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2008, Vol., No.42

  • 1.

    Prohibition of a Judge's Ex Parte Communications Under the American Legal Ethics

    정봉진 | 2008, (42) | pp.1~36 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Ex parte communication means communication with only one party in the absence of the other party, or communication with a third party in the absence of either one or all of the parties to the litigation. In America, the Code of Judicial Conduct strictly prohibits the judge's ex parte communication. For example, American Bar Association's 2007 Model Code of Judicial Conduct Rule 2.9(A) states that a judge shall not, except in certain limited occasions, “initiate, permit, or consider ex parte communications, or consider other communications made to the judge outside the presence of the parties or their lawyers, concerning a pending or impending proceeding.” American judicial system is built upon the adversary system. The system assumes that truth will be found only when two advocates present their own version of the fact to a neutral and impartial decision-maker. That assumption requires that each party has the opportunity to learn what another party or third person says and to challenge those statements either through cross-examination, opposing testimony, or argument. The judge's ex parte communications seriously hurt the proper functioning of the adversary system. Korea also has legal ethics which expressly prohibit the judge's ex parte communication. For instance, Judge's Ethical Code Article 4(4) provides that “the judge shall not meet or contact the parties or their lawyers at the place outside the court except as required for the purpose of the litigation,” and Guideline On Contact With the Judge adopted by the Supreme Court to implement Judge's Ethical Code lists certain exceptional circumstances in which a judge can engage in ex parte communications without the presence of all parties. However, these Korean legal ethics have the following problems: First, they are too vague to provide meaningful guidance to judges when confronted with specific ethical problems. Second, they do not prohibit a judge's ex parte communication with a third party who has no interest in the outcome of the litigation. Third, more importantly, many Korean people do not seem to understand the importance of the principle of prohibition against the judge's ex parte communication. In order to promote the adversary system Korean judicial system is based upon, Korea needs to modify its current judicial ethics by more specifically describing the circumstances in which a judge can and cannot engage in ex parte communications following ABA's 2007 Model Code of Judicial Conduct.
  • 2.

    A Study on the Advancement of Legislature Capacity in Information Age

    SaeEok Han | 2008, (42) | pp.37~65 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Korean has leaded Information Society since Framework Act on Informatization Promotion had been promulgated in 1995. Korea has come to achieve the world's best IT and is drawing global attention as a benchmark target. Law has two major roles regarding IT. Legal system is a mirror of a society. Therefore, it is imperative to conduct a study on the recent trend of legislations relating to IT in Korea. This paper will help us understand where we were and where we are, and predict what the future of the information society will look like. This study covers IT related legislations and cases from Allison Model. In Korea, There have been a lot of legislations regarding all part of Information Society along with amendments in laws and systems to cope with the problems arising out of the development of the information society. Particularly, information policy issues has been pouring down and most of informatization legislation is subjected to ‘sharing about public administrative information’ Besides, There have been a lot of discussions and legislations regarding ‘Laying industrial foundation for Information and Communications’ for adopting new (IT)Information Technology to IT industry rapidly.
  • 3.

    Amendments to Design Promotion Law in Korea

    Park Min | 2008, (42) | pp.67~90 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Korea‘s design promotion system has been driven and managed for economic growth. In the late 1960', with the goals of increasing exports, Korea Design & Packaging Center was established, as the first institute for design promotion. However, design promotion system which was manipulated for economic growth is no longer effective in this era of culture, and the cultural industry of twenty first century should go beyond the notion of classic design. Thus Korea's design promotion system should also undergo revision from industry-oriented promotion system. The purpose of the article is to explore the value of current design promotion policy in Korea. This article asserts that to be the most effective, design promotion policy and statutes in Korea should be changed. In order to complete this task, we should establish an independent institution such as Design Council in Britain or design promotion agencies will be unified. If coordination between ministries and agencies are really difficult, we shall have adopted the French design promotion model based on mutual cooperation. In exchange for the services provided by our designers are properly priced and the concept of ‘best value’ should bo introduced to designer's service contract, so that the law should be amended.
  • 4.

