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2018, Vol.24, No.1

  • 1.

    'Radical Contemporaneity' as the De-occupation of Co-produced Documentary Film by Zainichi Korean Filmmaker's Collective—Beyond Liberal Realism of Cultural Documentaries of U.S Military Occupation in South Korea and Japan

    minhwa ahn | 2018, 24(1) | pp.9~56 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Through the contrastive analysis between USIS-Korea or CIE cultural films which were dominant films and documentaries by the Zainichi Korean Filmmaker's Collective which were minor films during and after the U.S occupation period both in South Korea and Japan, this paper examines not only the aspects of U.S. hegemony which was reorganized in East Asia but also traces its alternative narratives to U.S. occupation forces. The USIS and CIE documentaries played a role in forming a postwar liberal nation and subject by embodying 'liberal governmentality' through the style of John Grieson. By doing so, the U.S. occupation forces became the icon of the technologies of security and economic growth, while hiding various colonial legacies. On the other hand, there were exceptional documentaries in USIS-Korea and CIE cultural films, which were skeptical toward the narrative and aesthetics of U.S. occupation forces. Namely, these films reveal the self-reflexivity of cultural documentaries by using the form of 'direct cinema.' Furthermore, the Zainichi Korean Filmmaker's Collective makes a critique of the cultural politics of the U.S. military occupation by making co-produced documentaries with Japanese filmmakers. For example, the co-produced documentary, Children of Korea, resists the politics of the U.S. occupation forces toward minorities by deploying John Greison's style into a combination of provocative rhetoric and 'cinema verite' which were the characteristics of Soviet film in the 1920s. Therefore, this paper seeks to use the method of comparative studies through what Johannes Fabian calls 'radical contemporaneity' beyond the dichotomy between empire and colony, by focusing not only on the similar role of the U.S. occupation forces but also the common cinematic aesthetics in Korea and Japan that opposes that. The 'radical contemporaneity' can be one of the examples of postcolonial and alternative Asian communalism that can overcome the limitations of capitalistic nationalism. This communalism enables the individual to respond to the 'singular plural' (Jacques Nancy) beyond liberal governmentality in which the individual is commensurate with the national totality.
  • 2.

    Original Acculturation of Yu Hyun-Mok Literary Films and Anticommunism—Focusing on 'Descendants of Cain', 'Flame', 'Rainy Days' by Yu Hyun-Mok-

    Ku Mo Kyoung | 2018, 24(1) | pp.57~90 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Yu Hyun-Mok is positioned as a representative intelligent film writer of Korean film industry. His status as a film auteur is originated from literary film. He established the world of works by appropriating themes of literary works as film language. As a displaced person and protestant, he internalizes the anticommunist ideology by experiencing the violence of water in daily life. Thus, his anticommunist ideology is not just originated from policy, but similar to his belief system. Anticommunism was not only the ruling ideology of the Park Chung-Hee regime, but also internalized by the national voluntary agreement. specifically, this study is intended to demonstrate the theme related to anti-communism with the comparative analysis of narration throughout the author's original novel. This paper considered the characteristics of anticommunist films shown in the process of media change, targeting Yu Hyun-Mok's novel <Descendants of Cain>, <Flame>, and <Rainy Days>. Yu Hyun-Mok focuses on the faithful reproduction of original stories. He visualizes the healing of wound from war through the chaotic time/space right before war in <Descendants of Cain>, through the humanistic and proactive subject in <Flame>, and through shamanism in <Rainy Days>. Regarding the appropriation aspect of films, owing to the set-up of genre as anticommunist film, the anticommunism is strengthened compared to the original. Anticommunist films desired by policy have the schematism expressing inhumane communists, which violates the artistry. Even though Yu Hyun-Mok's anticommunist films aimed to overcome the schematism through literary films, they still follow the schematism of anticommunist films of expressing inhumane communists.
  • 3.

