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2015, Vol.21, No.2

  • 1.

    The Translated Acceptance of Japanese Literature and Publication of Literary Anthologies in the 1960s - Focusing on the Anthology of Postwar Japanese Literature

    Jongho Lee | 2015, 21(2) | pp.7~38 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper shows how Shingu book Publisher's Literary anthology of postwar Japan was translated, published and accepted in South Korea in the 1960s. With the April 19 revolution, Shingu book publisher made plans for the complete series of Postwar World Literature. Anthology of Postwar Japanese Literature [Ilbon jŏnhu munje jakp'umjip] was a cultural product for both the April 19 generations' aesthetic taste and desire of reading. Because of a strong aversion to Japanese culture, Shingu book publisher came to meet severe criticism from the public spheres. Based on the generation theory, Lee, Eo-Ryong, one of the major editors of the complete series of Postwar World Literature, persuaded critics persistently, claiming the even exchange of cultural value between South Korea and Japan. However, under the historical differences between Postwar Korea and Postwar Japan, Literary anthology of postwar Japan [Ilbon jŏnhu munje jakp'umjip] failed to show the equality of cultural value. Although they seemed like a kind of generation theory or nationalism, the arguments for and against the translated acceptance of Japanese Literature were based on the strong Inferiority complex about Japan culture. Criticizing Literary circles, book markets, and Korean inner society, these arguments sometimes served as an opportunity of self-reflection.
  • 2.

    The Receptiveness and Characteristics of Japanese Novel “Daemang (Tokugawa Ieyasu)”

    Lee Han Jung | 2015, 21(2) | pp.39~83 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This novel examines the Korean receptiveness and characteristics of “Daemang,” the Korean translated version of “Tokugawa Ieyasu” by Yamaoka Sohachi. “Daemang,” which was translated by Jae-hee Park and published in a series of 20 books in 1970, was then published in a series of 32 books in total by including the works by other authors. Currently, this novel is being distributed in the market in a series of 36 books that were published in 2005. For this translated version, up to vol.12 is “Tokugawa Ieyasu” by Yamaoka Sohachi, and the rest is the works by Yoshikawa Eiji and Shiba Ryotaro. In 2000, the entire 32 books of “Tokugawa Ieyasu,” which was translated by Gil-jin Lee and used the same title of the original book, were published after making the official license contract with Japan. In addition, there are numerous other translated versions of “Daemang” or “Tokugawa Ieyasu” that have a different number of books, and the digest version and the translated version “compiled into one book” were also published. Yet, “Tokugawa Ieyasu” by Yamaoka Sohachi first passes as “Daemang” in Korea. The novel was titled “Daemang” to express the wish of the original author who wrote it while pursuing ‘survival’ and ‘peace.’ However, “Daemang” was accepted as symbolizing Tokugawa Ieyasu’s ‘Great Ambition.’ This book was treated as Tokugawa Ieyasu by the mass media due to the hostility toward Japanese culture, but captivated public readers as a book for experience and knowledge in life and textbook for the art of living. It was read widely across all generations, especially by company CEOs and politicians. This stemmed from readers’ desire to learn the “Daemang” of company and state management, which manage humans, through “Tokugawa Ieyasu” by Yamaoka Sohachi.
  • 3.

    The Relationality between South Korean Erotic Films and Japanese Adult Films - the Production Conventions of Theatrically Released Adult Films of the 1970s and 1980s in the Two Nations, Considering the Case of Madame Aema

    Yun-Jong Lee | 2015, 21(2) | pp.81~117 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The characteristic of South Korean cinema of the 1980s is the exceedingly prevalent production of theatrically distributed adult films that are called ‘ero’ films that effectively take advantage of visual ‘eroticism’ in the mainstream industry. As a quite uniquely Korean film genre, the ero film is not only a by-product of the 3Ss Policy that was implemented by the Chun Doo Hwan administration, but it was also the way in which the national film industry came to terms with the global trend of mainstream adult-filmmaking that was particularly popular in the West including the Western-European countries and the U.S. as well as in Japan. Therefore, the ero film is a transnational genre in terms of its entanglement with the foreign conventions of film production, distribution, and reception, and at the same time the very national genre in that it developed into a reflection of local particularity and quirkiness. In addition, the ero film is peculiarly Korean in that its productions, which were explosive in the mid-eighties and meekly continued in the early nineties, virtually ceased in the mid-nineties and yielded to direct-to-video productions of ‘ero video,’ a South Korean soft pornography genre. However, ero film is not completely free from the influence of Korea’s former metropole and neighbor country, Japan, inasmuch as the term ‘ero’ was originated from Japan and the very first ero film, Madame Aema show a few conventions of the contemporary Japanese adult films. The present paper attempts to find the role of the Japanese adult film in the ero film’s formulation by tracing the Japanese influence in it.
  • 4.

