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2016, Vol.22, No.3

  • 1.

    Theater ‘Since Then’, from Mourning to Politics

    YANG GEUNAE | 2016, 22(3) | pp.7~44 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines changes in the theater after the Sewol Ferry disaster of 16th of April, 2014 as phenomena of a social trauma. Plays performed since the Sewol Ferry disaster have perceived and reflected the aftermath of the event in various ways, and also tried to redefine the relationship between the stage and reality by concerning about the arts and society. After the disaster, in the face of an event which was difficult to represent yet, theatrical people chose to remember it rather than keep in silence. The fact that the truth of the Sewol ferry disaster has not been probed makes it an event in progress which is incapable of being narrated or mourned, and the disaster treated in the plays becomes difficult to be historicized as an object of representation. Therefore, plays after the disaster exist in the form of ‘feeling acutely’(痛感) the sadness coming up in an irrational way. Since the Sewol ferry disaster, deaths, waiting, sinking, and calamities in the plays which are irrelevant to the Seowl ferry disaster have been delivered to the audience as scenes suggesting and remembering the event. Also New Documentary theater using records of those days, testimonies and interviews of the bereaved questions what takes place of the paused mourning, by showing the everyday impact of a social trauma and making the audience experience it. However, phenomena inside and outside the theater have been interpreted as political acts by censorship. Theater after the Sewol ferry disaster reached a point where it has to ask the relationship between the arts and the nation. Plays after the Sewol ferry disaster are a groping for overcoming helplessness brought by the social trauma, as well as questions for the duty and capability of the theater in this era. The Sewol ferry disaster has not yet ended. Thus, the theater should remember it, face the problems of the nation exposed after the disaster and pose more profound questions about life and politics, even if it might fail. This article is a record for joining the process.
  • 2.

    ‘Jeonggamrok(鄭鑑錄)’ and ‘a Chain Letter’ - Two Following the War, One Fatalism

    Jun Jeenee | 2016, 22(3) | pp.45~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis aims to consider a meaning that ‘superstition(迷信)’ has as for the masses in the middle of the complicated international situation, with illuminating the two sights following the war that had been coexisted a fever of prophet ‘Jeonggamrok(鄭鑑錄)’ along with curiosity about science in the wake of the Pacific War and the Korean War. Following the liberation, the fearful power of atomic bomb was spread like a rumor through media. In a situation that the people are difficult to get access to the true nature of modern science, ‘Jeonggamrok’, which has honesty based on the experience of long life, was rather a logical and reliable source. In addition to this, following the Korean War, superstition was adhered more firmly to the people's daily life as entertainment. All of Choe Yo-han's <Village with No Doctor>(1950), Jang Yong-hak's <Sketch with Regret>(1952), and Ju Yo-seop's <Whether Clinging to or Dropping?>(1958), which were released under this background, have a common denominator in addressing the aspect that a modern male subject, who has a scientific belief, confronts the limitation of the people or him himself with failing to dispel superstition. These characters come to fall into confusion as saying that the superstition, which had been regarded as what is anti-modern and pre-modern, might be most rational. As examined, a series of the superstition act such as ‘Jeonggamrok’ and a ‘chain letter’ in two times following the war proceeded with having been increased through the people's anxiety and vague hope. The authorities intended to strongly eradicate this disturbing rumor. But it was impossible to eradicate this unless the fundamental anxiety is solved. That is to say, the media and the literary text following the war were capturing the moment that skepticism about modernity comes over and the moment that there was a crack in conviction of science. The superstition was also a coordinate available for confirming most correctly the malady in the times and the necessity of the masses in those days that had been crossed an anxiety about the war and a skepticism about the authorities.
  • 3.

