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2016, Vol.22, No.4

  • 1.

    Film-Gut - Shamanism and the Redemption of History in Korean Films

    Kim Ji-Mi | 2016, 22(4) | pp.9~36 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Part of modernization was disenchantment. Religion replaced shamanism with a set of creeds. However, the expanding intellectualism and rationality, and technological progress, were not sufficient to fulfill our inner selves’ longings. Where politics in practice could counsel only unreliable visions, anxiety about labor conditions dared modern people to connect back to pre-modern shamanism, this time through cutting-edge technology. Hence the return of Zaubergarten. Korean films depicted shamanism through its local Korean version. Korean shamanism is depicted through three different modes: Firstly, ‘horror’ mode adopting motifs such as vindictive ghosts, revenge, shamanism. Secondly, ‘erotic’ mode where ecstasy meets primitivism. Thirdly, ‘redemption’ mode that reveals the injustices of the social structure befallen on the alienated class and resolves them on behalf of the consciousness of the base-level class and the victims. The most interesting to me is the third mode from which the films <MANSHIN: Ten Thousand Spirits> and <Spirits’ Homecoming>. <MANSHIN: Ten Thousand Spirits> fused shamanism with the typical characteristics of the cinematic medium to show people’s sufferings in modern Korean history as seen from the alternating perspectives between a shaman, KIM Keum Hwa, and others watching her, and between the Subjective and the Objective. The film experiments with a new method of using cameras as a ritual tool, turning the film into a cinematic ritual. <Spirits’ Homecoming> sought redemption of the Japanese comfort women issues, which have not been resolved either politically or historically, through shamanistic motifs. The film adopted shamanism as a narrative medium connecting the present with the past. Gut is a narrative tool helping the spirits of the comfort women come back home and is also performing its own original function of healing people’s dissatisfaction with the external political reality.
  • 2.

    The rise of a historical romance and its accommodation for the literary hierarchy – with focus on its relationship with the concept of popular literature

    Chiyoung Kim | 2016, 22(4) | pp.37~86 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I searched how Korean historical romance was accepted in the modern literary circle and how the literary hierarchy rose and established in the Korean colonial period. In the late 1920s, the movement for a historical romance rose by Kim Jingu, who was greatly affected from Japanese historical storytelling during his studying abroad. Kim Jingu tried to foster a collective identity among the ordinary Korean by making a public convention listening historical storytelling, in which the ordinary Korean multitude could recall their collective past. However, the Japanese colonial government strictly censored this kind of conventions, thus the historical romance had to change its contents and became a simple stories of amusement which were grounded in old books written in Chinese characters in the past such as Chosun dynasty. In the 1930s, a historical romance became one of the major genre of radio entertainment, and professional magazines for a historical storytelling started to be issued and got a great attention by the public. In this vein, the style of a historical romance started to be recognized as a literary genre, which was very vulgar and low-graded, thus the major literary circle criticized the quality of the stories hardly. However, the genre started to be included in the modern literary genre system and became the major representation of a popular literature which was not conceptually established cleary still in the early 1930s. In other words, the concept of popular literature started to be outlined cleary when the historical romance was recognized and accepted as one of the genre of “literature,” and the official literary hierarchy started to be recognized when this genre got an official attention and was accepted as a literature.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Process of Fictionalization of the Transplanted ‘Madness’ - Based on the Novels of the 1910s

    Song, Myung Jin | 2016, 22(4) | pp.87~114 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Rational reason propagated from the West has changed the existing system of awareness. In particular, the rational reason that had excluded transcendental perspective of the world in non-rational area chose madness as a mental illness to represent oneself in others. This was the madness analyzed and domesticated in the Western world. The rational reason needed this ‘transplanted madness’ to clarify itself. This study investigates the process of the modern madness becoming fictionalized with the novels in the 1910s. The new novels in the 1900s or 1910s no longer treated madness as transcendent. But this does not mean that madness was fully explained and analyzed by the rational reason. The madness as a modern mental illness was finally shaped into images only in the 1910s by the adapted novels. First of all, Lee Kyung-ja in Ssangoklu was the first person who was diagnosed to have a psychiatric illness by the modern medical system in the history of Korean novels. The fundamental reason why Lee Kyung-ja had to battle a mental illness was because she degraded herself to be the subject of the others. On the other hand, the character Sim Sun-ae in Janghanmong was the first person who was put to a psychiatric hospital in the history of Korean novels. Sim Sun-ae was a character who was forced to suppress her desire because of the love of Lee Su-il disguised as a romance. This representation of repressed desire was the psychotic illness Sim Sun-ae had to suffer. A side of rational reason propagated from the West and a side of madness transplanted together with the reason came to be narrated in earnest in the novels of the 1910s. It could be madness as a fictional excitement which lost a healing process. Nevertheless, the representation of the transplanted madness could be said to have contributed to the fictionalization of the contemporary issues through the tension between repression and expression.
  • 4.