    Soft Men and limited love of Jinho Heo's films

    Bae, Saerom | 2018, 24(1) | pp.91~131 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Recently, with the increasing female subjects supporting feminism, critique has been strongly made about patriarchal male characters in popular culture texts. It was no exception for Korean movies and the male protagonists who abuse the weak and still want comfort and help from them have started to be criticized unprecedently. In this respect, Heo, Jinho's films occupy unique place. In his movies from his feature debut film <Christmas in August>(1998) to <A Good Rain Knows>(2009) that mainly depict contemporary heterosexual romantic relationship, we can see men who embody softness. They do not insist it is only men that are the subject of history by suffering and owning narrative, or fall into self‐pity. Instead, they are kind, polite and show empathy to those around them including their partners. This paper names these characteristics as 'softness' and tries to demonstrate how it is different from the dominant masculinity of contemporary times. The reason this different masculinity was able to be represented is that dailiness was reinstated and intimate relationship has been more important to men due to improved gender equality with the arrival of the 1990s when institutional democracy was established. Still, this softness is possible only with the hegemony men have in unequal gender hierarchy. Men have more opportunities in public sphere to be recognized and approved which means women they are in relationship with are not in an equal position that pushes men to actively negotiate or resolve conflicts. In Heo's films, it is described by female characters' more putting more efforts in forming and sustaining the relationships. Not falling into self‐pitying colonized masculinity, Heo's films have shown softness which is a rare feature of masculinity in Korea. However, it still needs to be pointed out that it is only men's privilege based on patriarchal gender hierarchy. The fact that his representation of contemporary heterosexual romantic relationship has stopped in 'the era of misogyny' and ten years of conservative regime implies that the current relationship is in a very different phase. Through the analysis of soft masculinity in Heo's films, we can understand undiscovered masculinity and the changing aspects of gender inequality.
  • 4.

    The Interdependence and Non-Boundary of Cinematic Time and Space in Zhang Lu's Gyeongju

    Lim, Chul-Hee | 2018, 24(1) | pp.133~167 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Discussions on the diaspora and boundary based on the locality have so far been a major part of the discourse on Zhang Lu's films. However, Gyeongju(2014) is a film which requires an expansion of the discourse on Zhang Lu's cinematic space and boundary. From the spatial characteristics of Gyeongju city in which daily life and tombs coexist, the film shows a vague boundary between life and death, existence and non-existence, presence and past, and reality and illusion. This paper discusses the characteristics of the non-boundary of cinematic time and space in Gyeongju from the viewpoint of interdependence in Yeon-gi(Buddhistic theory of dependent origination). Gyeongju is unbound by time in a way that the past and present times are mixed in a single space. The characteristics of non-boundary is also shown by Choi Hyun's mystical experience. From the thought of Gong(emptiness: Śūnyatā), the central idea of acting that everything in the universe is interdependent becomes the main concept of understanding the non-boundary in the film. The coexistence of different times in a single space represents non-realistic time by emptiness(Śūnyatā) and interdependence of time. This can be also noticed through a photo, a literary painting, and an obscene picture in the film. The characteristics of non-boundary in the film is described not only by the narrative relating to the theme but also through the director's aesthetic thought in using the frame as a medium space. With sound and camera movement, Gyeongju expands the cinematic space while blurring the boundaries between what is on-screen and off-screen. As a result, Gyeongju speaks of the non-boundary of the world through the boundary. In addition, the director's world view regarding the interdependence and non-boundary is presented through realistic film techniques. Thus, the film accomplishes aesthetically by creating an organic relationship between theme and form.
  • 5.