    Sex tour industry and ‘Gisaeng’ in Korea in 1970, 80’s

    kwon changgyu | 2015, 21(2) | pp.119~147 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Korea was famous for one of the sex tour countries of Asia in 1970, 80's. Although 'Gisaeng tour' was one of the basic industries of Korea at that time, it has not been an important academic matter among researchers. But Gisaeng tour was not a historical happening so it was the succession of the formal institution of prostitution since Japanese colonial period as well as the prostitution of sexuality in 1970's all over the world. Park Jeong-hee (朴正熙) government offered a premium to Gisaeng tour industry which made a satisfactory profit without environmental pollution. Gisaeng industry should be investigated from a point of view such as gender, sexuality, class, nation and capital. Ultimately, this study would ask the proletarian women's human rights during development capitalism in 1970, 80's.
  • 5.

    Korean Popculture & Romance in the Korean Popular Novel of the 1950s from the Viewpoint of Date Place

    KANG, OKHEE | 2015, 21(2) | pp.151~185 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is about taking a look into the aspect of the popular culture at the time and change of the dating culture or style by the dating course in the popular novels from 1950's. The object works to the analysis are , <Madam Freedom> written by Beesuk Jung, <Life Picture>, <The Star in the Lost Paradise> written by Raesung Kim, <Star in My Heart> written by Gyejoo Park, The popular novles from the 50's shows the change of the aspect of the crowd's life and their resentments really well than any other pieces of literatures. Furthermore, the dating place and the course consists the main place as the narratives of the romance story and also makes the story various and interesting. It is believed that it is available to figure out the aspect of life, rituals and even the pattern of the consumption of the people that time by following the route of their dating course in the story. So, it is able to see the dating culture and the life of the period realistically by the popular novels. The date courses in the popular novels from the 50's are various including a palace, countryside, a cafe, a Chinese restaurant, a theatre, a dance hall, an amusement park, a beach, a spa, a golf course, a department store, a grill, a water spring and etc. The dating place of the characters' shows the life of the people at that time and further, it reflects the trend and the rituals of the people at the time and it's very interesting to find out that the characters' intension and the aspect of the act differs by which place they go for the date. That is to say, where the characters live and be placed can appear as various meaning such as just be a place for consumption, place for the reflection of their pure love or sometimes for revealing their sexual desire. This study refers the dating course from the pieces above not only tells the audience about the characters' route of the movement, but also a place for reconstituting the cultural taste and the new cultural experience of the people in the 50's. Also, it is able to read the crowd's reflected desire by the semantic network of the meanings of the places. By accepting and experiencing the modern and new foreign experiences due to the dance hall or Hollywood movies which are embodied as the place for the new culture and sometimes as the place for the sexual desires, led people to experience about the theatre, grill, golf course or etc. Just the substitute experiences of keeping the tune of the foreign thoughts and the culture itself entertained the crowd.
  • 6.

    College Girls in the Movie <Winter Woman> and Emotion Structure of Korean Society in 1970s

    Kang Yu-jung | 2015, 21(2) | pp.187~217 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    A college girl in 1970s was a sort of symbol. Unlike factory girls, housemaids and hostess-escorts, which appeared after industrialization of 1970s, college girls reminded people of those from rich households above middle class. This is involved in many movies of 1970s with college girls heroins. College girls formed a certain image in movies, novels and TV shows. The basis of popularity of the movie <Winter Woman>, directed by Hosun Kim in 1975, was the prejudice of college girls. Eehwa, the main character of the movie, expresses a sexual aberration, which is the opposite image that the public had for college girls. She has rich middle class family and high education, which reflect her exclusive image, but she is willing to offer her body. Her behavior shows people's secret desires and emotion structure of 1970s. What is important is Eehwa's sexual eccentricity is mostly for men(others)'s desire rather than her own desire, so she is called “sex girl”. In a patriarchal society, she can be viewed as a sex girl, but in her desire's prospective, it is more like hysterical desire. By giving permanent loss to others, she finds value of existence. Her ironic desire of finding her existence by becoming the object of desire is closely related to the public's emotion structure in 1970s. In the environment of post-modernization and harsh dictatorship, what the public of those days were required was to become hysterical main agents who could be satisfied by becoming the object. The box office record of 600 thousands is the evidence that shows the movie communicates with the emotion structure and reflects the desire of the public of the days. Eventually, Eehwa is ideal and reproduction of the public of 1970s.
  • 7.