    Standing on a Boundary, Narrative and translation Strategy to be World Literature- focused on <Please Look After Mom> written by Shin Kyung-sook and translated by Kim Ji-Young

    Yun JungHwa | 2016, 22(4) | pp.116~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    In order to make the voice of Korean literature strong and influential enough in the dynamic field of world literature, any relevant fields and authors should keep working hard to figure out what and how they write. The reason for such argument is that in terms of world literature, it has been built upon this dynamic concept of introducing any diverse pieces of literature of their own originalities to as many readers as possible around the world. Referring to how 『Please Look After Mom』 written by SHIN Kyung-sook entered English and American publishing markets, this study looked into a narrative strategy and a translational strategy as well which Korean literature should work on to get itself introduced to the market of world literature. Since the novel of SHIN Kyung-sook had creative reasons in relation to the narrative strategy, it was able to make use of these new differences to knock on a door beyond the world of Korean literature. ‘Mom’ as the original form which had become familiar after being repeated via the narrative strategy of the novel by SHIN Kyung-sook develops into not only some stranger whom no one would know but also a subject that we should see with a sense of guilty. The narrative strategy of Author SHIN Kyung-sook made ‘mom’, the being of the original form, another ‘mom’, the boundary being. Not only that, 『Please Look After Mom』 by SHIN Kyung-sook passed through a prism of Translator KIM Ji-young, a boundary individual, and it became a whole new creation that the boundary individual had written on the boundary in collaboration with the main agent who created the piece from the beginning. She first interpreted the Korean literature which was trying to respond to demands of US market and afterwards, as far as the study understands, the tension of the boundary that the translator came to experience through the process of reproduction to ‘re-write’ the piece from the angle of this culture that had been growing her must have been a driving force to help her make distinguishable differences in comparison with other translators. The communication that the novel written by SHIN Kyung-sook had as world literature and that both the author and Translator KIM Ji-young had accomplished is believed to be something that could not have been realized without this process that the non-western world and the western world were engaged in to accept each other through production and translation of literature.
  • 5.

    Jang Sun - woo and Ero Video - South Korean Transitional Film Pornographies of the 1990s

    Yun-Jong Lee | 2016, 22(4) | pp.143~186 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study looks at the representational repetitions in the works of Jang Sun-woo's and ero-video films as exemplary cinematic eroticism of the 1990s in South Korea by redefining them as 'transitional films pornographies' and the repetitions as their main trait. Jang's and ero-video films have not only daringly developed South Korean cinematic eroticism, which was quite tenuous in the 1970s and 1980s, by traversing the mainstream and non-mainstream film-scenes as well as high and low arts and popularizing porn, but has also prepared for the 'pornification of everyday life' that characterizes the twenty-first century. What I mean by the 'pornification of everyday life' is not only the ubiquity of the literal porn, namely the adult motion picture but also the turning of our everyday lives into porn in its broadest sense as seen from food porn, political porn, and mob porn. This paper focuses on the repetitions in Jang's To You from Me and Lies as well as an ero-video film, Madame Holstein Cow Is Cheating as the characteristic of the transitional porn.
  • 6.

    The Representation of the Modern Era in Korean Movies after late 1990s

    Hogeol Lee | 2016, 22(4) | pp.187~233 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this essay is to research and criticize the representation of the modern era in Korean movies after late 1990s. I focus on popular vision of history which is articulated in the movies of that period. I take the Neo-liberalist context of Korea into special consideration in that work. In 1990s, just a few movies represent with strict historical view. In 2000s, many movies dealt with the past times. The feature of them was deconstruction of old political attitude, which was anti-communism of cold war, nationalism of colony and radicalism of people. They are all pluralistic and can be said post modern. In 2010s, the restoration of anti-communism, nationalism, and radicalism happened. It seems to be a reaction to the old modern. But actually it’s rather a deadlock of Neo-liberalism and post-modernism of Korean society after late 1990s.
  • 7.

