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2017, Vol.23, No.4

  • 1.

    Re-reading 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' in Lee, Kwang-Su- focused on the ideological effects of culturalism and asceticism

    Kim Byeong Goo | 2017, 23(4) | pp.9~43 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on the characteristic of nationalism which is the paradoxical connection between universalism and specialism, and intends to identify the ideological characteristics of 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' in Lee, Kwang-Su through an intrinsic approach. The issues of this study can be summarized in two aspects. First, 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' in Lee, Kwang-Su was formed on the basis of "culturalism" of Japanese colonial empire. He insists on eliminating politics and developing ethnic reform movements in a moral wayi in the 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction'. This argument can be explained by the ideological effect of Taisho Japan's culturalism which is represented by the separation of politics and culture and the privilege of culture. The ideological effect of culturalism led to the perception that he confused the arts and life, mind and power by restricting the purpose of 'nationality reconstruction' in the completion of 'personality', and culture itself could be a valid substitute for politics. Therefore, the issue of historical reality is parenthesized in 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction'. Second, The principle of practice of 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' in Lee, Kwang-Su is ‘Musil’(務實) and ‘Yeoghang’(力行). Those set the goal of life for the individual to grow into a diligent profession in accordance with the spirit of 'self-discipline'. Therefore, those are characterized by the internalization of work ethics and labor ethics. The spirit of self-discipline and internalization of labor ethics are also characteristic of the modern ascetic ethic, and 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' in Lee, Kwang-Su is a discourse that embodies modern abstinence ethics. The reason why he was able to suggest the possibility of 'nationality reconstruction' through the principle of ‘Musil’(務實) and ‘Yeoghang’(力行) is that he accepted the metaphysical nature of 'nationality' through acceptance of Gustav Le Bong's 'national psychology'. However, the modern abstinence ethic inherited in Lee, Kwang-Su's 'the theory of Nationality Reconstruction' has the ideological effect of dismissing the reality itself by replacing the problem solving of historical reality with the psychological attitude change of the individual, the artistic reconstruction of life.
  • 2.

    'Imagined' Detective and the Original faces of colonial cities- Focusing on Kim Nae-seong's Novel Ma-In

    Kim Hee Kyung | 2017, 23(4) | pp.45~91 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to examine the literary representation of the colonial city ‘Gyeongseong’ and the ‘Detective’ in Kim Nae-seong’s novel Ma-in -which was published in 1939. The most important thing to understand about the literary worlds of Kim Nae-seong is 'space', especially Nae-seong's cities. In general, studies about Nae-seong's urban spaces focus on the fact that the cities shown his novels are no different from the cities in 'modern' Western detective novels, and the studies point out that this aspect is an uncritical 'imitation or transplantation' of exotic frameworks. However, cities that is shaped by Kim Nae-seong are characterized as real spaces of Gyeongseong and 'modernized' specific places, and then function as a space to highlight the characteristics of 'the colonial city'. This paper examines the process of constituting the word 'detective, and focuses on the features that this word has double meanings ('a subject of 'intellectual reasoning'' and 'informant'). These features have possibility that detective can be read as a problematic figure who may strengthen or disturb the order of Imperial Japan. At this point, detectives as original meaning (in Western detective novels) couldn't be existed in the colonial city Gyeongseong, so the existence of detective was 'imagined'. Kim Nae-seong investigate the crimes in Gyeongseong with eyes of 'imagined' detective, and through this, the 'original face' of colonial city appears in his works. Colonial separation can be considered by examining the chase scene in Ma-in, and through the examination, one can 'restore' the Gyeongseong in regards to 'imagined geography'. However, the 'imagined' detective in Joseon seems to suffer the fate of 'disappearing'. The 'spy or anti-espionage' narrative appearing in Nae-seong's later novels shows that dual characteristics of detective are eventually converged into the order of Imperial Japan. That used to answer the author's question concerning Ma-in: the existence of an intelligent and objective 'subject' who can 'detect' Imperial Japan in Joseon possible.
  • 3.

