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2021, Vol.27, No.3

  • 1.

    The Discourse on Girls and the Comics in the 1970s Magazine, Schoolgirl—A Forced Model and the Invented Cheerfulness

    Kim Sowon | 2021, 27(3) | pp.13~51 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this essay is to illustrate Sunjung Manhwa in the 1970s which has been alienated in comics studies. This essay analyses the articles and the serial comics in Schoolgirl, the magazine in the 1970s, and examines the ideal representations of the girls at that time. Sunjung Manhwa is really different between the 1960s and 1970s. It cannot be explained on this gap just by analyzing Sunjung Manhwa in book form alone. Even though the censorship on comics was the element that has hampered the development of comics as a whole, the slumps of Sunjung Manhwa in the 1970s were very excessive compared to other comics genres. This article can gain the answers to the reason of the changes of Sunjung Manhwa by studying the magazines which was the main mass media aimed at girls with Sunjung Manhwa. While the articles in magazines show the editing direction and its characteristics, they reflect the values and ideologies at that time. The same is true for the comics in the magazines. Especially, the comics in the magazines was relatively free from the censorship. This essay examined how the articles and the comics in the girls’ magazine in the 1970s represented the images of girls at the time by focusing on feature articles and comics in the magazine, Schoolgirl. This article explored Um, Hee-Ja’s Blue Zone and Bang, Young-Jin’s Mini March among a full-length serial comics in the magazine, Schoolgirl. Both Blue Zone and Mini March reveal the images of an ideal girl that has been emphasized by the articles in Schoolgirl. Blue Zone draws the appearances of an earnest and obedient daughter, and Mini March represents the figures of a cheerful and bright girl. Through this study, it can be recognized that the magazines in the 1970s highly appraised girls who are obedient to a given society and serve to a harmonious family as ideal ones, and it might be guessed that the ideal images of girls that was characterized ceaselessly by the magazines were the standard of the censorship on comics and its creativity and had also a huge impact on the contents and the expressions of a great deal of works. The 1970s was the times when its importance has been lost in the history of the comics studies by the censorship on the comics and the monopoly of “Hapdong(합동) publisher.” The limits of expression in terms of censorship were awfully distinct, so its result was few of good works in quality, and there are still many blanks in the study on 1970s’ comics. This study has a meaning which fills up a blank in the comics studies.
  • 2.

    New Aspect of Patriarch as a Male Abject and Gender Politics of Class Representation—Focusing on <Parasite>

    KEONHYUNG KIM | 2021, 27(3) | pp.53~94 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article pays attention to the gender representation of an abominable male abject that reveal class polarization in the movie Parasite. I seeks to read a new aspect of emotional politics in which a precariat man becomes a male patriarch while representing himself with an abhorrent position. Parasite shows a reversal of daughter and son responsible for parents, contrary to the existing family narrative. They teaches the parents’ generation how to survive neoliberal that their place is created only when they take away others’ place. However, after losing this prospect, Ki-woo confesses to his father that he is sorry first. Ki-taek also attempted to identify Dong-ik with the patriarch, but this male solidarity collapsed by class and committed murder in sudden anger. As a result, Gi-taek goes down to the hateful status of a stinking underground life, and Ki-woo receives a message of ethical reflection from his isolated father. The film gives the father and son the noble status of ethical fighter who fought against the structure of class polarization, especially the ending epilogue and narration emphasizing the ethical responsibility and mutual solidarity between father and son. In this process, the voices of female characters are gradually omitted, blurring gender screening for male characters. Parasite reveals the political reenactment strategy of precariat men in the age of neoliberalism, which is ethical subject by claiming to be a class abject himself. And representing the hate with gender-selecting, it is beautifying the responsible ethics of the patriarch.
  • 3.

    A Study on Cinematic Representations of Posthuman Girls in South Korea—Focused on The Silenced and The Witch: Part 1. The Subversion

    Kim Eun Joung | 2021, 27(3) | pp.95~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the symbolic images of girls besides its definition have varied according to the age and society, a posthuman girl character recently appears in the digital cinema. This study aims to analyze its cinematic representations and the social contexts in which they are created. For this purpose, the study focuses on what extent the society allows its imagined figurations as a future female body and the meanings revolving around the image of ‘technologically body-enhanced female fighter’. Current digital visualization technology has developed to the extent any imaged future humans can be represented, but posthuman girls’ representations have its limitation that only a human-like figuration can be allowed in accord with the traditionally idolized image of girls. It is because of the representation logic in which digital cinema is visualized based on perceptual realism that values audiences’ experiences. Despite such less critical figuration which does not dare to cross the boundary between the image of human and inhuman, the posthuman girl characters create a new category of the ‘dangerous girls’ who are both void of sexual femininity and independent of motherhood and heterosexual romance narrative. Of course, they support the modern human-centered belief that humans can take entire control of technology with their moral behaviors and dispel the fear about the negative impact the nature of technology may have on society at large by showing their child-like figuration protecting ethical values. However, the new character of ‘unruly girl’ exerts her subversive act that seeks to fight against the human-centered liberal humanistic values and melancholic feeling and vulnerability that the neoliberalism and technocracy enforce. When posthuman girl characters are considered to be a marker through which we can see how different social forces are intervening and competing each other in the upcoming posthuman age, the limited figuration of the posthuman girl characters in South Korean movies illustrates the opinionated thoughts toward the instrumentalism in technology but their bloodshed struggles reveal how the corporate or state-governed techno-biopower has oppressively treated and appropriated the human body as the technology-object and also provide a meaningful opportunity to rethink its unethical violence.
  • 4.

