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2021, Vol.27, No.1

  • 1.

    Japanese Settlers’ Film Culture in Keijo(京城) as seen through Film ephemera printed in the 1920s and 1930s

    Hwajin Lee | 2021, 27(1) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As a case study, this paper historicizes the film culture in Namchon district in Keijo(京城) based on a preliminary research on the film ephemera produced during the colonial period. Through cross-examining articles appeared in Japanese newspapers and magazines at the time, this paper empirically reconstructs the Japanese settlers’ film culture in Keijo, a colonial city whose cultural environment was ethnically divided into ‘Bukchon’ and ‘Namchon.’ During the silent era, movie theaters in the Namchon district not only played a role of cinema chain through which films imported and distributed by Japanese film companies were circulated and exhibited but also served as a cultural community for Japanese settlers who migrated to a colony. The film ephemera issued by each theater not only provided information about the movie program, but also connected these Japaneses settlers in colonial city, Keijo to the homogeneous space and time in Japan proper. Both as a minority and colonizer in a colony, these Japanese settlers experienced a sense of ‘unity’ that could ‘distinguish’ their ethnic identity differentiated from Koreans through watching movies in this ethnically segregated cultural environment. In doing so, they were also able to connect themselves to their homeland in Japan Proper, despite on a cultural level. This is a cultural practice that strengthens a kind of long distance nationalism. Examining Japanese film culture through film ephemera would not only contribute to the previous scholarship on modern theater culture and spectatorship established since the 2000s, but also be a meaningful attempt to find ways and directions for film history research through non-film materials.
  • 2.

    Hollywood in Print—Movie Programmes of a Korean Theater in Ethnically Segregated Kyǒngsǒng in the 1920s and the Reception of Hollywood Prestige Pictures

    AHN SEJUNG | 2021, 27(1) | pp.53~98 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the ways in which Hollywood feature films produced and widely circulated with the establishment of the studio system was consumed in the ethnically segregated Korean movie theaters in Kyǒngsǒng in the 1920s. Focusing on how those theaters appropriated what Hollywood represented, this paper has three objectives. First, from a historical and economic perspective, I will historicize the emergence of so-called prestige pictures and how movies became a branded product in that process. Second, I will also loot at how Chosǒn Theater, one of the earliest movie theaters in the Korean-resident area in Kyǒngsǒng who sought to be a prestigious movie palace actively exploited Hollywood brand, by foregrounding its Paramount connection, in particular. Lastly, through a close reading of weekly programmes and handbills, I will examine how these promotional print materials, as an intermediating medium, helped to supplement the audiences’ viewing of Hollywood movies while creating loyal audiences.
  • 3.

    Between Text and Image, The Audience and Film—The Weekly Newsletters and Leaflets of Dansungsa as Media (1926-1937)

    남기웅 | 2021, 27(1) | pp.99~130 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines printed materials such as weekly newsletters and leaflets issued by Dansungsa, a movie theater in Colonial Korea for a promotional purpose as independent modern media. During the 1920s and 1930s, in tandem with the development of the incipient printing houses in Namchon, Gyeongseong, including Suyeongsa, Dansungsa published promotional prints including weekly newsletters and leaflets in a serial manner to compete with Joseon-gukjang and Umigwan. As these materials contain various information including movie programmes, spectatorship, distributional channels, and promotional strategies that bears witness to theater culture of this time, this paper focuses on the dynamics where not only text and image but also audiences and filmic texts are mediated one another. To this end, the paper has three objectives. First, I argue that weekly newsletters and leaflets can be considered as ‘flickering media’ that meddles in text and image culture. Second, Dansungsa’s promotional prints interpellated film audiences as a loyal fan group while mediating audiences and filmic texts. In doing so, I suggest that these print materials established its own cultural domain differentiated from filmic culture itself. Third, these ephemeral materials contributed to narrowing the gap between colonial Joseon and the World in its imaginary geography through the function of mediation.
  • 4.