    The Aspects of a Cartoonist in the 1930s: An Investigation Based on Choi Young-Soo

    Eunyoung Seo | 2017, 23(4) | pp.93~122 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article traced the cartoonist 's cartoon recognition through Choi Young - su, who painted many cartoons during the colonial period. Those who drew comics during the 1930s did not receive social acclaim, and they drew comics as a journalist. The journalist Choi drew many comics and cartoons of various genres, such as children’s comics and manmun-manwha. He also published his own theory of comics. Choi was fully responsible for the success of major journalistic newspapers, such as Dong-A Ilbo, Shin Dong-A, Shin Gajeng, and he was a leading figure in the 1930s. This article is based on the fact that comics and theory of comics developed by Choi Young-soo's are basic data for analyzing the features and status of comics in the colonial period. Choi Young-soo witnessed the importance of conversation in journalism while studying in Japan. After getting hired by Dong-A Ilbo, he shortened the text of comics and emphasized the importance of painting. He emphasized the importance of painting instead of text. Also he published Seo Jung-hwa(is called “Jojouga” in japanes) for female readers and expanded the reader through various types of tests. Choi Young-soo argued that comics should reinforce the spirit of cynicism unlike before. In 1938, he published a cartoon magazine without a cartoon. This is a magazine that portrays the world of satire he regarded as the essence of art. Since 1945, professional cartoonist, or a full-time cartoonist, have emerged. As aforementioned, prior to 1945, most cartoonists worked as journalists and drew cartoons on the sideline. Therefore, it is hard to find traditional studies of cartoon and comics in the Japanese Colonial Era. However, comics written during the period established a basis for Korean cartoons(manwha) and the identity of the Korean comics. Choi Young-Soo occupies an important position at this point.
  • 4.

    A Study of the Anti-Individualist Aesthetics of Kim Yu-jung's Novels

    young bok chin | 2017, 23(4) | pp.124~154 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper clarifies the relationship between the aesthetics and anti-individualism of Kim Yu-jung's novels. The novels deny rationality, which separates pure subjects and pure objects. Instead, his stories proceed with a relational perspective. Kim Yu-jung's novels carry the sense of otherness, which means that the existence of 'I' comes from relationships with others, and the sufferings of others are embraced as 'my' pain, in other words, one's own pain. Individualism, the core principle of the modern capitalism, dominates nature and society based on the fundamentals of competition. Such individualism destroys communal cooperation. Kim Yu-jung accepts Kropotkin's theory, and hopes communities to establish upon cooperation rather than upon competition. Kim Yu-jung claims 'great love' as the fundamental principle for community. 'Great love' is a principle that denies competition and domination, and expands love and freedom within a society. Kim Yu-jung's novels show the process of seeking and exploring this 'great love'. This paper analyzes and confirms that the popularity of Kim Yu-jung's novels have relevance to anarchism, which is a combination of socialism and liberalism. Through the analysis, it is shown that Kim Yu-jung’s novels deny capitalistic individualism and socialistic totalitarianism.
  • 5.

    A study on Political Muhyeop Novels- Muhyeop Novels and Political Narratives

    Ko Hoon | 2017, 23(4) | pp.157~185 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The study is about a Political muhyeop novel, a combination of muhyeop novels and politics. Here, "Political Muhyeop Novel" is defined as a genre created by combining elements of Korean politics and muhyeop novels. In this study, we will look at how the works of politics and muhyeop novels are handled by The public, and try to discuss their genre. Under Korea's special circumstances, it was difficult for the public to generalize or popularize political discourse. However, popular literature begains to address politics. A full-scale movement grew, and the Political muhyeop genre was created. Its combination of political and muhyeop novel elements was easy and natural. Both politics and muhyeop novels had the advantage of being able to encourage and appeal to reader's and of being materials that stimulates the basic desires of the masses. A Political muhyeop novels are divided into the two groups "inmulseosa jongsokhyeong" and "inmulseosa judohyeong" according to "inmulseosa jongsokhyeog" novels foucus on events. The focus is a disadvantage for political muhyeop novels. According to folk tales, a one sided structure centered on an event is ideal for criticizing governance systems. Thus, a narrative structure is suitable for "inmulseosa jongsokhyeong" novels. A personal stories are central to "inmulseosa judohyeong" works. Therefore, the structures of biographyies are used for inmulseosa judohyeong novels. Biographies originated in mythology, they easily gain the interest of the public. The muhyeop genre has experienced numerous changes make the genre the publics choice. The political sub-genre is one of those changes. The inclusion of politics was not done to merely appeal to reader's emoyions ; it was done to make readers perceive themselves as political entities. With political muhyeop novels, one can expect political movements. Different approaches to one genre are positive. In that sense, the political muhyeop genre is a desirable endeavor. Moreover, the endeavor makes extensive research possible.
  • 6.