    A Study on the narrative characteristic of <Burning Ground>

    Ko Hoon | 2021, 27(3) | pp.127~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study focuses on analyzing the epic characteristics of a korean sports cartoon called “Burning Ground” in the 1970s. Through this, we would like to reveal that only “Burning Ground” has a unique narrative. We hope that such research will accumulate and serve as the basis for the study of Korean sports cartoon. In the 1970s and 1980s, Korean sports cartoons were narratives of the main characters. The story of the family is central to the narrative. Family revenge is mainly the central narrative. Plural narratives are serious, and sports act as auxiliary narratives. It uses ‘Spocon’, a characteristic of Japanese sports cartoons, to show its efforts to get revenge. Therefore, it is extremely rare to use professional knowledge in Korean sports cartoons in the 1970s. Burning Ground uses an escalating system to construct incremental narratives. The three-dimensional narrative is composed by utilizing various narratives of surrounding characters. The use of expertise in football is a feature of the 1990s, and showing this in the 1970s means that the work is ahead of its time. There are limitations of Japanese cartoon theft and plagiarism. However, through this, it provides evidence to examine the relationship between Korea and Japan. And timeless epic speciality must be recognized. The study is meaningful in that it can broaden the perspective of Korean cartoon research in the 1970s.
  • 5.

    Relationship between Urban Identity and Time and Space—Focusing on <Ode to the Goose>, Zhang Lu’s Film

    Cho, Myung-Ki | 2021, 27(3) | pp.151~191 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines what is the content of Gusan’s urban identity, represented by the film <Ode to the Goose> and how the contents and aspects of this city’s identity interact with the structure of the films’ discourse. <Ode to the Goose> weaves Gunsan and Seoul into continuously reorganized cities based on an interactive relation, rather than literal ones. Seoul in which the time for a film narrative is closed is converted into the starting point for tour to Gunsan. The both points in which audiences’ ex post return occurs are the starting point for the time for the film discourse and the other point in which the title is suggested. The journey-type of the narrative structure in this film is a3-dimensional spiral-shaped, rather than a 2-dimensional circular regression. <Ode to the Goose> embodies the characteristics and the identity and apriority of two cities, based on such a spiral-shaped temporal and spatial structure. Seoul severs the relation between grand narrative/collective memory and small narrative/individual memory as an agnostic one, in other words, it is a city that cuts off cities, relations and memory and rejects the continuity of memory. On the other hand, Gunsan is a city in which both grand and small narrative and collective and individual memory coexist and both split and isolated mind are cured and mutually consoled. It describes Gunsan as the surplus space as a being for others, while expressing its identity as robust and literal thing. The film describes it as the field in which oppositional concepts such as historical interruption and continuity and spatial being for others and originality become 3-dimensional spiral ones, through the reciprocity between the narrative and the discourse structure. This paper has an implication, in that it examines how temporal and spatial relationship constituting the urban identity interacts with the structure of the film narrative.
  • 6.

    (Im)Mobility as Dispositif and its Representations—Mobility-Based Textual Research Method Centered on Mobility and Foucault

    Kim Nahyun | 2021, 27(3) | pp.195~228 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to review the mobility-based textual research methods raised in Mobility and Foucault and apply them to textual analysis. This book contains seven articles applying Foucault’s terms to mobility studies, giving intellectual stimulation to both studies. Since Foucault examined discipline power operated through the technology of distinguishing between rational/irrational and normal/abnormal, his works seem to a study of closed spaces like prisons. However, the authors of this book note that Foucault’s works already had sufficient insight on mobility, and them actively incorporated it into mobility study. When we concentrate Foucault’s works on mobility as a governmentality and a dispositif, the tension and dynamics between mobility and immobility are emphasized. And then it is possible to cross the simple dichotomy in mobility studies. This paper analyzes Kim Joong-hyuk’s short story 1F/B1 by applying this method. This story describes a building manager who seems to be fixed in a building, but the mobility of him in the story goes through stereotypes and creates new spaces. Kim Hye-jin’s short stories also represent mobility that cannot move and hesitates. These stories are important in that they show the mobility as a dispositif that constitutes the subject. When referring to the achievements of Mobility and Foucault, we read this narrative again by paying attention to the dynamics of mobility and immobility in the text. The significance of this paper is that it expands mobility-based textual research anew. While text analysis applying mobility study was usually focused on clearly mobile narratives such as travel statements and diaspora narratives, Mobility and Foucault drives new textual research by paying attention to the relationship between power and mobility, mobility and immobility dynamics. Therefore, this paper is significant in confirming the new meaning of the text revealed when paying attention to the representation of mobility in the narrative that no one seems to be mobile, and seeking to expand the mobility-based textual research method.