    Female Labourers as stereotyped images in Labour novels in the 70’s

    Kim Kyung Min | 2015, 21(2) | pp.217~248 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In the field of literary history of Korea, the 70’s is evaluated as an era of popular literature and labor literature. However, in these novels written in the 70’s that would talk about issues related to labor, female labourers are hardly observed. To be specific, the female labourers are observed or reproduced only through these eyes of male characters or male narrators but they seldom speak in their own voices. Presence of the female labourers who could not speak for themselves in the novels of those times is recreated basically in two ways and as for the first type of presence, the female labourers are described merely as ‘women’ but never as ‘labourers’. Most of these appearances of the female labourers explained by the male characters get distorted as some decadent and promiscuous images or by reason that they are not capable of conducting independent, proactive thinking, the female labourers are described as these vulnerable, ignorant individuals but nothing else who should be happy to be controlled or protected by a head of a family, either a father or an older brother. In addition, in terms of another type of the female labourers in the novels in the 70’s, there are these female labourers who would be described only as asexual ‘labourers’, and readers cannot find anything feminine about those women. In case of such female labourers, they were expected to accept sacrifices and pains with willingness as they were modified by these appetizing terms, ‘industrial worker’ and ‘pillar of industry’, and in the meantime, desires, emotions and others that they could have inside as women were easily ignored and ruled out. Add to that, unlike the male labourers, as for these problems such as sexual harassment and sexual violence that only female labourers could hardly avoid, they were never officially discussed as being left out behind these other generalized labor issues. As described so far, the female labourers in labour novels in the 70’s were still surrounding characters, and it can be regarded as another type of violence committed by the intellectual/men on purpose (out of awareness).
  • 8.

    A Study on the popular magazine “YADAM (historical tale)” in 1950s-1960s

    Byounggill Kim | 2015, 21(2) | pp.249~288 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The object of this study was the representative magazine in the 1950s, “YADAM (historical tale)”. “YADAM” published monthly in the form of more than 10 years as a specialized entertainment magazine was highly popular. The lots of factors involved in the such popularity. The goal of this research is to make explanations to both the text of magazine editing configuration and system and mechanism of the content of public consumption. “YADAM” in the 1950s is located in the intersection where the woof on genealogy - “WOLGAN YADAM” and “YADAM” in the 1930s and the longitude on same time-the golden era of public magazines in the 1950s were weaved. This study was both approaches tried to bring light “YADAM”’s media consumption characteristics and the content of public mechanisms. That is a review of the reasons that switch of official and unofficial history to the literature was prevailing in the 1950s and social and cultural impacts that history consumed broadly as entertainment caused through the former times magazine comparison analysis. First, Writing genealogy of a historical tale literature ranging from colonial to a period of 1960s has become possible through this study. Second, in the 1950s magazine journalism and the characteristics necessary to clarify the relationship between substantive things history books have laid the foundation.
  • 9.

    Sound Politics of Radio TBS eFM - The Concepts of Globalization and Multiculturalism in Korea

    김수진 | 2015, 21(2) | pp.287~315 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines one of the radio channels, TBS eFM, whose aims are to enhance global senses for Koreans and to provide foreign residents in Korea with information about Korean culture and society. Also, TBS eFM is to brdige between foreign residents’ cultures and Korean cultures. While most of foreign residents in Korea are from Asia, TBS eFM targets English speakers as their major listeners. Most programs air British and U.S. popular music as well as Korean songs including recent K-pop hits. The hosts of the programs are from the United Kingdom, Australia, U.S.A, and a few of them are Korean descents who have emigrated to other countries, or who speak English very fluently. In this paper, I argue that TBS eFM reflects the concepts of multiculturalism and globalization that a Korean society has reconstructed. I examine the ways of how Korea has evolved the concept of multiculturalism to embrace people from Asian countries and globalization to promote a sense of globalized Korea, looking at the concept of soundscape by Murray Schafer and noise by Jacques Attali.
  • 10.

