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2014, Vol.20, No.2

  • 1.

    Girl readers and contemporaneity of popular literature in the colonial era : Focussing on reading trend of Japanese literary works and popular magazines

    KIM MIJI | 2014, 20(2) | pp.7~35 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Reading of girl’s and girl readers are often estimated to be of an inferior and sentimental sorts rather than that of men’s and youth readers. And women writers’ works are also low-estimated by the rhetoric of ‘girlish’ and ‘girlish taste’. In Korea girls of modern times in the early 20thcentury gradually emerged from obscurity to the surface in the reader’s culture and market, as they were educated in the public schools and learned reading and writing in Korean and Japanese. Although they were very small group, only 1~2 percent of total population of Korean women, they played more and more important roles in reading book market at that time. Girl readers of colonial Korea slid in to the gap between high class reading culture (elite readers) and low quality reading culture (sentimental popular readers) and they developed their own reading tastes and reading trends. Especially they were enthusiastic for reading Japanese popular literary works so as to poems of Saijo Yaso, novels of Gikuchi Gan and Japanese pop magazines for women and girls such as <Friend of wives>, <Girl’s club>. Simultaneously the huge commercialized publishing industry from Japan in the 1930’s absorbed newly emerged girl readers rapidly also in Korea. It was certain that girls were important targets for the publishing industry, but they existed in between children and adults, men and women, elite culture and popular culture, therefore they had rather freely developed their tastes for books and reading and made cracks in the main stream elite culture and crashed border lines of popular low-class culture and elite high-class culture.
  • 2.

    Admit Literary Girl : The Cultural Politics of ‘Literature/youth’ after 4.19

    Suk Ja Park | 2014, 20(2) | pp.37~66 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Literary girls’ were the nuclear representation of cultural politics after the liberation. In the 1950’s, ‘literary girls’ were the sign of literary readers of the ‘hakwon generation’ taking liberalism as their basis of culture while in the 1960’s, ‘literary girls’ were the sign of negation and imitation degraded as the sign of post-historical hostility contrasting semantically against ‘youths’ represented as the subjects of history. After the liberation, ‘literary girls/boys’ were literary readers of the Hangul generation that had acquired the principles of democracy. Although in the 1960’s, the ground for ‘what to be literature’ was formed, a variety of democratic dynamisms or trends they held beforehand were excluded or underestimated in the public field of discussion during the 1960’s. It is the result of the fact that in the 1960’s, the meaning of ‘youths’ as the subjects of history was set excessively in the nationalistic background. On account of this, within the contrast between ‘local/foreign’, ‘body/mind’, or ‘labor/playfulness’, the semantic ground for youths, literary girls ‘reading the book of French poems’ were discussed as the sign of a deep-rooted evil hindering national development, and furthermore, they were underestimated as the ‘imitation of literature’ within the field of literature. After the 1960’s, ‘literary girls’ did not remain in the descriptive definition of ‘girls who like to read literary works’, but the books they chose to read were underestimated as the ‘imitation of literature’, too, and even the dynamic cultural flow after the war came to be excluded as well. Therefore, various trends or pursuits achieved first by the literary boys and girls in the 1950’s got to be segmented, so it led to the conservatism and rigorism of ‘muncheong’ in the 1960’s.
  • 3.

    Dynamics of the translation and acceptance of Anne of Green Gables in modern Korea: community, individuality, and gendered literary imagination