    The Chase and Escape of the Boys for the Recapture of the Women —Focusing on Na Hong-Jin's The Chaser, The Yellow Sea and The Wailing

    Cho, Dae-Han | 2018, 24(1) | pp.169~195 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This is a paper that approaches Na Hong-Jin's The Chaser, The Yellow Sea, and The Wailing as drama series of chase and escape among boys. A boy is a person who dreams of becoming a father but fails to achieve this status. For a boy to become a father, he must murder the existence of the father who has been at the authority of his life and make room for himself to stand on his own. The boys who could not kill their fathers themselves imitated similar adults and held on to the values of the nation and the head of household. However, the IMF crisis and the introduction of neo-liberalism create fissures in the boys’ fragile identities. The governmental power loses its authority. The boys dream of restoring strong and private masculinity. They also have women in their lives and use violence against women who refuse them in order to build their own identities. The Chaser, The Yellow Sea, and The Wailing explore the family structure of the mom-daughter relationship. The boys seek to occupy the absent place of their fathers. Eom Joong-Ho of The Chaser is the procurer and he chases Ji Young-Min to recover his belongings, Mi-Jin. The audience agrees with the chase of the procurer because of Eun-Ji, the daughter of Mi-Jin. His compassion for Eun-Ji conceals and delays his desire as the procure. Kim Gu-Nam from the The Yellow Sea sneaks into Korea to take his wife back. His doubts and desire to win back the unfaithful woman are purified and denied by his young daughter. The daughters in The Chaser and The Yellow Sea were placed on the safe side of a fight of males. But Hyo-Jin, the daughter of Jong-Gu in The Wailing, is targeted as a woman and involved in a competition of boys. In the three works, the collapse of values sustained by boys is shown symbolically through the portrayal of governmental power as being weak. The weak masculinity of the policemen is now replaced by the monstrous masculinity of fighting alone and chasing women. It is shown in the figures of Eom Joong-Ho, Kim Gu-Nam, and Jong-Gu who takes off the police uniform. There are visible signs of denial and inner longing for father in this figures. But the boys who lose their women feel disoriented once again as if they have lost their destinations in life. You can observe this by watching the midday sprint scene of Eom Joong-Ho in The Chaser, the bullet wounds and crying scene of Kim Gu-Nam in The Yellow Sea, and the final monologue of Jong-Gu in The Wailing. Through speedy editing and genre directing of Na Hong-Jin, the boys’ violence and running have become more realistic and urgent. But in the boys’ pursuits that are packed neatly to fit the genre and the women's figures that are displayed as objects, the violent desire of the boys are set back and get across to the audience only faintly.
  • 6.

    Narrative Strategies in the "Literary Contest in Pann Spring" —Focusing on the Strategies of Daily Narratives and the Acceptance Patterns of Readers on Nate Pann

    Koo, Ja Jun | 2018, 24(1) | pp.199~227 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    A question about the possibilities of internet literature, which has been sporadically raised since the 2000s, is seemingly now moving to an inquiry into the existential aspects of internet literature. However, it is difficult for discussions about internet literature to encompass the overall inquiry into narratives produced online. The concept of internet literature has limitations when it comes to shedding light on daily and confessional writing of various forms. Such writing, while distinguished from the old "literature", is not clearly aware of its own literary value. Thus, this study sets out to analyze the acceptance patterns of confessional online writing amongst its readers, as well as its narrative strategies which used to attract attention only for "fabrication" and was thus not included in the category of literary inquiry. For this purpose, the body of the research focused on popular postings on Nate Pann, one of the prominent communities where confessional writing about daily life happens intensively. Anonymous writers' confessional writing about daily life on Nate Pann is commonly called "Literary Contest in Pann Spring". The nickname was attributed to the suspicion that the anecdotes were fabricated to incite reader responses using provocative materials and development. As a result, the writers of "Literary Contest in Pann Spring" started using various methods to show their authenticity along with the authenticity of their narratives to demonstrate the validity of their stories. Despite these strategies, however, it can never be demonstrated to the end that each story depicts what actually happened due to the characteristics of anonymous writing. Nonetheless, it does not seem important whether the stories are completely true or not. Readers jump into debates about the topics of narratives even in the middle of rising suspicion for fabrication, which reveals that what is important is not in fact the truth but the entertainment, public rage kindled, or the space itself for discussion and denunciation created by the story. The writing style of "Literary Contest in Pann Spring" exists somewhere between essays and novels. Unlike offline discussions, whether stories are fabricated or not does not seem very important to their writers and readers alike. Readers consistently raise suspicion of fabrication, but they still show active responses by jumping into moral and ethical discussions based on the stories. In this sense, the "Literary Contest in Pann Spring" offers a bird's-eye view of various patterns of narratives being produced and consumed on the web and the users' contradictory desires for them.
  • 7.