    The Study on the Change of World-consciousness and its Novelistic Reproduction Aspects appeared in <Jekuk Sinmun (The Journal of Empire)>

    HyunJu Kim | 2015, 21(2) | pp.315~349 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed at defining <Jekuk Sinmun>’s identity as modern mass media, considering its romantic reappearance aspect and its meaning according to change in World-consciousness, focusing on 9 new-style novels that were included in <Jekuk Sinmun>. The era of the great han empire was the period that tried to find main agents of civilization and the method in social imagination which tried to build a modern Nation State. Due to the protectorate Treaty between Korea and Japan concluded in 1905 and the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907, <Jekuk Sinmun> developed a new method to enlighten the public in a novel while keeping to the characteristic of strenuous efforts that was based on the improvement of a custom and ability fostering theory, which Our goal could no longer promote to build a modern Nation State. Therefore, <Jekuk Sinmun> recalled ‘the ethos of Korean(죠션혼)’ through leading article, at the same moment; it asked modern individual(私人) for coming into the world.As such editorial reasonable argument was reproduced in a novel, it enlarged sympathy to the public. While a novel improved Korean theatrical practice, especially, and could give an impetus to institutionalization of daily life, it tried to produce the mechanism of pro-Americal and expanded for restoring the great main agent. As the result, while a novel in <Jekuk Sinmun> wrote modern sense, ethics, value and orientation process to institutionalization of daily life in everyday world, it played a role as creating modern main subject, constructing imaginative common sense and recalled the great main agent. The novel’s project of enlightenment, however, was convergent institutionalization of daily life in value neutral, and could not give an impetus to political reform that was able to cope with flexibly weak-to-the-wall kind of international dynamics.
  • 11.

    The Tragedy of Banality - A study on the appropriated melodrama in Yeom Sang-sub’s popular novel

    배준 | 2015, 21(2) | pp.349~387 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The main task of this study is to analyze the ethical implications of Yeom Sang-Seop’s (1897-1963) narrative strategies to reveal a characteristic modern subjectivity in colonial Korea. In particular, it seeks to draw on a framework of “appropriated melodrama” to illustrate the effects of this double-bind, between desire and ethics under capitalist modernity. It also centers on the literal term ‘Love(愛)’ as the many folds motif, which was intended to dissect the literal reality of modern population, mass in colonized Korea, revealing (or regulating) the fictiveness of desire to produce one’s self-identity. At this point, this article will focuss on the context of ‘the sin’ or ‘redemption’, which typically came up with a characteristic guilty conscious sensed by one who fails to seek the authentic meaning of love. It seems to be a key-motive in Yeom’s whole literal works on mass secularization. ‘Am-Ya(暗夜)’, ‘Man-Se-Jeon(萬歲前)’, ‘E-Sim(二心)’ need to be reperused, looking at the narratological transformation of melodramatic style. In this sense, Yeom’s novel implicates how the modern subject is represented with one’s excessive moral desire to be a singular part of historical or political mass, and finally address the ethical premise to obtain positive solidarity preserving irreducibility of otherness as to reflecting the modern subjectivity.
  • 12.

    Narrative and Music of Musical “Oh! While You Were Sleeping” - Focusing on Reversal Technique of Concealment and Bias

    Sa-Bin Shin | 이우창 | 2015, 21(2) | pp.387~416 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Oh! While You Were Sleeping consists of a constituent event (nucleus), “the missing of Byeong-Ho Choi” and a supplementary event (catalyst), “the life stories of characters.” Narrative and musical number established by the missing story and the life story gives rise to a twist in the conclusion with the techniques of “concealment” and “bias.” The “life story” intermediates the missing story as a “narrative discourse,” but highlights the aspects of truth, meaning, emotion and intention by creating a single common story through the multiplicity of main characters. “Concealment” in a narrative arouses curiosity and conveys the implied truth, while “bias” in a narrative causes a surprise and conveys the implied meaning. And “concealment” in music offers a pleasant experience and evokes a dramatic emotion, while “bias” in music heightens expectations and delivers intention. This reversal technique based on concealment and bias leads characters to inner growth and contributes to the creation of a bond of sympathy with the audience.
  • 13.