    Everyday lifeㆍLaborㆍLifetime and Power of Reflection, Sympathetic Power of Communication - Question and Hope that are cast from Misaeng

    Keysook Choe | 2016, 22(4) | pp.235~278 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper investigate how it is possible to reflect and realize one’s value of life in daily life, field of labor and the whole lifetime through analyzing Misaeng which is created by Yun Tae-ho, a series of comic books that were originated from Webtoons and released as TV drama. Every episode of Miseing is represented characters’s reflective monologue and dialogue, and cognitive senses. The main character, Jang Geu-rae’s monologue realizes the philosophy of observation and gaze toward the world and society, relationship with the others and himself. The most influential reflective devices are represented as characters’ observation and experience in the everyday life and working field. They get some inspiration from their life fieldS and solutions about their own problems. They decipher the affective signs from their lives and repositioned them into their ‘sustainable reflective assets’. Jang Geu-rae constantly communicates and acts with his colleagues with responsibility, moral sense, and authentic attitude. These attitude leads inter-dependence between colleagues and makes it possible to lead their symbiotic relationships. The detailed ways of representing reflectivity of Misaeng are not only general rhetorics of narrative as like dialogue, monologue and narration, but also mixed composition between image and dialogue, visualization of speech, parody and overlapping of meaning, symbolization, etc.
  • 8.

    Misogyny in the Era of ‘Daughter-Fools’ - Korea’s Masculinity in the 2000s seen through the Transformation of the ‘Father Figure’

    Heo Yoon | 2016, 22(4) | pp.279~309 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The biggest change seen in Korea’s popular culture in the 2010s is the increased exposure of fathers on TV. Variety shows increasingly introduced sub-programs featuring fathers and their children, and invited celebrity parents and their kids to appear on studio and reality shows. In particular, reality shows on celebrity parents raising their children were dubbed ‘child-raising variety show’ and gained immense popularity. Among public channels alone, MBC’s Dad, Where Are You Going? (2013-2015), KBS’ The Return of Superman(2013-present) were and are broadcasted under this category, these programs focus on featuring the relationship between the father and their children. ‘Daughter-fools’ infiltrated the public sphere starting from 2009. KBS’ evening wide show Live Tong chose ‘daughter-fool’ as the buzzword of 2010 on its broadcast on 29 December 2010 and announced the arrival of the new father figure. Casting off the hegemonic masculinity represented by strict fathers, ‘daughter-fool’ is the most positive image of masculinity to be recreated in Korean media since 2000. The expression is used by men to present themselves the ideal type of masculinity that does not shy away from housework and child care, and appear in Korean society as a post-modern figure that integrates modern masculinity and feminist sentimentality. However, Fathers experience for a limited time the difficulties mothers face on a daily basis while waiting impatiently for their wives to come back. Although the present society encourages fathers to take care of their children, the mother’s position is immutable. And the way ‘daddy shows’ reinforce the image of men as the protector and head of the family can also be found in the way the children are gendered. The over-protectiveness over daughters comes from gendering daughters as women. The daughter is identified as a ‘woman’ before as a human-being, and it is the same with daughters who have become adults. Before marriage, women are trapped under their father’s umbrella, and after marriage, they move under that of their husbands. At the bottom of this coexistence of ‘daughter-fools’ and misogyny in Korean society is male solidarity. Korean society is founded upon male solidarity based on the hegemonic masculinity.
  • 9.

    The Extended Understanding of Adaptation and The Politics of Intertextuality - Focused on Linda Hutcheon’s theory of adaptation

    Jinhyoung Lee | 2016, 22(4) | pp.313~339 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is an essay for the theoretical research on adaptation in new media era, and aims at the excavating of theoretical and political potentials through the close reading of Linda Hutcheon’s The theory of Adaptation(Second Edition). Hutcheon problematize the fact that although adapatations are ubiquitous many scholars have an negative view on it. Storytelling is essentially intertextual, and genres or media are all the same as the forem of intertextuality, so all storytellings are considered as kind of adaptations. Then, “treating adaptations as adaptations” are needed. To do this work, Hutcheon introduces the category of “mode of engagement” instead of genre or media, and examines the problem of forms in tems of three type of adaptations(telling↔showing, showing↔showing, interacting↔telling or showing), then explaines the broad communicative context (adpator, audience, context). In “Preface to the second edition”, Hutcheon focuses on the transmedia storytelling which have been formed as the new entertainment norm. Here, adaptation becomes not the adaptation of narrative or story, but story world, that is, “world building.” So, Hutcheon confesses the limitation that only the definition of “repetition with variation” could not explain the adaptation in new medea era. Whereas, Siobhan O’Flynn’s “epilogue” shows that Hutcheon’s theory of adapatation have a power to explain not only the adaptations across genres or media, but also the adaptations in such various ereas as fan communities, social webs, marketing, social practice, I-Pad, and so on. The Hutcheon’s theory of adaptations have its significance in that the theory make possible to understand the extended adaptation. In special, the emphasis on “adaptor” and “audience” which comes from the awareness of the significance of audience’s participation in new media shows the necessity of critical reconsideration on the theorem of what they call as “death of author.” And, most of all, the politics of adaptation which would break down the hierarchy of genres or media could contribute to break down the hierachy of real world through the practice of “audience=adaptor=subject” as “author” of “world building.”