    Auslegung über die ‘Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung’ beim untauglichen Versuch

    천진호 | 2008, (42) | pp.91~116 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    Im Ergebnis soll die Entscheidung für den untauglichen Versuch nicht von der Gefährlichkeit als Strafgrund des Versuchs, sondern von dem Irrtum über Mittel oder Objekt als Grund der Erfolglosigkeit abhänigig sein. Die heftige Diskussion um den Massstab für die Gefährlichkeit im untauglichen Versuch stammt aus der unkritischen Aufnahme der Lehre im Rahmen des Strafgrundes des Versuchs in Deutschland. Bei der Auslegung des untauglichen Versuchs(§ 27 kStGB) handelt es sich darum, die Bedeutung der Tatbestandsmerkmale ‘Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung’, ‘Irrtum über Mittel oder Objekt’ und ‘Gefährlichkeit der Handlung’ zu konkretisieren. Der Unterschied zwischen dem tauglichen und untauglichen Versuch zeigt sich also die Möglichkeit der tatbestandlichen Vollendung. Eine Diskution über das gefährliche untaugliche Versuch und die ungefährliche Untauglichenvornahme ist nur möglich, wenn eine Tat die allgemeinen Tatbestände des Versuches erfühlt. Danach die abergläubischen Versuche oder irreale Versuche, wie z. B. mit dem Beten oder dem Zucker ein Mensch töten will, sollten in dieser Diskution ausgenommen werden, weil sie kein tatbestandlichen Vorsatz haben könnten. Und ‘Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung’ nicht bedeutet tatsächlichen und empirischen Begriff, sondern normativen Begriff. Man wird das Merkmal ‘Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung’ auf nomologische Zustände beschränken müssen, und nicht auf faktische ausdehnen dürfen. Und es darf dabei höchstens eine abstrakte Gefahr für das geschützte Rechtsgut eingetreten sein. Nach dem Urteil eines einsichtigen Menschen, der sich in die Position des Täters vor der Tat versetzt, besteht diese normative Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung. Im Begriff ‘Irrtum über Mittel oder Objekt’ können sowohl ontologische Irrtümer als auch nomologische Irrtümer umgefasst werden, und die Unmöglichkeit der Deliktsvollendung soll fachmännisch, nämlich von demjenigen, der entsprechende fachmännische Erkenntnisse besitzt, festgelegt werden.
  • 5.

    Reconstructing ‘Relative Injury Conception’ in Aggravated Rape

    Song, Si Seob | 2008, (42) | pp.117~143 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Korean Supreme Court (‘KSC’) has made unique criterion to build so-called ‘Relative Injury Conception’ (‘RIC’) in the area of aggravated rape (a/k/a Injury resulting from Rape). This long time effort has been started from the need that aggravated rape can be reduced to ‘Motions to Dismiss an Indictment’ when the victim withdraw her accusation after mutual agreement. Scholars have been debated the meaning of RIC only in the area of aggravated rape, not trying to rebuild the conception of ‘Injury Conception’ of itself. But we should turn our attentions to the reconstruction of the meaning of Injury. First, the conception of Injury might to be modified by accepting the RIC developed in the aggravated rape to the ‘socialized’ conception of Injury excluding the minor injury that can be happened in trivial conflicts on every day's life and cured without further medical treatment, no impediment remained. Second, the criterion have be specified to clarify the meaning of injury in the area of aggravated rape as well as injury. Time flow analysis is explored and tried in this article. It can reveal the necessity to get after-medical-diagnosis relating to the physical impediment after injury before judgment. Third, new criterion to define the injury in aggravated rape emerged in recent KSC rulings cast somewhat confusing problem to redraw the line for the women victim's interest. This tendency to regulate the width of conception ruled case by case might bring more significant problem to have the RIC being confused. Fourth, efforts to narrowing the possibility to be indicted as aggravated rape have been debated in Japan named ‘Means Test’ against the ‘Opportunity Test’ approved by majority and it will be needed to import for flourishing the academic advance. Fifth, through comparative study, we could suggest to redefine the range of injury concept in the aggravated rape to be punished the injury occurred by rape in the case of ‘serious bodily injury’ following German and American penal code. Through this study, we can reconstruct the unified meaning of Injury throughout the criminal dogmatic to eradicate the vagueness of RIC to clarify the range of aggravated rape. We should take the Principle in the midst of Ambiguity.
  • 6.