    Agent “M”—The Apparatus of “Hate” and Human or Non-Human Beings as Living Dead

    Kwon Doo Hyun | 2021, 27(1) | pp.133~185 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study is an attempt to connect television drama M, which deals with abortion issues, with theoretical focus such as materiality, relativity, and agency, to understand diffractively as an cartography of agential reality. According to Karen Barard’s Agential Realism, Television drama M is a sociocultural phenomenon produced by the agential intra-actions of material-discursive apparatuses such as medical technology, ghost stories and legends, and male-affect. The 1990s repeatedly revealed “hate” through apparatuses such as technology, discourse, and affect, which are directed at women’s gendered bodies. The material -discursive practice of plastic surgery and abortion proves that the agential reality surrounding the body is closely intertwined with medical technology, as well as with the genderized hate. Another related material-discursive phenomenon is rediscovery of the legend and fad of the ghost story, which is also produced from the hate of the denaturalized body, which is once again expanded and reproduced. Appearing in this environment of affect, M enacts diffraction, which is based on backlash, lacking posthuman implications for the materialization of the techno-body. M puts humanistic assumptions about “Man” as a universal definition, historically framed and defined in context. But it is not universal and it is gendered. The current time when the political turmoil surrounding medical technology, discourse, and bodily matters is violently intra-acted is the time to carefully account and respond to the alternative definitions of human beings that M has rejected.
  • 5.

    International Song Festivals and Musicians’ Sense of the World—Inter-Asian Perspective and Eurasian Imagination in the Study of Korean Popular Song during the Cold War

    Kim Sunghee | 2021, 27(1) | pp.187~225 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines how international song festivals shaped Korean musicians’ sense of the world in the 1970s and early 1980s. After the Korean composer, Yi Pongjo, won a top-10 prize at the Yamaha World Popular Song Festival in 1970, an astonishing number of Korean musicians participated in international song festivals held in Japan. Meanwhile, Korean broadcasting companies strengthened their cooperative relationship with Japanese television stations and initiated their own international song festivals in the late 1970s: Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC)’s Seoul International Song Festival in 1978 and Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation (TBC)’s World Song Festival in 1979. During the first two years of its festival, MBC organized its song contest by collaborating with television stations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and the ASEAN countries. However, the World Song Festival was more critically acclaimed because TBC invited renowned musicians from America and European countries, including Yugoslavia, in collaboration with the International Federation of Festival Organizations (FIDOF). Thus, from 1980, FIDOF helped MBC attract composers and singers from Europe and America to their Seoul International Song Festival. This paper sheds light on connections within the popular music arena between South Korea and the outside world during the Cold War—a subject that has been poorly examined.
  • 6.

    A study on the ludonarrative dissonance of AAA-level games, examined through <The Last of Us part Ⅱ>

    Park, In-Seong | 2021, 27(1) | pp.227~265 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper summarizes the concept of ludonarrative dissonance that occurred in the realm of full-scale game criticism, and materializes it with the latest work <The Last of Us Part 2>. In the process, it is examined that this game actively utilizes the ludonarrative dissonance to deliver cognitive experiences to players that go beyond the definition of gameness. Along with the all-round development of AAA-class games, the ludonarrative dissonance is emerging as an important task that each game must overcome. On the contrary, however, it should be noted that <The Last of Us Part 2> has a different effect than expected by revealing rather than overcoming the ludonarrative dissonance. The ludonarrative dissonance conveyed by <The Last of Us 2> has the effects of ironic interpretative possibilities. This paper looks at dissonance in two dimensions, and the first is the dissonance between the play-narrative structure inside the game. <The Last of Us Part 2> induces the player to recognize the dissonance and actively reconstruct the meaning of the whole game by reminding the player of the dissonance that occurs between the two structures. Second, it stimulates the cognitive dissonance that exists inside the player playing the game beyond the internal structure of the game. That is, by expanding the concept of gameness, it evokes the possibility that games can function more than a tool for convenient self-efficacy. As such, the ludonnarrative dissonance can be a more fundamental redefinition of game nature and an expression of a problem consciousness about the possibility of change.
  • 7.

