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2016, Vol.22, No.1

  • 1.

    Josef von Sternberg’s visit in Seoul(1936) and Colonial Korean Cinema

    Hwajin Lee | 2016, 22(1) | pp.11~49 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article attempted to reconstitute the events around Josef von Sternberg’s visit in Seoul(1936) and analysis the way how Korean film-makers’ hospitality to him had the complex meaning in the context of colonial Korean cinema. It was the members of the organizing office of Chosun Film Corporation that acted as the host to Sternberg’s visit in Seoul. They had aspirations to have reasonable production system supported by financial strength and leaded the discourse on the rationalization of film industry, criticizing the establishing film industry. They appropriated their extraordinary encounter with a world-famous film director Sternberg to build themselves as the subject leading the new step of Korean cinema since the talkie. The event of Sternberg’s visit could expose the feud and conflicts within the colonial Korean cinema. Sternberg’s visit might be a good chance that the colonial Korean cinema imagined the relation to the world beyond empire Japan. His visit was on the turning position from the Chosun cinema that the colonial Korean people watched to the Chosun Cinema that represented the Koreanness. Through this special visiter Sternberg from Hollywood, colonial Korean cinema faced the Others’ eyes to recognize the local color as the Koreanness and expressed their desire to make a leap forward to the new step of Korean cinema. However, the imbalance of their encounter also confirmed the limits of colonial cinema.
  • 2.

    “Hollywood and Beyond”: Genre Hybridity and Transnationality in the Crime Thriller Films of the 1960s’ Korean Cinema

    Lee Sun Joo | 2016, 22(1) | pp.51~89 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper argues that the thriller which emerged as a mainstream genre in the Korean cinema of the 1960s should be seen as a transnational mode of film production rather than as a stable genre that had its popularity during a specific period, one that was overdetermined by the influences of Hollywood and French cinema. These influences are linked to the ways in which both the post-war film noir movies and the criticisms on them were globally circulated. The French critics in the late 1940s and 50s identified as the two key characteristics of the post-war US crime thrillers the sense of speed and the dark visual atmosphere, both of which enabled the critics to name the films as ‘film noir.’ These two characteristics were also reflected in the Korean crime thriller films in the forms of ‘tempo’ and ‘mood.’ These two aspects are transnational in the sense that they consolidated a desire of the 1960s’ Korean cinema for the system and technology of Hollywood on the one hand, and another desire of the local critics for the French cinema that they considered as the culmination of art cinema, on the other. These twofold transnational aspects were, too, in negotiation with the local, given that they were expressive of the local audiences’ fascination with the urban speed and sensory plenitude that they experienced in their everyday life. With these hybrid aspects in mind, I define the Korean thriller/noir as a dynamic mode of film practice through which the newness of popular cinema, the newness of film language, exotic sensibility, and local contexts negotiated and competed with each other, examining Black Hair (Lee Man- hee, 1964), The Tiger Moth (Cho Hae-won, 1965), and The Fugitive (Lee Kang-won, 1965).
  • 3.

    A Hollywood Kid's Schizophrenic Homage: The Meaning of Hollywood in South Korea of the 1980s Detected in Lee Jang - ho's Y's Experience

    Lee Yun-Jong | 2016, 22(1) | pp.91~142 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper attempts to reconsider Lee Jang-ho's Y's Experience as a film text that is tightly related with the South Korean reception of Hollywood and Western culture before and after the 1980s. For Y's Experience is a 1987 South Korean remake of a 1948 Hollywood melodrama film, Letter from an Unknown Woman directed by Max Ophüls. Given that Lee made the films imbued with the anti-Americanism and nationalism that peaked in South Korea in the eighties, it is ironic that Lee remade the Hollywood film by the time South Korean filmmakers also started to vehemently rise against the state approval of direct distributions of Hollywood films in South Korea in the late eighties. I would call this ironic attitude of Lee's "schizophrenic" inasmuch as it reflects the South Korean ambivalence, namely admiration and contempt or love and hate towards the West and Hollywood in the eighties. As a schizophrenic homage to the Ophüls film, Lee's remake seems to be based in his perception that Letter from an Unknown Woman is a safe text that is rather European than American as a film adaptation of Austrian writer, Stefan Zweig's eponymous novella. This paper thus inquires into the meaning of the United States and Hollywood in South Korea of the 1980s by analyzing Y's Experience in comparison with the source novella of Zeweig's and the Hollywood film version of Ophüls's.
  • 4.

