Journal of Popular Narrative 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.91

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pISSN : 1738-3188
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2022, Vol.28, No.2

  • 1.

    My Research on Popular Art

    Lee, Young-Mee | 2022, 28(2) | pp.13~57 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a review of the process that led me to the study of popular art. First of all, the cultural environment of childhood, art-related experiences of college, and the experience of the progressive culture movement were described. As I experienced the culture movement from the 1980s to the early 1990s, I acquired many academic ideas and attitudes. And these were the basis for establishing my unique research methodology in popular art research, which began in earnest from the end of the 1990s. This article induces special interest and reflection on the popular art research methodology by revealing the process of my research being formed and developed.
  • 2.

    Tribalism in the internet community reading Memes and neologisms

    Park, In-Seong | 2022, 28(2) | pp.59~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper will be able to indirectly materialize the political unconscious of language users composed through memes and neologisms by examining the usage patterns of memes and neologisms that have occurred mainly in the a male- dominated community since the 2000s. As such, it is to examine the compressed world perception formed through the Internet community in the form of a story that embodies or re-recognizes it. First of all, the occurrence and distribution of various memes centered on DC Inside is used like token to acquire a sense of belonging to the Internet community. The use of various memes for intentionally discriminating from others justifies hate expressions by focusing only on linguistic efficacy regardless of their intentions. Reducing everything to the effect of humor is the most powerful linguistic means of acquiring a sense of belonging to tribalism. Through differentiation towards others and easy objectification, Internet culture has only had the status of a convenient alternative world. Rather than simply discriminating against others, there is also a tendency to justify active demeaning of others through self-deprecation. Centering on ‘Pepe the Frog’, a comprehensive meme is used that defines one’s identity as a loser and active use of this to define all community users, including himself, as social outsiders and losers. These attempts are masochistic gestures that comfort themselves through emotional egalitarianism in the alternative world. On the other hand, the ‘Our Brother’ culture of the a male-dominated community is a meme that is used to play a role opposite to the meritocracy’s growth narrative in the real world. Unlike his traditional father, ‘Our Brother’ has a friendly and non-authoritarian humor, and has the status of a new big other in internet culture. As in the case of the rapper ‘Yumdda’, many fandoms enjoy the entrusted narrative of growth by constructing a success story opposite to the meritocracy era through him. It is the aspect of pursuing convenient surrogate satisfaction that succeeds quickly and comfortably through emotional projection on numerous hyungs rather than through uncertain and difficult successes. Internet tribalism, excessive sense of belonging, and defensive illusions about the real world are acting as a mechanism to overestimate all “fail” and “damages”. Therefore, the use of a series of memes and the story structure of the alternative world constituted accordingly seems to be the struggle of the Internet generation to prevent and minimize failures and damages in advance when they must fully bear it.
  • 3.

    A Failed Women’s Rebellion and the Ability of Love—A Change of women as subject in 2000’s Romance Novel

    LEE Jura | 2022, 28(2) | pp.95~126 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper identified a new representation of female subjects in Korean romance novels in the 2000s and analyzed the desires of women at the time. Research on women’s new subjects in the 2000s has been studied focusing on chick-lit and TV dramas. These studies focused on the distortion or frustration of subjectivity of women who appeared in the conflict with the patriarchal system in the change to neoliberalism. However, the romance novel, a subculture centered on women, depicts a woman’s honest fantasy that was not fully embodied in the mainstream discourse. Therefore, this paper analyzed popular romance novels in the 2000s. Of course, in order to identify the point where the characteristics of women’s subculture meet the general desires of the time, it was analyzed focusing on Ji Soohyeon’s My Name is Kim Sam-soon and Hyun Gowoon’s Something About 1% that gained great popularity among romance novels. In the 2000s, the female subject in Korean romance novels was portrayed as a failure of self management recommended in the neoliberal self-development discourse. They are out-of-the-way losers. They are a pathetic woman who has not acquired the perfect femininity demanded by society of their time. However, the winners of romance novels were these failures. Although she failed to manage herself, she had different abilities. The romance heroine’s ability is to trust humans and practice true love. With trust in love, the heroine healed and changed an upper class man who was hurted by someone. Men are saved through women. Through this, the romance heroine becomes the subject of relationship. Moreover, romance novels reversed the typical Cinderella narrative and highlighted the ethics of life of the middle class. This showed the desire of female subjects to resist neoliberalism and sexism, which are mainstream discourses in contemporary society. In the 2000s, romance novels portrayed human values, ethics, and cultural diversity that survived to the end in the discourse of neoliberal competition for survival.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Humanity of ‘Machine-Human’ Represented in SF Films

