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2018, Vol.24, No.2

  • 1.

    Topography of Literature in the 1990s and the Discourse of Feminist Literature

    Youngin Seo | 2018, 24(2) | pp.9~40 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the features and meaning of discourse in feminist literature in the 1990s. This essay scrutinizes the features of discourse in feminist literature, specifically relating to the ‘literary criticism field’ which constructs literary discourse and exerts its public and social influences on the whole process of the production and consumption of literature. The topography of literature in the 1990s was one of change from the featuring of various subjects that was prevalent in the 1980s towards intellectual, male-centered literature. Feminist research and critic groups of the 1980s could not play a leading role in producing literary discourse in the 1990s. This meant that feminist literature, despite its emergence as a significant subject in the literature of the 1990s, was met with ‘exclusion’ and ‘separation’ in its entry to the field of literary criticism. Notwithstanding the appearance of some remarkable female writers, the discourse on feminist literature only repeated the logic of pre-existing gender separation or defined ‘feminity’ only as a counterpart of masculinity. Too much attention of literary criticism field on Shin, Kyeong-Sook and too much disregard from the field on Gong, Ji-Young shows the limitations of criticism of feminist literature in the 1990s in that it could not delve concretely into the reality of the women of the time. Through a critical approach on the discourse of feminist literature, this essay can reexamine the 1990s from a historical viewpoint and confirm the start point to perform the task of researching female subject assigned to the present Korean Literature.
  • 2.

    A study for Sacralization and Secularization of Feminine Novel Criticism in the 2000s―focusing on Bae, Su-ah and Jeong, Yi-hyun

    Kang, Ji-hee | 2018, 24(2) | pp.41~68 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to reconsider criticisms of feminine novels in the 2000s when the term ‘feminine literature’ began to disappear in the field of Korean literary history. It specifically delves into the characteristics of the novels written in the 2000s and tries to seek novelty since approximately 2005. During this time, analyses for novels emphasized the themes of escaping from reality and inner side to be discriminated from novels in the 1990s and began to access those of otherness and ethics in the late 2000s. In this paradigm, good femininity is regarded as ethicality and in fact it was removing the spaces for women as distinction. To see how the space for feminine literature being erased by facing with the newest feminism paradigm, this study meta-reviewed the criticisms for <에세이스트 책상> of Bae, Su-ah and first 10 novel collection <낭만적 사랑과 사회> and full-length novel <달콤한 나의 도시> of Jeong,Yi-hyun which were published in the middle- and late 2000s. The reason for why these two writers’ criticisms selected as samples is that criticisms about Bae, Su-ah and Jeong, Yi-hyun in feminine novels were representing the most different reading method. The criticisms about Bae, Su-ah emphasized each of artistic and spiritual aspect about main character’s homosexual relationship in the past and told ‘universal’ point without sexual distinction. On the contrast, the criticisms about Jeong, Yi-hyun emphasized performing ‘special’ feminine strategies of main character between adaptation and resistance in Capitalism. However, if the paradigms were analyzed relating to these two writers, which might seem to be divided into sacralization and secularization, they commonly premise post-modern feminism’s dismantling strategy. The criticisms in the 2000s which surrounding Bae, Su-ah and Jeong, Yi-hyun, represented how post capitalism society method, which producing more sophisticated and delicate otherness than those of past, integrated the principles of ‘distinction’ and ‘equivalence’ in dialectical motivation. For Bae, Su-ah’s homosexual relationship, its ‘difference’ was sacralized and all the social rules and relationships were deleted with achieving purity and absoluteness. Jeong, Yi-hyun’s consuming subject’s ‘distinction’ was secularized and made progressive and new feminine subject. Indeed, this seemed to hide the existence of women’s realistic desire. In this study, which figures out feminine novel criticism’s performance method and its limitation in the 2000s, it tries to become a small reference point in the feminism movement in society with entering late 2010s for how to criticize feminine novels again.
  • 3.

    (Mis)Fortunes of Feminism

    Jieun Baik | 2018, 24(2) | pp.69~96 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    It is important to look at the position and status of ‘feminism’ in the literary discourse of the 2000s as the pre-history of the recent “Feminism discourse”. What was the status of ‘feminism’ in the field of literature of the past? How do women writers and critics, who have been rapidly and quantitatively expanding through the 1990s and 2000s, connect with the recent debate on feminism? This article discusses the aspects of ‘femininity’ or ‘women’s literature in the literary discourse and literary criticism of the 2000s and feminism discussions related to other ‘Others’, and ‘sub-version’ in the study of literature. In the literary discourse of the 2000s, when thinking about or discussing ‘women’, the idea that it should not be reduced to the so-called ‘Women’ was strong. I think it was a certain paradox of ‘speaking gender to get rid of gender’, so-called “Gender-Paradox”. This will be reflected in the methods of identifying and utilizing the core meaning and power of the new feminist practice and movement that has begun.
  • 4.