    SUNGYEUN KIM | 2014, 20(2) | pp.67~102 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean translation of Anne of Green Gables, written by Canadian author Montgomery, has been a steady bestseller enjoyed by Korean female readers since the 1960s. This publication has won over children and adult readers as well as teenagers and has been turned into visual media, showing a significant presence in the literary history which allows us to understand Korean mass culture through the generations. By organizing the periodical characteristics of the publication and consumption of this text, the present paper examines the history of its acceptance and aims to investigate the literary dynamics whereby a single text is deflected as it crosses over national boundaries, is enjoyed in the receptive culture, and reflects a certain outlook on the world. Furthermore, the paper encompasses the points of contention related to the aspects of gender and nationalism in the narrative of Anne of Green Gables. Through an empirical comparative study of the translated versions, the above-mentioned discourse can be further elaborated. Shin Ji-Sik’s translation was the first Korean translated version and the most widely read, although it was a retranslation (or secondary translation) of the Japanese version. It was therefore influenced by the translator Muraoka Hanako’s worldview and the literary context, as he had worked with an awareness of girls’ fiction in the 1950s. The “tension between the exclusive ethnic communities” had been prominent in the original text, but as the text was introduced to Korea through Japan, the focus was shifted to problems of “individual willpower to overcome a difficult environment”, and the “conservative view of women” was strengthened. For readers in Asia, the background of the text was not the nationalistic symbolism of Canada, but an ideal village community with a lyrical natural landscape. In the literary and publishing market of 1960s Korea, Anne of Green Gables took on a somewhat disparate existence as a “narrative of growth into a member of the community based on a positive view of the world and a conservative view of women”. As a literary study, this paper emphasizes the idea that the conflict driving the overall narrative of Anne of Green Gables was the tension between “literature” and “productivity”’. The conflicts between the “literary language and performative/deictic conversation”, the “traditional rules of the community and individual freedom”, and the “usefulness of girls and boys in the labor force” are illustrated through series of episodes in order to reproduce three-dimensionally the method by which the social value and usefulness of “literature” and “woman” have been gendered. Imagination in Anne of Green Gables is permitted only to the point where rationality and the productivity of society are not threatened, and imagination expires the moment the character grows into a member of the community. In this way, the imaginative girl is returned to the community. Anne of Green Gables embodies the reality and hopes of a Canadian woman in 1908, and the book still stands at the start of the 21stcentury as a resonance of the reality of late20th-century Korean women, and of the possibility for literary imagination.
  • 4.

    The Topology of a Diliquent Girl in 1960’s Korea

    Heo Yoon | 2014, 20(2) | pp.103~130 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is aimed to analyze the discourse about a diliquent girl in 1960’s Korea. Park’s regime gave cognitive turn to juvenile deliquents from national frame to personal problem. Through the girl’s confession and reflection, the community could re-purify and the girls reclaim their name. This is the public order, or security’s field. Park’s regime produced political spectation about security force, censorship, and sexuality. These were made to enlight people to be modest. But the girls’ autobiography draw a line to escape from this spectation. The nervous, fragile representation of a girl who make troubles come across the public order. The volatile voices do not reflect, but make accusation of their deliquent parents, school, and community. By doing so, the girls have followed the security and the same time, they broke the rule. The image of a girl in shool uniform is the project of Park’s regime. The regime made teenage girls become into a school girl. But there also was a girl who worked so hard to make profit for their family, community, and country. These workers were in the gilrs’ shadow. The Diliquent Girls are over-representation of the (w)hole in the system.
  • 5.

    A Study on Girl Represented in <My Daughter Rescued from the Swamp> : Focusing on the Relationship in Sexuality, Family and Public authorities

    Hyejin Hwang | 2014, 20(2) | pp.131~163 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As having a dual otherness and subject of on-going, girl explicitly shows the inherent contradictions of a specific society. From this perspective, to analyzing the texts which focused on girl means to reveal the relationship between subjects and others in Korean society. This paper aims get two objects. through multi-layered reading on the process of constructing the parents' sexuality as well as that of girl's and peculiarities of the relationship between family and public authorities represented in <My Daughter Rescued from the Swamp>(Lee Mirae, 1984) which had broken with the popular tradition of 1970's high-teen films. First, this analyzing would let us know ways of representing which new military junta of Chun Doo-hwan blasts the private realms as a contaminated one. Second, the results of storytelling of this film is going to reveal the means how governmental authority tries to justify themselves through purifying the family life including problems of sexuality and reorganizing the private realms. Finally this study shows that <My Daughter Rescued from the Swamp> is rocked in the ruling ideology of the first half year of 1980's and strengthen the regime of new military junta by forcing dominant-hegemonic reading. But in spite of these limits, the last sequence of this film which produces the possibility of oppositional reading could imagine the crack of ruling system of new military junta.
  • 6.