    Kim, Se-Na | 2022, 28(2) | pp.129~156 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine the essence of ethical subjecthood required for the future society by paying attention to the characteristics of machine-human represented by SF films. If the aspect of (in)humanity of machine-human is examined after getting out of the perspective regarding it as a substitutional being of human subject, it would be possible to find not only the nature of human as a creator, but also the humanity that should be essentially equipped from machine-human. This study aims to understand the fictional truth shown in the meaning of ‘humanity’, and also to examine the pure subjective form as an alternative presentation of it. The illusion about accumulated memories that compose the identity of human or affluent internal life, should be accepted as an act that deceives oneself. When reaching the ‘empty state’ after throwing away the facade of internal life-contents and background that composes oneself, finally, one can reach the status of pure subject. To examine this, it aims to examine the relation connected to the composition of identity of ‘memory’. The memory could be interpreted into various meanings when it is combined with the artificial nature of machine-human. It can cause a question like ‘Is it possible for the memory transplanted or represented into the past existentially experienced by machine-human locked in the extinction of body to become the substantive identity?’. The ‘memory’ is represented as ‘illusion’ that is experienced in the moment when extincted, and it is a holistic object in which the emotions that reveal the humanity are connected to affect, instinct, and desire. This study could contribute to the expansion of the perspective on SF films. Considering the nature and meanings of ‘machine-human’ that is embodied as a substitutional being of human means that we should be equipped with subjecthood as a qualification for human required for the future society. In the aspect of providing the motive that exceeds the existing perspective represented as in-humanity, the machine-human in the form of pure subject is a theme we should newly view. Comparing the homology between human and machine-human can provide a chance to examine the significance of expanded humanity.
  • 5.

    Body of Super Robot: Representation of ‘86’ and ‘Z’ Generation—Focusing on V and Kkantau

    Seo, Eun-Young | 2022, 28(2) | pp.157~186 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyzes two webtoons, <V> and <Kkantau>, which are based on super robots. In the two works, we analyze how the fantasy of the desired achievement of the “Super Robot” body works, and through this, we identify the characteristics of the generation composition written on the two bodies. “Kkantau” and “V” were produced in the 1970s when there was a great desire for science entry and technological development and became very popular. “Kantau” is the sequel to the cartoon “Iron Man Kkantau” and “V” is the sequel to the theatrical animation “Robot Taekwon V.” The two works show the desire for the two bodies, which wished for the power of masculinity in 1976. It can also be found that the world, which was revived in the 2000s and is still functioning, is “a narcissistic aspiration of the rusty body” and “a new type with a desire to become the body of the flesh.” First of all, Hun of the webtoon “V” reveals his narcissistic aspiration as a being castrated with masculinity. He faces his humble self in contrast to the glory of the past through a face-to-face encounter with Robot Taekwon V in 1976. This is only a welcome of 86 generations, but 1976 is the past when Hun, a narcissistic subject, is repeatedly summoned in the webtoon “V.” In addition, it is an ideal self-image that exists in the imagination, and it is a kind of regression. On the other hand, Kang Hyun of the webtoon <Kkantau> represents “the desire to become the subject of the flesh-grown body.” By ‘destroying’ and ‘restoring’ his father’s world, he builds a mother’s world where the ethics of solidarity and care are guaranteed. Unlike the 86th generation, Kang Hyun of “Kkantau” has changed his hero’s qualities and personality. This heralds the birth of a boy in a new era, and soon represents the power of Generation Z. As such, the body written in the robots of webtoons “V” (2007) and “Kkantau” (2018) is also a new direction for Korean SF cartoons (webtoons) with the appearance of post-body.
  • 6.