    The Community of Taste and Girl's Melodrama—A Study on the Novel in Girl Student (Ryeohakseng)

    Kim Yangsun | 2018, 24(1) | pp.229~257 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis analyzed the serial novels and short stories in the magazine Girl Student, which crossed the generational and gender characteristics of literature-culture in the 1960s~1970s. The purpose was to extract the common interests and sensibilities of girls and to ultimately signify their collective identity of the middle of the 1960's. In this paper, the characteristics of novels are defined as gendered 'community of taste' and 'girl's pure melodrama'. In 'community of taste-western classical literature, popular culture, and girl's club', I noticed that the girls have appropriated common tastes and sensibilities from popular culture such as that ranging from movies and popular songs to western classical novels and music, from pure romantic feelings to existential anguish. They practiced the required moral soundness but also enjoyed their peer group's culture. In 'girl's 'pure' melodrama-pure love and friendship', I saw that the novels ended well that the girls who wanted to escape from their defective family, became enlightened by dramatic events, overcame puberty, and returned to the institution of school and family. On the other hand, there was a melodramatic element that induced dramatic and emotional excess such as the secret of birth, the abuse of family or siblings, accidental encounters or accidents, romantic love, or forbidden love. That is, it had the characteristics of 'pure' melodrama that combined popularity and enlightenment. The readers of Girl Student could acquire the daily cultures and the cultures of their peer group, the importance of friendship and solidarity beyond love and passion, jealousy and envy between men and women. So they could form a community of emotions. In conclusion, Girl Student reproduced the education and norms for the teenage women through the euphemistic device of the novel. This can be evaluated as the unique characteristic of Girl Student, which is different from other women's magazines or gender-neutral magazines for teenagers.
  • 8.

    The Context of Adaptation and the Change of Intertextuality in the Case of the Film V for Vendetta

    NOH SHIHUN | 2018, 24(1) | pp.259~284 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to illuminate what kind of transforming strategies the adaptor uses for changing ideologemes when he constructs intertextuality, with the pastiche of books, paintings, films and music in the graphic novel and film V for Vendetta (1990, 2006). In the graphic novel, many of these pastiche materials are collected in the 'Shadow Gallery' of V's home. Books are the most important hypotexts among these. The authors of the original work make these books perform functions to fill 'V's blank face', to give character to him and to suggest future events. They play an important role to build an ideologeme ('anarchy'). In the film adaptation, however, the paintings which replace the books cannot play the same role even though they continue the 'British narration', the characterization and the suggestion. The movie posters which occupy the wall of the Gallery in the graphic novel accomplish all the functions and the role, though they are not 'uniquely British' because of their 'Made in the USA' brand. On the contrary, in the adaptation work, the similar scenes indicating certain hypotexts and real movie or TV show scenes in place of the posters, cannot make this contribution and only imitate the surface of hypotexts. While the songs of the jukebox in the Gallery of the original work contribute to make an ideologeme because they are in the context of V's anarchist struggle, the other songs in the film adaptation suggest future events and mention resistance and revolution only out of the Gallery and on the periphery of narrative. These analyses allow us to know that the film adaptation changes ideologemes in most cases by bringing hypotexts in other contexts and erasing original coordinates when it constructs intertextuality. The intent of this study is to analyze using a specific case, the adaptor's strategies of transforming intertextuality for changing ideologemes.
  • 9.