    Bioethik und Strafrecht

    이석배 | 2008, (42) | pp.145~170 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract
    Es gibt kaum eine andere Berufsruppe, deren Verhältnis zum Recht so heftig und ausdauernd diskutiert wird wie die der Ärzte, zur Zeit vor allem Biomediziner. Dieser Beitrag versucht, einige Strukturen dieser Beziehung aufzuzeigen. Die ärztliche Standesethik bzw. die Forschungsethik wirkt sich allenthaft und ständig in die rechtliche Beziehung des Arztes bzw. des Biomediziner hinein. Weit mehr als sonst in den sozialen Beziehungen der Menschen fließt im ärztlichen und biomedizinischen Berufsbereich das Ethische mit das Rechtlichen zusammen, weil das ärztliche bzw. biomedizinischen Handeln das höchste Rechtsgut Leben und Körper eingreifen kann. Dabei stehen aus der Sicht des Arztes und Biomediziner letztlich im Hintergrund immer wieder das Ansinnen auf Freiheit vom Recht einerseits und der Wunsch nach Schutz im Recht andererseits. Dieser Beitrag zeigt dabei, dass das Recht nur Leitlinien geben und den generellen Rahmen abstecken kann, innerhalb dessen der Arzt bzw. Biomediziner sich zu halten hat. Dafür werden die Aufklärungspflicht des Arztes (informed concent), das Recht und der Schutz des Fötuses und Embryonen behandelt.
  • 7.

    New Approach on Manifestation of Unreal Intention

    박찬주 | 2008, (42) | pp.171~201 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The writer takes up the position to comprehend the substance of manifestation of intention according to the doctrine of declarant's intent. But Korean Civil Act stipulates the provisions for manifestation of unreal intention(§107), and the effect of manifestation must be determined by interpretation of the corresponding provision. The real problem is why the Act §107 provides declarant's manifestation null and void only when the other party was aware or should have been aware declarant's real intention. The writer's reasoning is as following. : Declarant's assertion of his manifestation of intention null and void is contrary to his previous result-oriented intention and is not permitted by the doctrine of prohibition of contrary act clashing against previous act knowingly done or the doctrine of trust and good faith. The writer also conclude the relation between real intention and result-oriented intention as following. : The meaning of true intention in the term of manifestation of unreal intention is identical with result-oriented intention. Declarant's act done unavoidably but undesirably can be a manifestation of real intention if he did that act with the belief of utmost good judgment. In this respect, real intention differs from declarant's wish or expectation of non-occurrence of undesirable act and the writer does not agree with the precedents that distinguish real intention from result-oriented intention. Only on this ground, we can satisfactorily explain the reason manifestation of intention by duress is not classified under manifestation of unreal intention.
  • 8.

    The Doctor's Duty of Consulting and Reference to Patients in Emergency Medical Service

    송영민 | 2008, (42) | pp.203~228 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    In general, the Duty of Consulting and Reference to Patients could be a problem in several types. Those are between medical occupations, medical organizations, medical specialists and non-specialists, medical specialists in the same field. However, the Duty of Consulting and Reference to Patients would become a legal problem in case that the patients was able to avoid a bad result as long as they were consulted and referred to the appropriate doctors and medical facilities in an emergency. In emergency medical service, there need to be quick and proper decisions before the medical treatments are conducted because most of the patients are in critical and changeable conditions. Therefore, in the process of consulting and reference, there has to be correct explanations and the doctors, sender and receiver, have the responsibility to share the medical informations about the conditions of patients. Although it could be criticized because the informations are not exchanged enough between the doctors, sender and receiver, due to restricted time in an emergency, it is granted that the obligation of information exchange between the doctors, in the process of reference, has to be done more firmly in an emergency situation securing human life.
  • 9.