    Moving Pictures, Umigwan, and Action Film: The Influence of Early Cinema in Mu-jeong

    Sangmin Kim | 2014, 20(2) | pp.165~204 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyses the influences of early cinema which is prominent in Lee Gwang-Su’s Mu-jeong (1917). In the previous literary criticisms of Mu-jeong, there has been a tendency to treat the influence of visual media such as moving pictures of that time to be secondary. However, I argue that Mu-jeong discloses crucial factors that cannot be explained by simply limiting them in terms of literature and print media- from depiction to its motives, there exists the pivotal points at which the influence of the movies of that time projected strongly. To articulate these aspects, this essay focuses on ‘moving pictures’, ‘Umigwan’, and ‘action film’ as key words to examine the influence of the movie culture at that time on this novel. First of all, when reading “What is Literature?” (1916) and Mu-jeong together, the depiction theory stressed in “What is Literature?”, which emphasizes visual effects, is materialized through moving pictures in Mu-jeong. As we can see, the depictions related to moving pictures of Mu-jeong have been used as methods to develop modern novels, with important conceptualization starting from the theory of literature. Also, it appears that these depictions in Mu-jeong were influenced by Byun-sa (Korean film commentator) of motion picture regarding its narration at that time, and some of the lines could not have appeared on Mu-jeong without a descriptive model of Byun-sa. Besides this, at the time when modern sensationalism had taken over, action and disaster scenes could also be observed in Mu-jeong. It is not possible to show the influence of the moving pictures in Mu-jeong in any other specific movie, but we can see it by checking the context of the broad film cultures of the times.
  • 7.

    Several Principles for Textual Criticism of Literature : Focusing on the Pak Kyong-ni’s “Toji”

    Cho, Yun A | Lee, Seung-yun | 2014, 20(2) | pp.205~240 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In case of long novels, many of them are published in newspapers or magazines in the form of serial publications, and then they are published as a single book. It has been asserted that the level of completion of a work becomes enhanced once those novels are published as a single book after going through this process; however, a single book is not always of a higher level of literary work than a serial novel. Park Kyung-ni's “Toji” was published over a period of 25 years. It was published in a series while being moved to nine media, and it began to be published as a single book before the completion of the series. Also, no less than eight publishers published it as a single book. These characteristics are not uncommon. This study was conducted based on a premise that correct versions should be determined to solve problems incurred as novel work in series was published in complex and diverse books (several versions). We have intensively examined several issues which were regarded as dilemma among the matters to be considered for determination of correct versions. The first one is the part revising the nonstandard language used in serial novel at the time of publication of book. Second one is the revised parts when book was published due to self-censorship of author after release as the serial novel. Since the intention of author is important for determining the correct versions, it is natural to accept and reflect it in the correct versions if the author actively revised it. If such reflection deleted the personality of expression or sense of author when releasing the work originally, better selection should be made. It seems best to select the critical good version in a way to raise the personality and literary value of author in the situation when author is not alive.
  • 8.