    The Problem of Magic and Survival in Park Wan-Seo’s Fictions

    Mi Ryeong Cha | 2016, 22(3) | pp.83~115 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article attempts at rethinking the modernity of Park Wan-Seo’s fictions in investigating the theme of magic. What underlies the magic aspirations present in her fictions? The first salient feature is the ambivalence of magic. For example, those old women appearing in <The Bad Year of the City> and 「The Pasqueflower of the Horrible Day」 show interestingly the ambivalent aspect of the magic related to the survival of the people. Their world is constructed on the basis of the beliefs beyond the reality tests and their practices faithful to those beliefs engender either mistrust or awe for the next generations, in being criticized by the reason or in surpassing the horizon of moral judgement. The other issue worthy of being noted when we explore Park’s novels in terms of magic is the relationship between war and survival. Magic represented in <Naked Tree> and <Thirsty Season> functions as the narrative principle of explaining the pains caused by the war. In this case, special attention should be paid to the death of the brother. Viewed from this point of view, the magical dimension of Park’s repetitive writing is closed intertwined with the sense of guilt. This latter leads to the affirmation of ‘we should live’, and at the same time to the hatred against those who survived with success.
  • 4.

    Co-Reading in Webtoon platform and its political aesthetic possibilities

    KEONHYUNG KIM | 2016, 22(3) | pp.119~169 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Webtoon, an art of the web and smartphones, is different from the usual publishing culture in that readers decide an author's debut and her work's publication. This stems from the fact that the webtoon's platform allows for the juxtaposition of her work and her readers' comments. This paper focuses on how webtoon's co-reading, which takes into account the readings of others, gives rise to a politico-aesthetic effect similar to the emotional aspect of the pre-modern form of common reading that so often has provided a sense of community. In order to focus on the political aesthetics of the form of reading enabled by the webtoon platform, this paper looks at the politico-aesthetic nature of diarytoon's reader-author communication, which shapes and shares the process of the author's as well as readers' identity formation. To that end, this paper looks at three works: <나는 귀머거리다>, whose readers correct their own initial reading that viewed disabilities as something either to be pitied or to be awed, <모두에게 완자가>, whose author shared how her gender politics evolved by communicating with her readers about her ordinary experience as a sexual minority, and <이게 뭐야>, whose author resisted the readers' demand as to how the other should be represented, tried to crack its assimilated representation, and ultimately put it in a positive light. All this shows that the webtoon platform induces active reader-reader as well as reader-author engagement, showing it to be a place where the work is created and read at the same time. With respect to webtoon’s platform and co-reading, this paper shall emphasize its mutually communicatory feature as a form of media and its effect. Furthermore, it will be shown that webtoon with above mentioned features could elevate hitherto unknown ordinary experience of the other into a political matter.
  • 5.

    A Study on Small Theatre Movement of 1970s as a Counter-culture in korean Theatre

    Ko na-hyun | 2016, 22(3) | pp.171~214 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to be basis on the 70s youth culture, which was but only cult not also resistance on the 'things Korean'. The small theatre was made in the topological cultural situation as a counter-space in 70s. Looking into the topological condition that made it possible for the small theatre to come into being and to persist is important for reconsidering the value of 70s theatre history. The invention of 'things Korean' was for overcoming political and social crisis by the way of making new human type and culture. The purpose of censorship and enforcement against popular culture including youth culture was regulating desire and emotion of masses transforming nationalistic human type. Unlike invention of government and older generation, a masses construct their own desire and social identity by consuming the popular mass culture, for example, hostress melo movie, television drama, new performance. The youths' characteristics as cultural subjects gave them distinctive and advantageous access to specific cultural forms which was overlapped the tradition and its self-conquest. While consuming various media, popular pop music and style, the youths were able to dissolve the sensibilities of regression and get the meaningful resistance, that is, "they stand with decay against disquieting." The new performance in the small theatre Ejotto was a big success as the 'Snake' was performed. The audiences was mostly university students, who were constructed youth culture structure 70s. For all that the Ejotto was thrown up the popularity to save the identity of small theatre. This is the reason the evaluation to the small theatre of 70s can be reconsidered.
  • 6.