    Feminism Discourse and its Enemies in the 2010s―For the Crossing of ‘Care’ and Mrs’s Feminism

    Jung Eunkyoung | 2018, 24(2) | pp.97~125 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies feminism achieved by women’s literature in the 1990s after post-romanticization and considers the gender equality of care for family. Feminism discourse in the 2010s has consisted mainly of identity politics, misogyny, and political correctness. However, the excessive discussion of ‘femininity’ and ‘political politics of difference’ are concentrated on the struggle of recognition of women among the two-dimensional problems of gender inequality, and have overlooked the problem of economic distribution relatively. This article focuses on the problems of women’s work, housework and caring, focusing on economic inequality. Jo Nam-Ju’s Kim Ji-young, who was born in 1982 represented a contempt of women and ‘Mom worm’, showing the reality of the capitalism that has invaded the realm of the family and mother, and the objection to the serious gender negation of ‘housework and care’. Nancy Fraser criticizes the Neo-liberal regime for withdrawing social welfare investment and forcing women to work under paid labor, resulting in serious care gaps. Nancy Fraser has mentioned three alternatives to this. Universal livelihood support model, equal care provider model, and universal care provider model. The first one is universalizing male, the second is still limited in that it reproduces the difference, and positively suggests a third method of assuming everyone as the subject of ‘care’, that is, women. In Kim Hye-jin’s novel About Daughter, a female speaker who cares for an elderly person with dementia with daughter’s homosexual lover can be a meaningful realization of Nancy Fraser’s third alternative. ‘I’ and daughter’s lover, while cooperating in caring community, cross the family ideology, homophobia and embody the universal caring provider model. Since the 2010s, the feminism discourse must contemplate how feminism can coexist harmoniously with men, taking into account both struggle for recognition and that of distribution.
  • 5.

    Emotion of Shame and Its Ethical Possibility in the Novel Toji

    KIM YEONSOOK | 2018, 24(2) | pp.129~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Emotion is not simply what is given, but it is the experience in which the subject relates to the world. Previous discussions saw shame as being both positive and negative. The positive side is that shame allows a human being to pursue the better values through his or her self-examination. At the same time, since this examination and reflection are based on the negative awareness of self, they can be linked to a feeling of guilt, psychological suppression and the like. This awareness suggests that shame is closely related to the formation of the subject’s self-identity. This study seeks to examine the characters in Toji who suffer shame and to discuss the ethical meaning revealed in the process of their struggles and their response to such struggles. First, when the individuals exclude others and remain in their own world of self-identity, they lose a sense of shame. They remain in a state of self-centered narcissism, and cannot explore ethical judgment and values. Second, the characters tend to link the sense of shame to self-pride. At this time, shame is not that of being inhibitory and negative, but rather, becomes an element in the exploration of identity. Characters in Toji took the experience of shame as an internalized other person to stand firm in being a human. Third, characters showed shame from their sympathy with others. Individuals establish themselves as members of the community through a sense of shame. Fourth, characters developed a sense of shame from being conscious of others into self-examination. This self-examination did not lead to an active determination to change the external reality. However, a sense of shame served as an ontological emotion to recognize one’s passivity, and to explore the meaning of humans. This analysis revealed that shame was a factor that made it possible to construct a self-identity and to explore the communal emotional ability. Shame shown in Toji served as the way of reporting the signs of losing humanity, and as a mechanism of recovering humanity. This is the ethical possibility that shame in Toji can construct.
  • 6.

    A Study on a Play within a Play in the Television Drama 'The Produca'

    Park Sangwan | 2018, 24(2) | pp.163~203 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presents an investigation into the patterns and meanings of a play within a play in a television drama titled <The Produca>, whose inside dramas are ‘Documentary Three Days’, a documentary program aired on the same KBS channel, and ‘2 Days and 1 Night’, an entertainment program on the same channel. These inside dramas intentionally reveal that they are fictional, which helps the audience take a more objective and critical attitude toward the programs. They, at the same time, promote the immersion of the audience by employing such strategies as hiding the truth of characters and projecting the viewers’ desire. The drama’s significance as a metadrama reflecting relations between fiction and the reality is created by the repetition of the viewers’ distancing and immersion through these plays within a play. The drama shows through its plays within a play that inner dramas and fiction can possibly to alter the outer drama and reality, respectively. Fiction is created because there is actuality, and once it is created, it can in turn impact actuality. These interactive relations can be linked to those between a television drama and the actual reality. A television drama is made in the real world, and its fictional stories can influence actual reality, which reflects the pattern of simulacra to perceive the world through fiction in today’s modern society in which people cannot directly perceive the actuality of the world despite its presence. <The Produca> ultimately reminds the viewers through its plays within a play of the real world that can be defined only through a fictional world.
  • 7.