    Sexuality, or the Embodiment of Social Relationships : Focussing the analysis of Psy’s Music Video “Gangnam Style”

    Kim, Ki-Sung | Choi, Yujun | 2014, 20(2) | pp.241~274 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Why does sexuality matter? This question is being raised in the face of the situation that socialization of sexuality has increasing effects on the various areas of life in Korean society, having been highly industrialized in 21st century. Is it a sign of human liberation in terms of the emotional reorganization of social lives through sexual liberation? Or, is it just a process of justifying the release of sexual desires conforming to neo-liberalistic order? For whom, in other words, or for what is the liberation? What promise does it hold? Why does it matter, if it really does?This essay starts from a standpoint that sexuality is not only an essential mechanism by which individual identities are constructed on the level of sensibility, but a medium through which social and cultural relationships and even class locations are revealed. In order to answer those questions above, we will examine some precedent theories on sexuality first, and then analyze the sexuality represented in Psy’s music video “Gangnam Style” released in July 2012.
  • 9.

    A Certain Lacanian Mirror in Korean Independent Teen Movie. : Focusing on <Bleak Night>(2010) and <Pluto>(2012)

    함성주 | 2014, 20(2) | pp.275~302 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper deals with the tendency of recent teen film in Korean independent cinema and especially focuses on the cinematic representation of adolescent masculine subject formation. The peculiar tendency of recent independent Korean teen film, dealing the juveniles is that it is derailed from the usual format of teen film, according to Wood's categorization of teem movie, which often prioritizes juvenile sexuality. The insecure and fragile juvenile masculine subject in Korean independent teen film is often inclined to resort to violence which leads to juvenile deviation, reminding the social problem such as school bullying and adolescent suicide. The question of affinitive relationship between the subject formation and aggression is discussed in relation to Lacan's mirror stage and death instinct, together with Donald Winnicott's different interpretation of aggression. The principal film texts which are analyzed in detail in relation to this specific tendency are <Bleak Night> (2010) and <Pluto> (2012). In case of those two films, they strongly exemplify the repetitive movement of death drive that is resided in Korean teen films in the 2010s and the distinct cinematic style in those films, which visualizes the aggression of adolescent male subject is also discussed.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Function and Role of Popular Novel as a Culture Content Focused on 1950's

    KANG, OKHEE | 2014, 20(2) | pp.303~338 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to scrutinize the differences and similarities of text media by analyzing the narrative constitution of the original works and their 1950s' adapted films, which were based on the original. The subject works of study include <Life in Pictures>, <The Beloved>, and <The Star in the Lost Paradise> written by Raesung Kim, <Madam Freedom> written by Beesuk Jung, <The Extreme Love> written by Gyejoo Park, and <The Heart of Flower> written by Ingeun Bang. Those novels became the original resources of films, andthey were tremendously beloved not only as novels but also as its films. Among these movies, only three remain in the form of its film. Thus, as for the works preserved in the film, comparative analysis of the film and its scenario is conducted. Also, when it comes to the other works, through the empirical study and specific analysis, the systematic correlation is examined between the original genre and OSMU(One Source Multi Use) complex contents such as the correlation of motif and the element of popularity. The second investigation is as to its function and role of a popular novel. Among the subject pieces of study, <Madam Freedom> written by Beesuk Jung has been the first OSMU (One Source Multi Use) since the liberation of Korea in 1945, which shows the great value as contents through the text media conversion ranging from a serial novel and a play to a cinema. It consequently has a great effect on the emergence of movies based on the original popular novels. The most important reason for convert popular novels into movies is the popularity, which is an important indicator to understand the desire of the masses and the contemporary culture. The popularity of the original resource novels is concerned with the experience of exotic culture since the Korean Civil War, the desire for consumption, the publishing mechanism of capitalism, and commercialization of the movies. The popular novels since the liberation of Korea overall portray exotic experience through American inundated with films; a dance culture flowing out of the United States Armed Forces stationed since the Korean Civil War; après guerre girls who had to take charge of their domestic economy; the entry of women's workforce into society who were substituted for the men's; women's awareness of gender identity; the change in the notion of love; the fetishistic desire for fortunes. These factors have extremely influenced the conversion from popular novels, the literary text to cinematic text providing extense visual stimulus and have become one of the critical elements and enable OSMU (One Source Multi Use) to be converted into the mass culture contents.