    Synesthetic Aesthetics in the Narrative, Painting and Music in the Film The Age of Innocence

    Sa-Bin Shin | 2021, 27(1) | pp.265~299 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research paper is to facilitate the understanding of the synesthetic aesthetics in the film The Age of Innocence through the intertextuality among the narrative, paintings, and music in the film. In this paper, a two-dimensional intertextual analysis of the paintings in relation to the narrative is conducted on the paintings owned by Old New York, the paintings owned by Ellen, the portraits of unknown artists on the street outside of Parker House, and Rubens’ painting at the Louvre. A three-dimensional intertextual analysis of performances in relation to the narrative is conducted on the stages and the box seats at the New York Academy of Music, in which Charles F. Gounod’s Faust is performed, and the Wallack’s Theatre, in which Dion Boucicault’s The Shaughraun is performed. An intertextual analysis of music in relation to the narrative is also conducted on the diegetic and non-diegetic classical music of the film, including Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 8 and Mendelssohn’s String Quintet No. 2, as well as Elmer Bernstein’s non-diegetic music of the film. The constituent event of The Age of Innocence represents the passion trapped in the reflection of love and desire that are not lasting, and the supplementary event embodies the narrow viewpoint and the inversion of values caused by the patriarchal authority of Old New York. The characters in the film live a double life, presenting an unaffected surface and concealing the problems behind it. The characters restrain their emotions at both the climax and the ending. The most powerful aspect of the film is the type and nature of oppressive life, which are more delicately described with the help of paintings and music, as there is a limit to describing them only by acting. In intertextual terms, paintings and music in The Age of Innocence continuously emphasize “feeling of emotions that cannot be expressed in language.” With a synesthetic image, as if each part were imprinted on the previous part, the continuity “responds to continuous camera movements and montage effects.” In The Age of Innocence, erotic dynamism brings dramatic excitement to the highest level, switching between the satisfaction of revealing desire and the disappointment of hiding desire due to its taboo status. This is possible because paintings and music related to the narrative have made aesthetic achievements that overcome the limitations of two-dimensional planes and limited frames. The significance of this study lies in that, since the identification in The Age of Innocence is based on the establishment of a synesthetic aesthetic through audio-visual representation of the film narrative, it helps us to rediscover the possibility of cinematic aesthetics.
  • 8.

    Romanticism of Brotherhood, Affect of 1987—A Better Tomorrow and Hong Kong-Korea Connection

    Youngjae Yi | 2021, 27(1) | pp.301~338 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    John Woo’s A Better Tomorrow arrived at the turning point of Korean society between 1987 and 1988. The Hong Kong movie boom that started here reached its peak around the 1990s. What does this phenomenon mean? Hong Kong action films have functioned as an important resource for Korean young male subculture since the late 1960s. The audience of A Better Tomorrow matches the audience of previous Hong Kong films in a generational and gendered way. The fascination of Hong Kong action films by young Korean men from 1987 to 1991 has nothing to do with Hong Kong’s political context. However, a certain affect is shared between Korean and Hong Kong audiences. It could be said to be the brotherhood within the struggling group. The affective economies of this fraternity embodies the broad solidarity of 1987, the solidarity of comrades seeking to resist the violence of the world. It also works on symbolic and practical gender bias. In other words, this loyalty is nothing but loyalty between the (male) brothers who are confronting the injustice of the world. This is the “translational possibility” of A Better Tomorrow.
  • 9.

    Reading “Ce que l’image nous dit”, between Academia and its Interpretation

    Kim Hangyul | 2021, 27(1) | pp.341~357 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Didier Éribon’s dialogue with Ernst Gombrich, first published in 1991 in France, stands as a curious example of interpreting a scientific mind into a popular narrative. On the occasion of its brand new translation in Korean, this essay examines the encounter of two different languages, that of scholarly art history and the other, of “entretien”. Éribon’s previous interviews with Georges Dumézil and Claude Lévi-Strauss have already shown the perfect use of dialogue that interprets in simple words some currents of European thoughts of 20th century at its highest level. The double identity found in the extraordinary profile of the author of The Story of Art should help us deal with this particular form of dialogue in depth, and expect another possibility of explaining and reconstructing academia.