    Sexual Politics of Female Crime—Sexology, Sexual Knowledge, and Female Crime in the Colonial Period

    So, Young-Hyun | 2022, 28(2) | pp.187~223 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    It was confirmed through the process of forming knowledge about women around the 1930s that women’s crimes were created in the process of understanding women sexually. Based on research on women’s crimes centered on husbands murderers, I tried to expand my perspective to the point of omission in the discussion created by the way of understanding that women’s crimes are limited to the discussion of husbands murder. In this paper, the understanding of women’s crimes based on the recognition that women’s sexuality and sexual desire as a disease and a source of crime is ‘made’ in the process of expanding the understanding of women by experts represented by doctors and lawyers. Specifically, it reminds us of the situation in which sexuality, which had been built in connection with the Department of Criminology, was introduced in the form of omitting the connection with the Department of Criminology, and I checked that the popularization of sexual knowledge that was spread through print media to reflect the influence of the introduction of sexology on Joseon society during the colonial period. Through the work of reconstructing the context of the changes that medical and legal work has made in the name of science and the effects it caused, that is, the cognitive transformation, women’s crime is a mechanism for modern women’s understanding to regulate and regulate women’s sexuality and desires.
  • 7.

    Intertextuality among the Narrative, Design, and Music in a Remake Film, Cape Fear

    Sa-Bin Shin | 2022, 28(2) | pp.225~258 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyze how the intertextuality among the narrative, design, and music in a remake film, Cape Fear recreated the cultural experience of a new era of 1991 shifted from the original film’s era of 1962 and secured the identity of a new text. The narrative of this remake warrants special attention in that its main characters exhibit various types of aesthetic judgment. First, Sam and Lori who frequently engage in sexual aberration display “judgment of taste,” i.e., judgment of aesthetic objects by intuition. Next, Leigh and Danielle who become bereft and rebellious due to Sam (who feel a sense of kinship with Cady and make Sam feel a sense of betrayal) display “judgment of understanding”, i.e., judgment of meaning implied in an aesthetic object through involvement in aesthetic consciousness. Lastly, Cady who leads the final judgment on Sam, the defendant displays “judgment of value”, i.e., judgment of the aesthetic value of an aesthetic object based on his own values following aesthetic consciousness. In the remake, Martin Scorsese described the narrative of cultural experience involving a variety of aesthetic judgment based on his unique cinematic style. First, the narrative in the remake described the disorder and disharmony of family breakup and breakdown, revealing the hidden sides of the ideals of freedom and equality that are firmly ingrained in the American dream, i.e., class and gender inequality. Secondly, the design that revolves around the title sequence of Saul Bass and Elaine Bass, delivers metaphorical expressions through symbolic images, understated color tones, animation techniques, etc. tailored to the cinematic narrative as well as the director’s intention and directing plans, and even takes the weight of movie soundtrack into account. Thirdly, for the remake’s soundtrack, Elmer Bernstein arranged and adapted Bernard Herrmann’s original music. The arrangements and the adaptations maintained the cinematic aesthetics and intertextuality of various types of aesthetic judgment in the title sequences in the first half of the film and in the second half of the film, respectively. Also, the diegetic music in the remake features a wide array of genres (e.g., New Orleans blues, blues rock, a combination of gospel, pop, and R&B, bel canto opera, boogie-woogie, etc.) to secure the identity of the new text and even arouse the irony of intertextuality by sharing the cultural convergence of the new era. Identification with Cape Fear—which is achieved through a synesthetic aesthetic world that is built based on the remake narrative and the audiovisual expressions of the narrative – is significant in rediscovering the potential of cinematic aesthetics. The diversity of aesthetic judgment that is experienced by the audience enables Cape Fear to overcome the limit of the criticism about a mere replica of diegesis.
  • 8.

    Symptomatic Reading on Recursive Movement of Violence—With a Focus on Juvenile Justice, All of Us Are Dead, and D.P.

    Soong Buem Ahn | 2022, 28(2) | pp.259~295 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to symptomatically read the Netflix original series’ that depict the system and cultural characteristics of Korea realistically from the perspective of the ‘emergence of social structural violence.’ The central characters of the three works spend their adolescence and youth in environments rife with extreme violence. The covert ideology that enables a violent environment can be discussed in terms of the power and operation of state apparatuses discussed by Althusser. Although the subject matter and circumstances vary, the violence experienced by the central characters evokes the ‘mechanics problem’ that must be resolved by social imagination. To begin, Juvenile Justice depicts a situation in which the law, which functions as both a repressive and an ideological state apparatus, fails to accomplish its stated purpose. It accurately depicts the holes in juvenile law as a conduit for the dominant ideology shared by the older generation. As a result, the recursive nature of violence experienced through juvenile offenders underscores the necessity of ‘speculative justice.’ The ‘Jonas Virus,’ which emerges in All of Us Are Dead, occurs when an established society prioritizes its own survival while neglecting school violence. The virus then spreads rapidly among students who have exploited one another in order to establish themselves in a stratified society. Both the surviving children and Cheolbi denounce the social system that facilitates the spread of violence and, at the same time, denounce the older generation’s propensity to discipline. Finally, D.P. focuses on the process of carrying out the mission of ‘deserter pursuit,’ which accurately depicts the military discipline system’s oppressive use of consensual violence in response to the appearance of a sign of exceptionality. D.P. depicts the cycle of violence within the repressive state apparatus that is the military and calls on the prisoners to take a stand.
  • 9.