    Presentation of the Female and the Politics of Gender in Comedy films of the late 1960s- focusing on Namjaneun Sireo(AN, Myun Hee, 1967) and 'filming of Baek Keum-Nyo'

    Sun Young PARK | 2017, 23(4) | pp.187~221 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies relationship between comedy films and female comedians and possibility of female comedy in 1960s. The comedy films which were produced from the late 1950s to the early 1970s had male comedians as main characters. In fact, there were a lot of female comedians who played actively on the stage of variety shows, Ak-kuk, radio and TV. But their roles on screens were just supporting characters or extra parts while male comedians usually played main characters. Female comedians were not heroins in the film industry. Female comedians could not be main part in films but were in short plays, jests(Man-dam) and shows. And female characters were screened as objects who had to be reformed by men and were considered as compensation for men with their social success in those films. Whereas, <Namjaneun Sireo> was out of these problems consciously and unconsciously. Consciousness and unconsciousness of the time were involved in censorship and rifacimento process of the film. And collision and fracture between functions of BAEK Keum-Nyo's performing in narrative and what is performed by herself beyond narrative reveals possibility to re-evaluate this film as a 'female comedy.' Most of all, the 'physical' comedy of BAEK differs from other comedies of the time which defined and regulated women as sexual objects. Inside and outside of the context surrounding this film, BAEK is very important which is not to be controled by the patriarchal order and constructs an alternative femaleness. We still need more BAEKs in our cinema who are the subjects of desire and are aiming for existence itself.
  • 7.

    A Study of Emotional Excess and Its Political Implications in Lee Hyeon-se's comic book An Outsider Club of Terrors- in connection with the structure of feelings of Young Readers in 1980s

    LEE JUN HEE | 2017, 23(4) | pp.223~249 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines emotional excess and its political meaning in Lee Hyeon-se's comic book An Outsider Club of Terrors(1983) in connection with the structure of feelings of young readers in 1980s. The comic book was published amid the popularity of professional baseball, which was a part of the South Korean military dictatorship's policies that were enacted in the early 1980s, and amid a sports-comics boom. The majority of the book's characters have excessive attachments to victory and display emotional excess. The display of emotions is presented visually and emotionally through the extreme actions of the characters and their corrupted body images; the display encourages a state of emotional excess in readers. When the book was published, the comic's dramatic setting and the rise of its characters, who are alienated from society, often satisfied the increasing desires of young people, who were the main readers of the contemporary comics and experienced intense frustration and alienation from the political and social realities of the Korean society in the 1980s. The comic inspired the widespread response of those young readers. Similarly, the Kkachi syndrome, which was triggered by the comic book, is closely linked to the structure of feelings of young readers, who felt defeated in the real world but dreamed of transforming society. This phenomenon can be noted as a major cultural event in that it shows the young readers' affects/passions were latent with the consumption of popular culture; Actually the phenomenon partly contributed to real political changes in the late 1980s.
  • 8.

    Can Minorities Be in Solidarity? The Question that Feminist Films in 2016 Asked - A Reconsideration on Missing and The Bacchus Lady

    Jun, Jee Nee | 2017, 23(4) | pp.251~289 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper pays attention to what <Missing> and <The Bacchus Lady> as 'feminist films' of having been released in the similar period are listening to public opinions about an issue that women in diverse groups faced in the middle of Korean society, and are ultimately considering the direction of solidarity in minorities. Out of these, <Missing> focuses on calling for the audience flow through borrowing a form of classical tragedy as well as claiming to stand for mystery, and on implementing catharsis of fear and pity. Also, <The Bacchus Lady> takes a method of observing the other side of our society at a distance instead of enforcing empathy upon a character of having been embodied a tragedy in Korean modern history. Out of these, <Missing> picks up a problem of solidarity, which is not easy for two women whose race and bracket are different, with traversing a gap of possibility and impossibility for solidarity between divorced working mom and Joseonjok(Korean Chinese) nanny. By the way, the immigrant woman in the play exists as a subject of being observed, and is placed as a target that needs to be clarified in a relationship between a person of investigating truth and a person of being investigated. In case of <The Bacchus Lady>, it extends critical mind through averting the eyes to the current elderly issue without stopping in addressing a problem of prostituted women and sexual minorities. And in the process of being arranged even the lethargic elderly all as the non-mainstream, a difference in groups is made nothing. A woman becomes a subject of exchange again in male community. Nevertheless, a movie makes this situation romantic with deleting violence that is placed amidst a trading relationship based on gender inequality. In the vortex of gaining power in 'man's movie', it is an undeniable outcome in a point that <Missing> and <The Bacchus Lady> are addressing a problem of labor and daily life in women who belong to diverse brackets in the middle of the neo-liberalistic era. However, two movies, which keenly figured out women's reality, have a common limitation in a regard of eventually returning to a discourse of conservative motherhood. At the point of time that a controversy over feminism in Korean film is being progressed again actively, the work of illuminating the lights and darks in feminist films, which have appeared in the meantime, will be able to become the foundation in which Korean movie secures gender sensitization after this.
  • 9.