    Narrative over Flower, Reading travel of TV Reality Entertainment - Focusing on <Grandpas Over Flowers>

    MYUNG SEOK KIM | 2016, 22(3) | pp.215~246 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the of backpacking in tvN’s <Grandpas Over Flowers> series, and then studies the character strategy and the reality of entertainment program. The program differentiated Grandpas with a unique character Unlike the real image of the actors, and succeeded to character setting by developing the character of porter serves as a guide. The narrative features of the entertainment <Grandpas Over Flowers> as a reality show to observe 24 hours are narrative strategy of combining showing characters and speaking with the subtitle. The second feature is presenting to the type of Korean real variety by combining the entertainment and narrative of travel. The breaking down boundaries between performers and producers and the pursuit of an interactive narrative are the another narrative features. It is the travelogue of Multimedia ages utilizing high technology. The Homology with travel and broadcasting as a non-linear narrative of the open end is the feature of the program too. Also it seeks to humanity's empathy and communication as a narrative of self-reflection. The travel in <Grandpas Over Flowers> seeks solidarity between colleagues and same generation. It's as strong a sense of time, rather than spatial purposes to understand other cultures and meeting with local life. So ‘Grandpas Over Flowers’ means ‘Narrative Over Flowers’. We can see the way of reading travel in TV Reality Entertainment by naming the word ‘Narrative Over Flowers’.
  • 7.

    The Rise of Girl's Magazines and the formation of a Genre called Sunjung Manhwa - Focusing Korean and Japanese Sunjung Manhwa

    Kim Sowon | 2016, 22(3) | pp.247~277 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Sunjung Manhwa is a comics which definitely distinguishes another ones. It was born under the name of Shojo Manga in Japan, and it developed in East Asia including Korea under the influence of Japan. Thus, Sunjung Manhwa got ratings for imitation of Japanese comics for a long time. Shojo Manga was received by readers a short time. Korean readers received Shojo Manga naturally and rapidly. I raise a question of whether this phenomenon is simplified as the influence of Japanese comics. This study starts from a question that Korean readers would have shared the features and sensibility of Shojo Manga. This article supplements preceding researches by this time, and considers relationships between Sunjung Manhwa and Shojo Manga by and large. I studies magazines which have been neglected in comics studies up to date. I analyses how girl's magazines represent a social aspect at that time. Furthermore, this paper examines how a unique sensibility of Sunjung Manhwa was formed as a result. This essay makes a comparison between the major characteristics of Korean and Japanese girl's magazines and their serial comics. In addition, it investigates popular sensibilities that Korean and Japanese readers share. Moreover, I analyses that these sensibilities influence later authors and their works, and illuminates the roles of girl's magazines in the process that Sunjung Manhwa and Shojo Manga were generalized.
  • 8.

    The features of feminine nouns used in Korean pop songs with the subject of love and breakups during the Japanese colonial period in Korea

    Bae, Saet-Byeol | Lee, Seungyon-Seny | 2016, 22(3) | pp.279~306 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this thesis is to analyze the connections between nouns describing female and pop songs with the subject of love and breakups during the Japanese colonial period in Korea as well as its consequences. The analysis showed that the pop songs themed with traditional subjects mainly used the term ‘agassi or miss’, and ‘virgin’ to describe the passive image of female while the term ‘bride (or wife)’ and women were used to describe the sorrow by integrating the word ‘ocean’. The songs with the subject of Korean geisha or gisaeng described those geishas’ strong will of lamentation and integrity while the songs with the subject of modern girl used the term ‘miss’ to describe the sarcasm. Facing the Japanese colonial period in late 1930, the number of songs describing the subject of northern part of Korea rose. Those songs used the term ‘agassi, or miss’ to describe the women from northern region as pretty and mysterious existence as well as to romanticize the Japanese colonization. In the songs, authority-creator-audience’s desire to ease the domination, survival and prosperity and excitement and healing were mixed intricately which, in the end, was crystallized into the norm of ‘the supremacy of love’ and ‘the image of female seeking pure love.
  • 9.