    Representation of chaebol in Korean mystery novels in the late 1970s and 1980s—focus on Jo Hae-il, The Country You Cannot Go and Park Bum-shin, The god of execution

    An, Hea-yun | 2022, 28(2) | pp.297~328 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the representation of ‘chaebol (conglomerate)’ in Korean mystery novels in the late 1970s and 1980s, and to examine the public perception about chaebol. Jo Hae-il and Park Beom-shin's novels are texts that show public’s fantasies about ‘Justice’ to social problems not only just for 'Inheritance' of the patriarchal status in chaebol. The mystery novels of this period comprehensively describe social problems and changes in social structure, and can be said to show the theme of restoration of patriarchal ideology and succession of patriarchal status. In Jo Hae-il's novel “The Country You Cannot Go”, the male protagonist realizes justice through revenge for the immoral and debauched second generation of chaebol, but eventually becomes a criminal and reveals a social problem of distrust and dissatisfaction with state power. Park Beom-shin's novel “The god of execution” shows the anxious image of a male subject who is driven into infinite competition through an orphan trying to occupy the heir of a chaebol. On the other hand, in contrast to the male protagonists, female criminals in Korean mystery novels in the 1980s often complete perfect crimes. In particular, the female protagonist in Jo Hae-il's novel does not dwell on the moral cause or status that male protagonists are obsessed with, and is calculating and rational. The two male authors tried to accuse the women who committed crimes as sexually and morally depraved, but contrary to their intentions, the women show strong desire. I wanted to reveal what these women's desires meant.
  • 10.

    Hacking the City—The Spatial Practice of Resistance in Hyuk-Joo Kwon’s Webtoon XINK3R and Ji-don Jeong’s Novel The Diary of a Night guard

    YU INHYEOK | 2022, 28(2) | pp.329~352 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explain the representation of ‘city hacking’ in the webtoon XINK3R by Hyuk-joo Kwon and the novel The Diary of a Night Guard by Ji-don Jeong as a concrete example of ‘spatial practice of resistance’. In other words, I tried to reconstruct the pattern in which hacking as the practice of deviant technology appears as a social practice that changes the meaning of a specific place or space. In Chapter 2, webtoon XINK3R is examined. In XINK3R, Pi, the protagonist, is a practitioner of hacking and parkour. He appeared as a kind of cyborg fused with a supercomputer, with a body disrupting the city’s network. On the other hand, as a parkour practitioner, Pi is a person who does not follow the regulations of urban space and pioneers his own path. In other words, Pi was being reproduced as a resisting subject that penetrated technical and spatial security through hacking and parkour and violated social rules. In Chapter 3, The Diary of a Night Guard is examined. The main character of this novel, ‘George (Hoon)’, is an accomplice of city hacking. Here, city hacking refers to the act of infiltrating into an urban space where passage is prohibited due to security. At this time, hacking is not limited to the application of computer technology, but has extended meaning as piracy infiltrating prohibited areas. In this context, The Diary of a Night Guard can be understood as expressing the rebellious desire to break through the city’s regulations. In these texts, the countercultural practice of hacking appears to expand or restore the way we experience urban space. These narratives are valuable in that they are symbolic forms of expressing utopian aspirations and fantasies for an alternative world.
  • 11.

