影塔) by Hyun, Jin-geun. Character is the traits as whole. Trait, the property or nature of character in the structure of work, is the very basic unit of character analysis. The medium providing traits, namely relevant narration, factor or material involved in it is characteristic element. When traits come together and are synthesized, they constitute characteristic, a complex of interest, desire or morals, and this characteristic is understood mainly in internal, social, and functional aspects. Mooyoungtop uses many techniques which show a character's traits through scenes, however also takes on a contradictory aspect by the fact that the narrator exhibits the sovereign attitude based on a good-or-evil dichotomy. Therefore the traits of a character are superficial and fixed, and characteristic elements fail to possess or form a variety of traits. This has a very close connection with the work's lack of structural unity. Since the suggestion of internal traits of characters is poor and the social traits are not motivated well enough to the development of actions and events, the causal development of events integrated with the emotional and ideological conflict does not happen.
  • 7.

    Love Story and Reconstruction of Gender system - Focusing on {The Star of Lost Paradise} written by Kim Nae-seong -

    이선미 | 2009, (22) | pp.175~210 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This Article is about {The Star of Lost Paradise} written by Kim Nae-seong as love Story. Political liberation during the liberation period of Korea lead the sexual liberation. Many novels enlightened the way of loving, and sexual process. Loving-narrative idealized sexual drive and process in romantics. {The poem of the Hell} written by Park Gyue-ju seems to be tend to this aspect. And then, {Liberal Woman} written by Jeong Bi-seok is included in this trend. But wommen with liberal mind were called or catagorized as “apres” or “liberal wommen” who strayed away from traditional female gender ideology in nagatively. On the other hand, {The Star of Lost Paradise} written by Kim Nae-seong represented a new gender, reflected a change in situation. The relationship between Kang Seok-woon and Kim Ok-young represented the new relation of husband and wife. The relatiohnship between Kang Seok-woon and Go young-lim represented the changed relation of lovers. Love Story written by Kim Nae-seong reversed the conservative gender idea. This trend of Kim Nae-seong's novel is comparitive with that of Jeong Bi-seok' novel.
  • 8.

    ‘The Greater East Asia (大東亞)’ and Spy - Imaginative geography of ‘the Greater East Asia’ and ‘Joseon’ from the viewpoint of Typhoon, a full-length novel written by Nae-seong Kim -

    정종현 | 2009, (22) | pp.211~247 | number of Cited : 14
    This study sought to turn from a conventional practice of literary researches into Nae-seong Kim, a Korean modern novelist, which focused only on A Haunted Man , a typical and famous one of his novels written during period of colonized Korea under the rule of imperial Japan. In addition, this study also sought to review his popular novels such as White Mask (1937), A Haunted Man (1939), Typhoon (1942 ~43) and Traitor (1943~44), which are recognized as a series of detective novels written by Kim after the Sino-Japanese War. Kim's spy-detective novels complied with discourses about spy and those about the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere(大東亞共榮圈) as ideology of imperial Japan, which were widely popularized and propagandized in the late of colonial period. His spy-detective novels are recognized as popular epic works that sought to make a model of colonizer and project desires to form a new subject. In particular, Typhoon , one of Kim's novels, as analyzed intensively in this study, was originally serialized in the Korea Daily News(每日新報) (Nov. 21, 1942 to May 2, 1943) and was published as a separate volume in 1944. Then, Typhoon was ranked as such a popular novel as about total 8,000 volumes of its first edition were sold out just in one month after the first publication. Indeed, this novel deserves re-highlighting in the sense that it contains a pile of major characteristics revealed by Kim's detective novels, and also witnesses an aspect of popular novel readers' consciousness in the late of colonial period. But it has been not analyzed or addressed at all in previous studies. The Typhoon has its major framework of epic novel that depicts intelligence war for latest weapons among countries with the appearance of various national characters(Korean, Japanese, Chinese and Western) against a background of worldwide locations like United Kingdom, France, India and Shanghai(China) beyond the boundary of colonized Korea. It indicates how the geopolitical imagination expanded by war and the ideology of the Greater East Asian War could meet the popular tastes with ‘detective’, a code of popular epic literature. This novel was created under the influence of triumph called ‘the victory of early war’ involving Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and surrender of Singapore. So it deserves criticism for ‘pro-Japanese novel’ in the sense that it reproduces the imperial Japanese ideology of ‘the Greater East Asia’, but it shares a literary rule of composition for creation of subjective personality revealed by Korean modern literature in the late colonial period, because it boldly deploys Korea and Korean scientists in a core of ‘the Greater East Asia’ and physical power for reorganizing world order and thereby reveals a desire for colonized men as subjects of colonized country to take the initiative to build up Korea as a subjective member of new world. After the 1945 Liberation of Korea, Nae-seong Kim successfully took a new reputation as a master of Korean modern romance. However, his early spy-detective novels against a background of colonized Korea still had influenced his follow-up epic works such as Story of the Youth and Red Butterfly (1955) based on Arirang .
  • 9.