    The History, Status and Prospectives of ‘Machine Critics’ in Korea

    Kang Buwon | 2016, 22(1) | pp.145~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Machine Critics’ is not the only critical methods to deal with mechanical knowledge. ‘Machine Critics’ is a practical effort to understand the human life and culture associated with the machine in a comprehensive way. With the advent of instrumental humans(“Homo Faber”) and the machine is indispensable to human existence itself was a background. In the light of modern society in general knowledge that comes by the result of complex interactions of humanities revival and Industrial Revolution is a key organizing principle of human reason to understand the mechanical modernity. Moreover, when the State and the Capital secured the machine and look back on the history of representation and working actively used in modern state governance and the principles governing mechanisms, it is also the reason for the liberation of the mechanical problems that can not be postponed anymore. ‘Science and Technology’ in Korea and ‘Technology Philosophy’ is still poor, and poverty. ‘Machine Critics’ is also not yet fully caught criticism field position. ‘Machine Critics’ was the first attempt by the Lee Youngjun in the mid-2000s. The critically inherited the flow of ‘Machine Critics’ is enabled in Korea since the 1990s ‘Cultural Studies’. ‘Cultural Studies’ and ‘Machine Critics’ is expected to share the practical critique modernity and social change. On the other hand, ‘Machine Critics’ is a feature that points directly targeted machine and try a comprehensive analysis of the life, culture and politics and philosophy associated with it at the same time to deal with professionally. ‘Machine Critics’ cracks in the old traditions of Korea are separated by academics field that the ‘Human Arts’ and ‘Science and Technology’. Elimination of barriers between discipline system and who will emerge as potential knowledge to pursue consilience and fusion. However, ‘Machine Critics’ performance are still sporadic and is associated with heterogeneously observed. Research papers and lectures, publications are a general aspect of its advanced process and appear in a different format and order of the existing studies are awarded to the attention of the media and academia. ‘Machine Critics’ is a claim to a bridge between the Humanities and Engineering and it is also a new challenge to overcome even the existing convergence limit.
  • 5.

    A Study on the Novel about the Poet, Yun Dongju

    MYUNG SEOK KIM | 2016, 22(1) | pp.181~225 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aimed to review the literary figure aspects of the poet Yun Dongju. There are two types in the novel about the poet, Yun Dongju. The one is that Yun played the main character directly in the colonial background, and the others are factions tracking the mystery of the death at this point. The first type could not be differentiated the critical biographies or previous researches. From Choe insu’s “Yun Dongju”, the first novel about Yoon Dongju, to An doseop’s “Yun Dongju, Wounded Soul”, and An Soyeong’s “The poet/Dongju”, these works reproduce the image of Yun Dongju as a national poet. The second type ask Who is Dongju to us now, rather than historical facts more free imagination. Yun Dongju is the symbol of literary truth. Since the advent of faction some authors described the real life of Dongju by using technique of mystery stories. Lee Jungmyung’s “The Investigation(Star in the breeze on)” searched the problem of boundary between facts and truths, asked who the poet, and whats the meaning of writing. Yu Gwangsu’s “Yoon Dongju Project” also transcending from past to present, between fact and fiction by the liberal imagination. Ku Hyoseo’s “Dongju” described Dongju not only a poet of ethnicity but also a poet universality. He did not limit to a national resistance, and drew as a poet of humanity in pursuit of universality. At the conclusion compare and analyse three works. The structure of the mystery is not just for interest of readers, but also the dialogue about the life and potry of Dongju, and communication with contemporary readers.
  • 6.

    Socialist Film Theory of Colonial Korea (1927-1935)

    Moon Im Baek | 2016, 22(1) | pp.227~264 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the Socialist film movement of Korea during the colonial period, with the focus on its discursive practice between 1927 and 1935. The first socialist film discourse appeared when the Korean cinema saw its first renaissance after the big hit of Arirang(Na Un-kyu, 1926), and when a series of filmmakers and criticsorganizedanAllianceof Emerging Film Artists[Shinheungyesulgadongmaeng](1929)criticizing the unprogressive impact of Americanism on Korean popular culture. This discursive movement with its filmic productions experienced transformation in tandem with the reconstruction of KAPF in 1930 as well as with the definitive dissolution of socialist cultural movement in 1935 by the colonial government. This paper analyzes the transformation by articulating three discursive stages of socialist film movement: the inquiry into the propagandistic characteristics of film(1927-30), the debate on the ‘tendency film[Kyeonghyangyeonghwa]’ related to the concept of ‘people’ in socialist cultural movement(1930-1931), and the pursue of survival strategy in the face of global fascism and the development of talkie technology(1932-1935).
  • 7.