    Post-war Countryside and The Narrative of The Impossible Revolution

    Lee Min Young | 2022, 28(2) | pp.353~391 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis examines the consisting process of the narrative of the revolution in the 1960s focusing on the narrative of the revolution in Oh Yu-gwon’s Bangatgol Revolution. It was the 1960s when various meanings of revolution reappeared and disappeared at once. However, there are not many works that actually deal with the contemporary meaning of the revolution. It is worth noting that Oh Yu-gwon deals with the problem of revolution in the background of rural society. Bangatgol Revolution, which explains the village’s feudal status system as the cause of division and conflict, makes the problem of class conflict visible and reveals the possibilities of a tabooed revolution. In addition, it visualizes the spectacle of the brutal violence of warfare contrasting peaceful rural landscapes, not battlefields. And through this, the novel reveals the will to pursue peace and solidarity beyond ideological conflicts. In this process, the love between Suntae and Geumsoon, the protagonists, emerges as a peaceful alternative to overcome the class conflict between Sangchon and Hachon. The revolutionary wills of the Bangatgol Revolution, driven by romantic love, are thwarted by the powerful anti-communist ideology. The protagonist, who has a career on the left, confirms the reality that there is no outside anti-communist party through war. And in a village where political speech is prohibited, they try to bond the town’s people by blood to resolve the conflict. The polygamous family system appears as the only way to close the anxiety of division and conflict that lies between the upper and lower villages. Ultimately, the revolutionary theory of peace, which forbids all violence and revenge, ends in the form of a regressive primitive community. The discourse of the revolution of Bangatgol Revolution could be considered as a mirror image of the revolutionary spirit of the 1960s, which lost its prospects. Resolving the problem of deep-rooted inequality and abuse of the town becomes no longer the goal of the revolution. The regressed will of the revolution erases the historicity and locality of the town, transforming the town into a mythical space. And this imaginary space is precariously maintained by killing the young people of Sangchon who have returned. The revolutionary narrative of Bangatgol reveals the archetypal structure of a war narrative of a rural while mythizing the images of the nation. And it confirms how the spirit of revolution was distorted and appropriated in a divided society.
  • 12.

    Beyond International Film Festival, the Agnostics and Solidarity

    Chon Woohyung | 2022, 28(2) | pp.393~417 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The international film festival, which seems to have landed in Korea by accident in the mid-1990s, is close to a historical product from below. Strictly speaking, it was a hybrid and indigenous cultural movement in the contact zone between the domestic democratization movement in the 1980s and the post-Cold War world situation in the 1990s. Beginning with the film movement in the 1980s, the establishment of an exclusive theater for art films in the 1990s, and the appearance of the international film festival in 1996, it was not a parallel, but a process of creating narrative tension. This article aims to go beyond the existing discussion, which has never been very curious about how the international film festival mediates the two as a combination of global and local. The changes in domestic international film festivals that have continued since the 2000s until recently, present a glocal social agenda and clearly show the evolutionary process of cultural politics that explores practical strategies for solidarity and coexistence beyond exclusion and discrimination.
  • 13.

    The Relationship Between the Transformation of Romance and Intimacy and the Marriage Crisis—Based on David R. Shumway’s Modern Love: Romance, Intimacy, and the Marriage Crisis

    Lee, Jung-Oak | 2022, 28(2) | pp.421~460 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Focusing on David R. Shumway’s Modern Love (2003), this paper examined developments of modern love in the 20th century based on correlations between transformation of romance and intimacy and the marriage crisis. His book is an overview of study that summarizes the topography of cultural texts on love and relationships in the 20th century based on a mixed dialectic method of romance research focusing on text analysis and theories of cultural sociology on the transformation of romance. In order to examine the transformation of romance and intimacy discourse in the 20th century caused by the marriage crisis, Shumway built his research method using sociology theories, such as Foucault, Giddens, and Luman. Based on this, the narrative method, in which romance and intimacy discourse was embodied in the text, was defined as a love story and a relationship story, respectively, and then a clear look at developments of modern love in the 20th century. When a dating system appeared in the early 20th century, relationship stories, such as dating manuals and screwball comedy, appeared, but love stories, such as Hollywood classic romances aimed at romantic love were the mainstream. On the other hand, in the wake of the women’s movement and feminism in the 1960s and 1970s, relationship stories, such as relationship movies and marriage novels, increased overwhelmingly in the late 20th century. Despite an advantage of a clear summary of the first half of the 20th century, this dichotomous analysis tends to simplify the reality of intimacy in the second half of the 20th century by overlooking the risks and ambivalence of liberation of the second individualization process. Now, amid the collapse of the modern marriage system and the emergence of various types of families, the romance of romantic love has weakened, and the era of intimacy aimed at equal relationships has begun. Accordingly, research on intimacy is also expanding beyond a personal relationship to an intimate community or a crossing point between healthy intimacy and publicity. In this context, Shumway’s research has value and significance in suggesting the direction of the study of romance and intimacy.