    A Study of the American Experience Described in the Travel Narratives of the Magazine Huimang(Hope) in the 1950s

    Youhee Choi | 2017, 23(4) | pp.290~321 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Huimang was a general magazine in the 1950s. Its monthly issues were published from 1951 to 1962, and its weekly issues were published from 1955 to 1958. This paper analyzes the adoration and alert points made in the magazine's monthly and weekly US-experience stories. The 1950s was the age of Americanization around the world. Countries that were in need of postwar reconstruction, such as Korea, received the aid of the United States (the US) and learned about the American experiences of their country's intellectuals. Huimang's editorial staff urged authors to submit subjective judgments, not just social presentations, of the US. The intention of the editorial team seems to have been to coordinate perceptions of the wider social spectrum of Americanization. It seems the magazine did this because it wanted to balance South Korea's desires for Americanization and distance from the US. This paper reconsiders the reality of Korea's differences and similarities to the US while revealing the ambivalent attitudes of Americans regarding the substance, the civilization and the admiration of community culture of South Korea. The most prominent difference was in the Korean discovery of physical space. Those who saw skyscrapers in the US were shocked; considering Korea's state after the Korean War, scenery was something that Koreans were not used to. Although there is praise for American morals and puritan traditions, this paper critically looks at the phenomenon of community destruction in the US, seen in the country's racial discrimination and family divisions. This paper also considers South Korea from the perspectives of others. It finds others are indifferent to and ignorant about Korea and questions how to raise awareness about the country. Moreover, this paper finds middle ground between the reality of democracy in the United States and the reality of South Korea; it criticizes Korea's undemocratic reality. In the context of the aforementioned American-experience narratives, the hodology of reconstruction was created, and in 1950s Korea, Huimang focused on finding the quickest route to reconstruction. Whether the magazine's American-experience writers were international students, aid-talk negotiators, architects who developed reconstruction housing designs, or single travelers, and whether its writers were sympathetic or unsympathetic with American culture, the extreme condition of South Korea's national reconstruction was the driving force of Huimang writers. Therefore, Huimang was a record of adoration and alert points regarding reconstruction hodology. This paper is significant because it shows how when the Americanization of South Korea's popular culture progressed, intellectuals of the 1950s concretely reflected on American experiences.
  • 10.

    Construction and Division of Anti-communism an Cold War Ideology on The Magazine Huimang(Hope) - Focusing on Memoirs and Autobiography

    Hong, Sun-ae | 2017, 23(4) | pp.322~365 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines the logic of the process in which the memories of individuals are transformed into public memories in the anti-communism and the Cold War system, centering on the reminiscences and memoirs published in the Magazines Huimang(Hope) and Weekly Huimang published by the Huimang Publishing Company. The Huimang played the role of a channel to nurture patriotic citizens same as in the book form, but because of the nature of the magazine, which is centered on the communication with the public, the anti-communism was reproduced and consumed as an interest and entertainment rather than a projection on ideology with sound argument. Especially since the mid-1950's, the spy discourse was a narrative of interest in sensuality, and the combination of embellishment, anti-communism and sexuality was part of Huimang Publishing Company’s mass media strategy. These memoirs are divided into different categories including autobiographies and experiences of the Korean War, and memoirs of spies who defected. These writings do not reveal the Korean War nor the representations of Asia by first describing the pride and self-esteem of belonging to one’s country and the return of individuals. Nevertheless, these memoirs were effective in conveying the justification and value of the ideology of liberal democracy reminding people that the Cold War system persisted behind the Korean War. In January 1958 when the Magazine Huimang(Hope) published an innovative edition with a focus on the post-ideology social reality, and the anti-communist discussions based on postwar regime began to weaken. Therefore, the anti-communist testimonies and memoirs of the Magazine Huimang(Hope) in the 1950's were produced and circulated as the mainstream of the postwar non-literary genre, accelerating the anti-communist identity of society and occasionally survived as a reading material of sensuality and sexuality.
  • 11.

    Encountering Difference in Popular Narrative - Robin Cohen & Olivia Sheringham's Encountering Difference

    최영석 | 2017, 23(4) | pp.368~390 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study discusses Robin Cohen and Olivia Sheringham's book Encountering Difference, which explores ways to avoid conflicts between states and religions and encourage coexistence regardless of differences. The diaspora concept notes the possibility of escaping from existing identities, but it also has limits regarding attribution and regression. Cohen and Sheringham attempt to overcome the limitations of existing diaspora discussions by introducing the concept of creolization, which is a sense of 'now and here' and makes a creative transformation, unlike the diaspora concept, which is based in the past. Creolization is not only consolidating or separating conflicting identities, but also respecting differences and creating new alternatives. When the diaspora and creolization concepts are at the center of theoretical explorations, an alternative to identity conflicts can be created.