    A study on spatiality and irony in <With god>

    Sangmin Lee | 2016, 22(3) | pp.307~337 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes spatiality and irony in <With god>. And it is regarded as being connected to practical discourse acts. <With god> appears clearly spatial confrontation between this world and afterlife. This study reveals the symbolic meanings of the space of this world and that of afterlife. In addition, this study looks at the process of characters’ actions that cause the irony of satire and criticism. The other world has heaven-life of vertical relation and afterlife of horizontal relation. Beings of transcendent god class live in heaven-life and the gods with extraordinary abilities live in afterlife. On the other hand, placelessness that destroys self-identity occurs in this world. Tension of irony is reinforced as an event that the opposite space of this world and afterlife escapes from this world occurs with the help of afterlife. Situational irony and dramatic irony have been found here and there in <With god>. Situational irony occurs where inherent prediction fails. Dramatic irony occurs where knowing and ignorance contradicts each other. Irony in <With god> raises question whether life in this world is righteous. This raises question whether our ignorance conceals brutal assault. This study sought to read the layers of various events in the <With god> with spatiality and irony. In conclusion, this study reveals that symbolic meanings of the layers of various events in the <With god> with spatiality and irony makes the acts of creating one’s own reflection.
  • 10.

    <Birdman> from the view point of ‘the field of art’

    Woo Suk Chung | 2016, 22(3) | pp.339~372 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyses the movie <Birdman> with reference to the concept of `the field of art', proposed by Pierre Bourdieu. A figure dreaming to be an artist is the antinomic being who wants to reveal the uniqueness of his own, but has to be conscious of valuation criteria offered by neighboring society or cultural context to achieve his desire. In the movie <Birdman>, hero, Reagan Thompson who was the top Hollywood star, presents an image of artist trying to stage comeback for a play and suffering the chaos of identity in the midst of the multiple conflicts surrounding the culture circle. To begin with, setting that Reagan was successful in the superhero movie but now is ready for an authentic stage play suggests the conflict between commercial popular art and pure high art. ‘The soaring (flying)' motif, revealed in the title, is a typical image of superhero movie. This film parodies it and makes use of the soaring motif to express Reagan's mental confusion surrealistically. The setting that hero is preparing for a theater, affects the mode of filming itself, takes the same aesthetic effects as the performing arts filming mostly long-take. Putting forward interests in the stage, this movie does not take into account play text as literature genre. Instead, it presents a play adapted from the work of Raymond Carver representing modern short stories in the United States. This movie stresses the desire of Reagan trying to communicate with the contemporary audience through a literary legitimate drama. On the other hand, hero who wants to be recognized as an intellectual artist, is faced with a hostile attitude of the authoritative critic. In the opening night, Reagan performs enthusiastically and actually is injured on stage. As a result, he gets favorable comment. But the title of the review is ‘The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance’, which means Reagan failed to be recognized as an intellectual artist.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Juvenile Labor represented in Modern Juvenile Novels of Korea

    Choi Bae Eun | 2016, 22(3) | pp.373~406 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Unlike today`s juvenile, the Korean juvenile during the Japanese Colonial era was a laboring being and they were called 'Juvenile Labor'. Most protagonists of modern juvenile novels were working juveniles rather than students. It is safe to say that it was not only the reflection of social contradiction but also the result of pursuing its imaginary solutions. Focusing on it, in this study I analyzed the aspects of juvenile labor and the descriptive manner of it in modern juvenile novels, and considered the inconsistency and limit of juvenile image depicted by contemporary authors. In the process I witnessed the ambivalent view on the juvenile labor. In terms of idealism, juveniles are ones who should be taken care of and prepare for their future in schools. On the other hand, in the real world they are the breadwinners without their parents. As a laborer in the workplace, they are seen as an opponent, a threat to employers or adult labor. Nevertheless, the narrator forces us to see them as a victom by describing the defeated juveniles in a competition with adults with a sympathetic tone. At the same time, though they still need their parents` care, they are called for a role of supporting his family on the ground that he is an orphan or has a single parent with illness and poverty. Whereas the narrator insists on the protection of juvenile labor in the workplace, he puts an emphasis on a role of juveniles as a supporter of his family. In addition, though it was thought that working juveniles were inferior to students only because they didn`t go to school, the narrator asserts that they are superior to students, pointing out the illusion of school education and suggesting an alternative such as evening classes. In short, even if the working juveniles shown in modern juvenile novels are the victims of a society and an era, they also hold a proud and desirable position in the social condition where both national contradictions and class contradictions coexist. Furthermore, they put aside the protection and growth for themselves and are entrusted with the task which should be carried out by adults. In other words, the image of working juveniles represented in juvenile novels is seen as that of the delegate of helpless adults.
  • 12.