    Aspects Related to the Individual and the Locality Appearing in the Films of Zhang-Lu

    Cho, Myung-Ki | 2016, 22(1) | pp.265~298 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is in examining the methods and aspects of how the individual engages with the locale or locality, based on the concept of everyday sense of place. The Zhang Lu’s films <Hyazgar>, <Chong-Qing>, <I-Ri>, and <Gyeong-Ju> were used as texts to reveal how the individual is related to the locality during the process of the individual’s everyday place becoming insecure or fantastically reconstructed. Consequently, Zhang Lu hopes for the recovery of intersectionality of the severed everyday place through the image of the individual, who has regressed to the everyday place via a fantastic way, by such an individual welcoming with warm language another individual who has come to grips with his or her class identity and place. Also, his films depend not on something imprinted on the locality but the way the individual enters into a relationship with the locale. If focus is put on how the locale is a fluid concept which changes sizes by hierarchy, each individual produces his or her own locale in accordance with the various definitions and regulations including space made into place, space planned as administrative district, and space as a national enterprise. This study can be said to be about seeking to summon the individual who has been ousted from the place of the main agent, especially the marginal person as the main agents who produce and identify the locality.
  • 8.

    An Investigation into the principles of ‘Lars Von Trier’s ‘Politic films’: Comparative analysis between ‘Dogvilles’ and ‘Mandalay’

    조성덕 | 2016, 22(1) | pp.299~331 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is This study will investigate into the main principles and core strategy about making truthful ‘political’ films in terms of ‘Post-Brechtian’ cinemas. As Bertolt Brecht once asserted, real political films or cinemas should not only deliver their own political messages but also make audience to determine their own opinions about ongoing nowadays political situations nearby so that they could change and improve their own political situation and society. Lars Von Trier, whom we could regard as true disciple of Bertolt Brecht, have tried so many truthful and sincere ‘post-Brechtian’ political films and among them two films are most influential political cinemas about ‘Anti-American’ political films about criticizing America’s ongoing political situations nowadays. In those films Lars Von Trier did his best to depict America’s society and political community truthfully but also criticize its own system, ‘democracy’ itself so that audience could forget about their natural emotions but determine and judge nowadays ongoing political situation about America. So in conclusion Lars Von Trier’s two films, will cleary show how truthful ‘Post-Brechtian Political cinemas’ should created for nowadays political problems. Therefore this study will mainly focus on investigating into the principles of ‘Lars Von Trier’s ‘Politic films’ and definitely will compare and focus on analyzing two main post political films, <Dogville> and <Mandalay>.
  • 9.

    Critique on concept of Analog, digital and Lee O-Young’s Digilog

    Hyung Rae Cho | 2016, 22(1) | pp.333~363 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to criticize on conceptual ambiguity and arbitrariness of Lee O-Young’s Digilog. The word has disparate origins, digital and analog. Generally these words were considered as contradict concepts. But their historical, etymological relation had been rather continuous and extensive each other. The term ‘Digilog’ is an empty signifier about Korean self-representation. Lee O-Young did not talk about digital, analog and digilog in this book. His argument moves liberal possibilities in digital technological advances to national oppression based on the discourse of Korean’s Cultural Meme. Like the analysis on movies ‘Wild wild west’ and ‘Avengers 2’, the question is that technology is an essential element to form humanity in present. Those images of machine-human interaction or cyborg make be implosive common ideas on the relation of analog and digital.
  • 10.