    A Study on Jang Deok-jo's Radio Novel in the 1950s - Focusing on “The Roses are Sad”-

    Choi, Mi-Jin | 2009, (22) | pp.249~282 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study is aimed at taking a closer look at the background for the creation and the codification mode of the radio novel "The Roses are Sad" written by Jang, Deok-jo. The radio novel of 53 episodes aired every day at 6:30 p.m. for 15 minutes between December 1, 1956 and January 26, 1957 on the <Serial Story> program, and Actress Choi, Eun-hui played reading. Encouraged by the emergence of a new private broadcaster and supported by the initiatives of new broadcasting leadership, the Seoul Central Broadcasting Station first introduced <Serial Novel> Program in the mid-1950s. The first edition of the program "The Roses are Sad" was a prime-time radio show. Even though radio novels at that time were still incomplete as a stand-alone art, "The Roses are Sad" showed some distinctive radio novel formats. For example, the programs used more speaking lines to add more spices to the one-person reading and to arouse listeners' imagination, reduced the number of characters to help listeners to distinguish characters based only on radio actor's voice and easily follow the flow and situation of the story, and cast a persuasive narrator to familiarize listeners with the messages. Its efforts to convey accurate messages served as both an advantage and a limitation. The narrative style of this radio novel featured the grammar patterns of romance stories and contemporary incidents of that time, which were very familiar to listers. Based on this narrative style, it was trying to make the issue of the remarriage of widows with children a public discourse. Love, conflicts and death of the character Roh, Baek-mi called listers' attention to the controversial issue of widows' remarriage. Dominant power at that time strengthened motherhood ideology to disallow their remarriage and this novel conveyed this to listeners as a primary code. There were some minor codes as well. The conflicts in Roh Baek-mi's love repeatedly unfolded, leaving room for consideration, and other negotiable codes proposed by supporting characters could be seen as the necessity to change the predominant code. In addition, if listeners embraced Roh, Baek-mi's death as a paradoxical survival tactic, they could find a hidden defiant code.
  • 10.

    Cracks and Resistance in the Family Narrative of Park Chung-Hee Regime : On Kim Su-Hyun's Melodrama Films

    김한상 | 2009, (22) | pp.283~313 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Cheongnyeon Culture, a sort of youth culture led by male intellectuals in 1970s' South Korea, is the key concept which has been mainly discussed as the representative cultural practice during the Yushin(Revitalizing Reform) period of the Park Chung-Hee regime. This is considered as the critical and countervailing practice against the ‘hegemonic’ popular culture, but, while concentrating only on the subjective cultural productions of highly educated society, is missing cultural practices conducted by diverse subcultural subjects who could not be assigned to such specific status. Kim Su-Hyun's melodramas of 1970s bring forth an useful counter-argument against such fragmentary tendency. Even though she started her career as an agency of reactionary Shinpa(new-school) drama in 1960s, her family narrative owned and enlarged its distinctive features which opposed the paternalistic values of existing melodramas. This grew into more a political attitude in late 1970s' Yushin period, as descriptions on gender/class conflicts, destructive narratives on patriarchal values, and fundamental skepticism on masculine youth. This inclination is worthy of notice, because it was revealed not by the auteurism of the Cheongnyeon Culture, but by the popular TV scriptwriter Kim Su-Hyun who was devoted to the desire of the mass. In melodramas, which were easily defined as ‘conventional’ or ‘governing’ culture, subcultural subjects could occasionally cultivate the potentiality of dynamic cultural practices destroying hegemonic narratives.
  • 11.

    Betrachtung über die wichtigen Begriffe der nordkoreanischen Kulturtheorien

    이춘길 | 2009, (22) | pp.315~344 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In Nordkorea wurden alle Kultur- und Kunstbereiche wie z.B. Publikation, Zeitung, Sendung, Theaterstück, Film, Musik, Literatur usw. bereits direkt nach der Befreiung Koreas von Japan als politische Waffe, die die Völker sozialisch bildet und die Partei und die Völker verbindet, sowie als starke propagandistische Medien, die die Arbeiterklasse zu den Aufgaben des Wirtschaftsbaus veranlassen, betont und engagiert angewendet. Der Grund dafür, dass Nordkorea große Interesse an allen Kultur- und Kunstbereichen zeigt, liegt darin, dass Nordkorea sehr gut weiß, dass die Völker durch die Kultur und Kunst freiwillig dem Herrschaftssystem zustimmen. Die Form und der Inhalt der gesamte Konstruktion der nordkoreanischen Kulturtheorien werden durch die subjektiven Kulturbegriffe, die auf die nordkoreanische einzigartige hegemoniale Ideologie, d.h. Juche-Ideologie basieren, festgelegt. In diesem Aufsatz wurden als ideologische Grundlage für die nordkoreanischen Kulturtheorien der subjektive Kulturbegriff in Nordkorea und dessen theoretische Realisierung d.h. Theorien der Volkskultur bzw. Klassenkultur betrachtet. Außerdem wurden die Kulturrevolutionstheorie, die als praktische Leitlinien der nordkoreanischen Kulturtheorien angesehen werden, und die heutigen kulturellen Tendenzen dargestellt.