    On the Aural Representation of Locality in Recent Korean Popular Culture

    Choi, Yujun | 2016, 22(3) | pp.407~432 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Globalization undertaken on the level of daily life is changing the imagined geography of people practically in the background of transnational digital media and mass migration. And also, non-material production inter-locked with economic neo-liberalism brought extensive retro-culture, which is removing historical layer of emotion perception. As a result, existing spatial aspect of ‘center-periphery’ looks deconstructed or reconstructed. In addition, cultural reinterpretation is being made on what was perceived as ‘the countrified’ in the meaning of ‘the outdated’. On the premise of such critical view, this study focuses on the voice related to auditory perception. On the one hand, the study reviews dialect as a ‘local language’ of internal nation-state, on the other hand, reviews traditional music regarded as ‘musical local language’ on the global level on the border of language and music, and analyses the change pattern in cultural representation of ‘locality’ or the instance of popular perception. Firstly, we can review the aspect of conventional use of local dialect in Korean films, especially the study compares the representation pattern of the otherness of dialect in <Milyang> and <Goksung>. And also there is visible change in non-Western traditional music which can be a counterpart in the imperial order on local dialect in nation-state. In digital culture and daily retro culture, history of music is flattened and past music coexists with present music. Cultural deterritorialization accompanied with neo-liberalism and globalization contains liberating instance which allows to get over emotional colonization related to the perceptional level of ‘the countrified’ on virtual level. But, neo-liberalism and globalization based on transnational financial capital regenerates oppression and domination through reterritorialization. Local as ‘periphery’ and tradition as ‘the past’ are displayed as new global goods covered with ‘the sophisticated’, instead of wiping out the labeling, ‘the countrified’.
  • 13.

    The Vernacularization and Otherization of Independent films in Film Industry

    Chon Woohyung | 2016, 22(3) | pp.435~466 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This essay aims to introduce a study on the US independent films history and evaluate the applicability of this methodology to Korean independent films study. Yannis Tzioumakis’s recent book, Hollywood’s Indies is not only study on the US independent films but also meta-analytic study on the independent films study. Recently the academic interest on independent fims increased. However independent had to undergo scholars’ vastly unconcern. In the meantime, awareness about the independent have been distorted, the book is published in order to refigure the definition of the independent, which plays a key role on examining the historical identity of independent films. In becoming yet another book dedicated to the study of Americam independent films, then, Hollywood’s Indies tells the story of the US specialised films as this was shaped by particular group of hollywood’s major studio ‘speciality’ film divisions from the early 1980s to date. Divided into three sections, the book proposes that there were three distinct waves, which broadly coincide with the emergence fo each of the three dominant expressions of specialty filmmaking in the US: the independent, the indie and indiewood. In examining all the divisions, the book is interested in understanding the US independednt films’ conditions and rationale behind the establishment of such companies by the majors. However the narrow focal point to industrial aspect, futhermore the silence about neo-liberalistic capitalism which backed up the majors’s enterance in independent film market, and regarding US independent films as general makes the provocative and critical problematization of this book ambiguous.