    The Literature in the Aging Society—Focused on Novels about Dementia

    엄미옥 | 2018, 24(1) | pp.285~321 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to reveal in dementia novels by analyzing the novels on dementia that have been published between the 1970s until today. Through this, I would like to explain how the perception of dementia has changed according to the passage of time, what significance the narrative of Alzheimer's conveys in novels, and what implications it has for the literature of the aging era. In the past, the obliteration of memory, formerly called 'senility', was a subject of sociocultural care. However, the name has been changed to 'Alzheimer's disease' starting from the 1990s and is now considered to be a disease that must be treated medically. This change in perception is represented in novels: In Park Wanseo's novel, the terms 'senility' and 'dotage', the way a daughter-in-law called her mother-in-law, demonstrated the perceptions of that time; and in Park Bumshin's You, the recognition was changed and it came to be considered as a disease that could be prevented to some extent and needed to be actively treated. The literary works on dementia have a unique narrative style in which the daughter-in-law, daughter, or wife who takes care of a patient with dementia serves as the main narrator and focal point. This is because the person with dementia cannot be the subject of a narrative due to memory atrophy and a loss of cognitive function. The events described by the protagonist who observes the disease or the records taken by the narrator consist of a description of the patient's symptoms, the pain and conflict the caretaker suffers, and the inner perspective of the person that changes while she cares for the patient. In this narrative, the history of the patient's life is composed. Meanwhile, the person taking care of the elderly with senile dementia realizes in the process of caring that there remains an 'island of memory' attached to the happiest moment of the patient's life. The anchored world leads the caregiver to reflection and introspection, which demonstrates the paradox of the obliteration that a memory illness possesses. On the other hand, Kim Kyungwook stressed in his novel The Gate of Heaven that the caring issue in the age of family dissolution and aging is no longer a private matter but a subject that needs social and institutional intervention. This literature of dementia, where the multifaceted aspect of the life of the elderly and social phenomena are condensed, proposes a new literary potential as a genre of care (nursing) novel in the increasingly aging society.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Narrative of Stereoscopic 3D Movie—Focusing on Avatar, A Christmas Carol, How to Train Your Dragon, and Coraline

    Woo Jeonggueon | 2018, 24(1) | pp.323~348 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find out how the spatial background, characters, conflicts, etc. They were used for each of the narrative components in in-3D depth assignments. The narrative feature of S3D movies is the primary maximization of synesthesia. Space was not only used as a background of the film but was also changed and expanded. Avatar, A Christmas Carol, How To Train Your Dragon, and Coraline all show a clear contrast between 'here' and 'there'. Another way to maximize synesthesia is to arrange and organize layers. At the opening of A Christmas Carol, the camera drives the city from the sky and adjusts the speed and angles variously so that the people in the building and the street move into the urban space where the layers form. They stereotyped the arrangement of layers to the synesthesia that people have when they look at the world as they fly through the sky. It also moves in space. It is a narrative device that seeks to maximize the virtual reality experience by using the motif that the character moves in space such as is used in Avatar and A Christmas Carol. This spatial setting and spatial movement are the narrative features of S3D movies only because they are the most effective way to express stereoscopic effects. There is no generalized formula for characterizing good characters: positive space, evil characters are negative spaces. However, the good character and the evil character have stereoscopic values in the opposite direction. And the stereotypes assigned to one character are consistent within the narrative. Only then can the audience perceive one character in the same sense. Even when characters are in conflict, they are expressed using stereographic values. How To Train Your Dragon consists of one plot and two subplots. At this time, the plot shows the 'external conflict' in which the dragon and the human are confronted, and the subplot shows the 'internal conflict' in which the main character Hiccup must overcome his physical and mental defects. The narrative conflict has a deep correlation with the stereoscopic value. Since S3D movies evoke realistic feelings through realistic 3D effects, auditory elements are as important as the visual. Avatar uses auditory elements to distinguish the world of the earth and the world of the Sky. S3D should always be remembered as a means of emphasizing a well-made story, a means of immersive storytelling. In other words, in order to make an S3D movie even if it can be made into a 2D movie, a corresponding scenario should be supported, and the elements of narrative should be constructed so as to realize presence. This study is meaningful in that the three-dimensional sensation is clarified in the narrative. Additionally, I examined whether the components of the narrative worked to give a sense of existence. I hope that this research will help to create scenarios of S3D movies in the future and can be used for shooting and editing.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Economic Otherness and the Fantasy Mechanism of the Television Drama Secret Garden