    Youth Films in the 1970s, the Rupture between Resistance and ‘Conspiracy’

    Son Young Nim | 2018, 24(2) | pp.205~235 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviewed the double strategy and rupture between resistance and conspiracy of youth films produced under the formation of the ‘youth’ and restriction on the popular culture in the 1970s. The youth, with culture and educational background based on economic growth of the time, were designated as cultural subjects and regarded as the object of vigilance at the same time. Their behaviors in enjoying the cultural trends of the time were defined as ‘decadence’ by the State, which meant that the ‘youth’ or the popular youth culture was the target of crackdown. The State tried to form a new generation through the ‘youth’ mainstream. Meanwhile, in filmdom, youth rapidly appeared as the cultural subject and was regarded as film material and significant consumers. The film industry was recovering from depression and so the focus was directed towards the youth, while the film policy of the socio-political situation called Yusin System accelerated the depression in film business through their control over general film production. Given the circumstances, film-makers came to produce ‘youth films’ as a way to pander to the young consumer market. The niche market of youth films under the strict control of double-censorship implies that there was a certain ‘conspiracy’ between the State and stake-holders. That is, it can be said that youth films were the result of a rupture in which the desires of numerous interest groups competed under the double strategy of social criticism and acceptance of governmental demands. The young people depicted in youth films were the subject of not only deviant behavior, but also the ‘gaiety and soundness’ correspondent to governmental standards. That is, the gaiety of the young in youth films was to indirectly show their resistance against the restriction, connected with the intention of ‘conspiracy’.
  • 8.

    Features of Otome Game’s Narrative System and its Effect—Focusing on Cheritz’s <Nameless>(2013)

    Han Sang-yun | 2018, 24(2) | pp.237~271 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines how the system of ‘Otome Game’ (Dating simulation game for female gamers) generates unusual meanings in typical romance stories. Unlike traditional books on romance, which provide a single story per book, Otome games provide multiple narratives in a single piece of work. The multi-narrative experience encourages the player to read typical romance stories in different ways. A game player usually plays a game repeatedly to match with each of the male characters, so the player can have a date with several men although each story is a love story between one man and one woman. By exposing these experiences which occur outside the computer screen, <Nameless>, a game made by Cheritz, breaks the romantic mood of the ‘true love’ fantasy that most typical romantic stories have. Instead, <Namesless> gives an unfamiliar ending in that the female character does not become a lover with one male character but ends up matching with everyone. This is a reflection for the polygamic relationship that occurs out of the screen between a player and the male characters. It shows women’s polygamic desire that have been considered as only men’s. The game’s multiple narrative system also brings new experiences to the player. In <Nameless>, there are five attractive male characters with different personalities and appearances, and a player can explore her own tastes and preferences by repeating the game and enjoying a new sequence of events. Add to this, it is important to point out that not all of the outcomes are ‘happy endings’ but are also ‘bad endings.’ Bad endings, which deviate from the typical romance narratives in various ways, show different types of desire and players can experience them indirectly. Thus, in Otome games female players can get more active meanings than in ordinary romance stories.
  • 9.

    Why They are Enthusiastic about Boys’ Love?―Ymamaoka Shigeyuki’s The Psychology of Hujyosi

    Kim Sowon | 2018, 24(2) | pp.275~304 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Don-in-nyo and Hujyosi are expressions for women readers who enjoy BL(Boys’ Love) enthusiastically, the genre drawing upon male homosexuality. BL started as Syonenai, a genre of Syojyomanga in the mid-1970s. The BL genre first appeared as Dojinshi(Coterie Magazine) by amateur writers and readers, and was commercialized thereafter. However, it was drastically excluded from the mainstream. This was common in South Korea and Japan. This paper analyzes Yamaoka Shigeyuki’s book, The Psychology of Hujyosi. He carried out a survey targeting college students, and analyzed the results. He studied the psychological features of Hujyosi and the characteristics of BL. BL is a resistance against the passive women’s representation of Syojyomanga, and a momentum in which women readers are liberated from sexual oppression. Yamaoka analyses Hujyosi objectively. As a result, he discovered that Hujyosi hope to gain close connections with the features of BL. In addition, he explained that Hujyosi felt happiness through their passionate interests over BL. This study on Hujyosi has a value as a major preceding research on the women readers who emerged as new consumers of BL and webtoon platforms of the same genre in South Korea.