    1960s Visual Text on Overpassing a Frontier ‘The Old Man Gobau’

    YEONYUNHUI | 2015, 21(2) | pp.417~450 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean society cartoonist Kim, Sunghwan (hereafter Kim) took the journey to Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and to East Asian countries from July 1st to 27th of 1962. Kim took a trip to these countries as a foreign correspondent of <DongAIlbo>. He published 29 sets of travelogue titled as “Gobau Traveling to East Asia” from July 9th to August 12th. Starting from 1955, Kim published “The Old Man Gobau” through <DongAIlbo>, criticizing first President of South Korea Rhee, Seungman’s administration. Through “The Old Man Gobau” he criticized how Rhee’s administration showed <corruption, wrongful elections, and how citizens are having a hard time because of the Rhee’s administration. Kim, who had deep connections with the readers for a long time later published a travelogue. He took an advantage of his comic skills and senses to match the eye-level of the general public and used exotic mood as a visual text. From Kim’s point of view, and what he had published through <DongAIlbo> showed characteristics of visual text that readers should focus on. First of all, Kim had a meaningful connection with the readers through “The Old Man Gobau” and attracted many readers. From “The Old Man Gobau”, Kim stood by the Korean citizens’ point of view and tried to resolve the issues of Korean society through his exotic humor. While Kim was traveling, he wrote down some of the episodes that he had experienced and turned that experience from a readers point of view. Second, Kim’s four-cut cartoons “The Old Man Gobau” and artwork of visual text showed characteristics of exotic moods and sensibility to the readers. Moreover, while Kim published, “Gobau Traveling to East Asia” he post ‘Traveling overseas” and put out a message “away” to the “The Old Man Gobau’s” readers. While Kim was traveling overseas he published a travelogue from the beginning of his journey until he came back. Kim published odd stories to the readers and this brought reader’s undivided attention along with humor. In the 1960s, there was a variety of travelogues were published, but some readers were not able to connect travelogue with reality. Intellectuals who publish their travelogue would often try to teach readers. On the other hand, Kim’s travelogue, rather than teaching readers or to give a lesson he used a technique of trying to meet their eye-level of criteria. Kim also focused his view of putting out a foreign place from the citizen’s perspective. Moreover, compare to prior travelogues and Kim’s travelogues the difference was that prior travelogues would often use language text to visualize the foreign countries, Kim’s travelogues inserted visual-text so that many readers can imagine beyond what is out in the foreign countries. The “The Old Man Gobau” had its own attentiveness with humor and satire through visual text which gave many Korean readers a second thought of “overseas travel.” It is noteworthy that Kim tried every aspect to reposition the images of East Asian countries.
  • 14.

    A Sense of Anti-Communism and The politics of ‘Buron(不穩)’ - A Study on How to Read the Anti-Communism Film under the Park’s Regime

    Yu Seungjin | 2015, 21(2) | pp.451~487 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at seeking methodology to analyze anti-communist films under the President Park Chung-hee’s regime and revealing the politics of the anti-communist system by focusing on the textuality of anti-communist films. The analyzed films here are Five Marines, The Marines Who Never Returned, The North and South, and Seven Women P.O.W. In order to analyze historicality revealed by the texts, what these films imply in the contexts of the age and the process how Seven Women P.O.W. had been discovered as a ‘Buronhan(rebellious,不穩) text’ are focused in this article. Under the discourses after 4.19 Revolution and 5.16 Coup, anti-communism was neither contrary to nor compatible with values such as ‘individual’ and ‘freedom’, and anti-communist films were not limited to the propaganda of the regime. The anti-communist films functioned as the place to expose fundamental violence of the anti-communist system, which was a text problematizing essentially the antagonism between the systems, and producing and managing agitation, by revealing an individual who cannot romanticize war. Especially, the process how Seven Women P.O.W. had been discovered as a rebellious text, makes us think directly of the point that the authority of interpretation exceeding logic inside the censorship operates as the logic to constitute the system. Therefore, this article concentrates on the aspects that the seditious texts were produced through the censoring sources on The North and South and Seven Women P.O.W.