    A Study of SBS TV Drama Toji(Land): Focused on Narrative-Rhythm

    choi, youhee | 2016, 22(1) | pp.365~403 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The novel Toji(land) is a long saga. The period ranging over TV drama broadcasting and the author's writing amounts to more than 25years. It is one of the popular novel in contemporary Korean cultural history that has been undergone transformations in its forms such as TV dramas, radio drama, movie, cartoon, musical drama and narrative works. This paper aims to analyze the rhythms of events that were represented in the TV drama on SBS channel in 2004, and its effects on every aspect of Korean society including literature, comparing it with its original novel. Henri Meschonnic argues that translation should be done corresponding to rhythms in works, not just flowing word to word correspondence. It is argued in this paper that transformation is also a kind of translation. This paper attempts to read rhythms of the narrative in the media transformation comparing to the original novel. The rhythms of the narrative in the SBS drama identify two ideologies: first, male-oriented historical ideology and second, family-ideology focusing on the recovery of patriarchy. This paper claims that the SBS drama has been digressing from the intention of the director and flows of the 21st century in Korea. This paper maintains that digression results from adopting the storyline in a simple way, excluding the narrative-rhythm. The analysis of the SBS drama in the narrative-rhythm can see that there is a strong family history of ideological reinforcement intended to strengthen the ideology of patriarchy that is male oriented. These two ideologies and ways to maximize the use of the knowledge of good and evil conflict enacted to strengthen battle. In addition, examples of the strengthening of the ideological focus of the family and the history of drama in the closing figures are confirmed. The television media is the public media. So it is no surprise that form the narrative in ways familiar to the public. However, Strengthening and weakening of the Patriarchate femininity analysis seems to confirm the SBS drama because the story came to get the settings or simply figures without analysis of the narrative-rhythm and characteristics of the event. Therefore, this transformation should be considered taking into account the rhythm of the narrative and the characteristics of the event in the transformation of Toji(Land). The transformation, focusing narrative-rhythm of the events and characters of the original can be proposed by one of the methods of literary works dramatization.
  • 11.

    Reading Intimate Empire written in an ‘Intimate Empire’ in another‘Intimate Empire’

    Chong, Ki In | 2016, 22(1) | pp.407~444 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Nayoung Aimee Kwon's Intimate Empire: Collaboration and Colonial Modernity in Korea and Japan analyzes postcolonial encounter between Korea and Japan with the perspective of "intimacy." This essay will suggest the implication and limitation of Kwon's approach by reviewing her work in the context of the studies of Korean literature in the late Japanese empire period. Kwon's study is distinguished from the previous studies, which deny "intimately shared" history between Japan and Korea by underlying only the repressive reality of the Japanese Empire, or which place the repressive reality and the intimate relationship in parallel. By analyzing the intimacy between Korea(n) and Japan(ese), Kwon successfully explores complex, ambivalent, and contradictory relationship between them, and sheds anew light on the historical aspects. The book demonstrates well that the "intimacy" in the context of "trans-colonial" encounter between Japan(ese) and Korea(n) has the complexity of conflicts and confusion under the multi-layered repression and appeasement. By tracing "affect" in various examples, including young Korean students' affection towards Japanese and their despair (chapter 1), Japanese critics' ambivalent attitude towards Kim Sa-ryang, Akutakawa Prize’s nominee, and Kim Sa-ryang’s reaction to the Japanese critics (chapter 3), the complicated characters in Kim Sa-ryang's novel (chapter 4), the ambivalent meaning of colonial Koreans' writing in Japanese (chapter 5), the repression inherent in the format of round table discussion and the enforced laughs of colonial Koreans, which were used ultimately to promote propagate the idea of 內鮮一體 (Japan-Korea as one) (chapter 7), the study illustrates well how the ‘intimacy’ on the surface is complicatedly related to underlying repression of the empire. However, the analysis has its limits in that all the explanations are reduced to the linear relationship between colonial Korea and the empire. Given that the research was conducted in the ‘intimate empire,’ the United States, this study allows us to view the postcolonial encounter between Korea and Japan, from the perspective, which is free from the national boundaries; but, on the other hand, the study includes the excess of theories, and uses the studies of Korean literature and texts of the colonial Korea only for the purpose of disputing the concept of "western universality." This, in a sense, seems to repeat the unequal power relation between colonial Korea and Japan, which the author tried to criticize, in the context of the unequal power relation between the Korean academia and the US academia. Admittedly, the relation between Korea's Korean literature studies and studies in the frame of Korean studies in the United States is more complex, and cannot be reduced to the relation between colonies and empires. Sometimes even the Korea's Korean literature claim its position as the 'center' or the 'empire.' In order to ‘collaborate’ between Korean studies in Korea and the U.S. ‘we’ have to welcome others with hospitality and try to self-reflect ourselves by the otherness.