    Yun, Suk-jin | 2018, 24(1) | pp.349~382 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is about the economic otherness and fantasy mechanism of the television drama Secret Garden. In this article, I examined the aspect of the women in which they are defined as economical others by the chaebol’s people as the subject of life. In order to resolve the physical and psychological sense of distance caused by the economic gap between the male and female characters, I analyzed the process in which the fantasy mechanism called ‘soul change’ is operated. As a result, it was confirmed that the female hero, who was targeted as an economic other by the power of capital, moved away from the formation of the Cinderella character so that it led to the change of male character. Also, the supernatural and unscientific ‘soul change’ fantasy devices have dramatically realistic effects by eliminating the economic gap between male and female characters. In this way, Secret Garden shows the reality of the economic others targeted by the capitalists, while emphasizing the fateful love of the male and female characters through the fantasy device of ‘soul change’, I have come to the conclusion that it is a romantic comedy drama that reflects the changing social world in a way that does not attempt romantic solution.
  • 12.

    The Stylistic Differences on Disaster Narrative in Kim Joong-hyuk's Novels

    Yun JungHwa | 2018, 24(1) | pp.383~415 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is to consider the the style of 'disaster' narrative in the novels written by Kim Joong-hyuk, since 2000. In the novel, disasters are a condition that maximizes conflict among people, who are important components of modern novels. The disaster acts as a background to test the ethical judgment of the characters in the novel. Sometimes the disaster itself becomes a dynamic character and reveals its vitality. That is, it functions as a narrative component. Therefore, this study should focus on the stylistic expression of the disaster. Particularly, Kim Jong-hyuk has done various experiments on disaster. Therefore, this research will explore the process of making a narrative interactively in various novels. So far, novels dealing with disasters have largely dealt with the apocalypse. In contrast, the portrayal of disaster in the novel written by Kim Joong-hyuk is deeply involved with human nature and deals with conflict with the rest of the world. At this time, the disaster is characterized by a monstrous fear. It is a giant plant, glass, earthquake, alien etc. and seem to have a lack of similarity. However, there is a similarity to the non-human world. The study seeks to distinguish between Kim Joong-hyuk's novel's stages of 'disaster onset', 'moments of disaster', and 'disaster aftermath'. Based on this study, we will explore the meaning of "disaster" in novels and examine the mode of disaster and responses to disasters. In his earlier works, Kim Joong-hyuk's novels The City of Glass, Basil, and Zombies present the disaster itself. Now he turns to presenting the human condition of suffering by disaster. The character of the novel is transformed from being solitary to being in a relationship with a lover and a sibling. Such a transformation has already led to the need for human behavior and presence of human beings in the context of a disaster. Kim Joong-hyuk is devoting himself to telling what ethical attitude the human should have in the face of disaster.
  • 13.

    The Aspects and Meanings of Narrative Development&writing novel in Toji

    Lee, Seung-yun | 2018, 24(1) | pp.417~447 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to understand the aspects and meanings of narrative development found in Toji. How does the author handle the vast time and space in Toji, the cast of over 700 characters it, as well as the episodes taking place? Also, what are the unique narrative characteristics and story development that the author Park Kyong-ni found within this fictional world? Does the author obtain substantial drive for story development with her own planning, intention, and setting? This thesis is aimed to answer all of these questions. Reading Toji, you may constantly encounter some of the noticeable characteristics in its description. The characteristics are that in describing any particular incident or scene that forms the crucial axis in the novel, the character does not directly state the situation in detail but uses their remembrance, gossiping, public opinion or perhaps what the third party has said or heard for story development. Along with this, in Toji, ‘Die auktoriale Erzahl’ occupies a large part of the story. Additionally, it is noted in Toji, that the story is organized uniquely freed from the Western literary theories after Aristotle. It can neither be explained with the West’s tragic climax towards the whole nor conform to the compositional principle of ‘the beginning-the body-the end’. The fact that Toji ends with an open structure and reveals polyphonic aspects is also one of the most important characteristics of it in terms of the narrative structure. This lays the grounds for understanding Toji in figuring out its story development and narrative characteristics. The essay seeks to explore the author’s unique writing style and also find ways to read not just for expert readers but also for more ordinary readers to understand the work better.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Prototype of Female Characters in Park Kyung-Ri's Literature—Focusing on Early Short Stories

    Jang Mi Young | 2018, 24(1) | pp.449~479 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the female prototype in Park Kyung-Ri's literature, analyze the character and qualities of the female characters revealed in each prototype, and to clarify the social implications. The prototype of female characters appearing in the early short story novels can be classified into three types ― first, unmarried women with a self-denied identity; second, a mother who is responsible for the family's livelihood; and third, a passionate woman who focuses on sexuality as a woman. However, the qualities and behavior of these female characters are individual traits and cannot exclude the societal interactions and influences that women must experience in the psychological and physical spaces of the post-war society. The conflict and growth experienced by these women's figures not only demonstrates the sense of the times, but also the reality that women face from a gender-world-based perspective and the aspects of double standards that are discriminatory against men and women. A woman who struggles to survive as a subject and establish her place in a sexist society is a differentiation and a general consensus of the author's persona. Through these characters, the author provides a useful basis for understanding the irrational reality that women face among others, and the internal conflict that girls in the printed world must experience. The prototype of the female characters in the early short story novel Park Kyung-Ri not only reveals the change of the living space and the process of subjectifying women but also evolves by sharing the character and qualities of female characters as protoplasm through the entire Park Kyung-Ri literature. The prototype of the female character in the early short stories of Park Kyung-Ri is not only an early product of the period, but also a clear representation of the female identity process, and the evolutionary nature of the female character and evolution through literature. The originals of the female figures interact with the times and are revised and strengthened throughout the author's literature to reach The Land of Mrs.Yoon, Choi Seo-hee, Seok-hyeong, Bong-shung, and Wol-seon.
  • 15.

    Review Essay—Digital Visual Effects in Cinema: The Seduction of Reality

    Chancheol Jeong | 2018, 24(1) | pp.483~515 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reviews Stephen Prince’s 2012 book, Digital Visual Effects in Cinema: the Seduction of Reality in the question of whether or not cinema has changed in its way of telling stories since its digitization. Having replaced film, digital imaging technologies revolutionized the film industry in profound ways. They have been expanding the illusory world of cinematic spectacles that always excite our eyes. Many scholars in cinema studies have been interested in developing the understanding of digital cinema, its history, theories, and aesthetics. Particularly, they focus on whether a new aesthetics is emerging in filmmaking in cinema’s digital age. Stephen Prince’s book is a valuable contribution to the growing literature on digital culture. The book features a useful survey of the history of digital technology. Individual chapters are about selected production departments, such as those in lighting performance and art directing, which form the codes of realism that anchor the visual aspect of classic Hollywood storytelling. Without overwhelming readers with unnecessary details, Prince provides a behind-the-scenes look at various digital visual effects, while comparing with corresponding special effects of the film age. Prince’s main argument is that the digital visual effects adhere to conventional codes of realism.