    Legal Nature of the Claim of Return for Legally Secured Portions

    정구태 | 2008, (42) | pp.229~272 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    This paper examines the formative effect of the claim of return for legally secured portions from a theoretical standpoint which understands the legal nature of the claim of return for legally secured portions to be ‘Gestaltungsrecht’(German for the right, the holder of which is permitted to unilaterally cause changes in one's and/or other party's legal relationship). When the claim of return for legally secured portions is exercised, a gift or a testamentary gift that infringes on legally secured portions will be nullified retrospectively, as a result of which the right holder of the legally secured portions will acquire a real right-like claim as well as the claim of return for unjust enrichment. In terms of the realization of ownership, the application of the provisions stipulating the real right-like claim and the claim of return for unjust enrichment concur. In ordinary cases the right holder of legally secured portions will bring a claim for the return of the principal thing through the exercise of the claim for return of article owned(Civil Law Article 213). However for the purpose of settling debt, only the law on unjust enrichment will apply. In other words, from such a viewpoint like the one in this paper, in respect of the legal relations between the right holder of the legally secured portions and other party after the former’s exercise of the claim of return, the return of the principal thing is regulated by the provisions concerning the real right-like claim and the claim of return for unjust enrichment, whereas interest intermediation issues incidental to return (such as the return of profits attained from the object, liability for the loss or damage of object, the redemption of the expense incurred by the other party) are to be regulated by the provisions on the return for unjust enrichment. As a result the Korean Civil Law can be said to a unified and comprehensive regulatory system of law, showing no defects in this respect. However if the claim of return for legally secured portions is understood as ‘Gestaltungsrecht’, Korean Civil Law would have defects of the provisions for limiting the prospective effect towards the bona-fide third party in terms of the return of legally secured portions, and this would in turn undermine the safety and stability of transactions. Therefore it would necessitate the protection of the bona-fide third party thorough the means of analogizing the value assessment underlying the provisions on the protection of the bona-fide third party.
  • 10.

    A Study on Comparative Analysis of Differences between Korean Civil Procedure Law and that of China

    조무제 | 2008, (42) | pp.273~353 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    本稿是对韩国民事诉讼法制度规定和与其相对应的中国民事诉讼法规定进行了比较研究。在两国民事诉讼法中,本文的范围只限定为普通诉讼程序和不服程序即第一审 上诉审程序和再审程序。 通过以上两国民事诉讼法制度的比较研究,能看出民事诉讼法的立法论与解释论所参考之重要性与其原因。 第一、是否彻底执行当事者主义或者当事者协同主义。韩国民事诉讼法对此原则性比较彻底,相比之下,中国的民事诉讼法虽然在书面上规定当事人的辨論权和处分权,但是在审理判决程序的具体阶段有不少法院的职权参与,出现要求当事人的行为得到法院准许的情况。例如有代表的是,以法院职权证据调查、职权财产保全、撤诉的准许等。 第二、法官审判的独立性问题。对于疑难的案件的审判委员会的判断干预, 具体案件的法院院长的监督,有关提起抗诉的检察裁判监督等,容易产生关于中国裁判机关审判权的独立性的疑问。 第三、必要程序规定的具备是否。中国民事诉讼法缺少各种诉讼类型要件,证据类型调查程序、判决的种类和效力等详细规定在每个程序阶段不具备详细规定,便于法官执行职权,进而会妨碍当事人权利程序上的保障,而且因准据法规的缺少,确保不了合法圆滑的辩论。其结果造成审理法官在调解案件上的偏向,从而产生纠纷不能及时得到解决的忧虑。 第四、在法令解释适用统一的问题。对与韩国民事诉讼法的程序各个阶段上,各种规定的解释和补充缺少的规定,大法院的判例能起到很大的作用。相反地,中国民事诉讼法上的4级2审制和续审制,很难达成统一的法律解释见解。中国很多司法解释规定是用于补完上述问题,必要时制定其规定或者改废也有一定的限界。 以上这些问题的起因,是民事诉讼的4大理想在所有制度上还没有得到完全体现和实践。为了在上述问题上达到和谐的地步,在完善的规定程序范围内,在法院依法指导下,应该使包括当事人和事件相关者互相紧密协同的公开法庭辩論能够圆滑地进行。
  • 11.

    The Right of Denial in the Debtor Rehabilitation Procedures

    김기진 | 2008, (42) | pp.355~380 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The Debtor Rehabilitation and Bankruptcy Act prescribed the right of denial of creditor to prevent flighting property by debtor. The right of denial is somewhat similar to the right of avoidance of creditor in civil act, but it has its own purpose and principle of operation. The right of denial can be exercised according to the purpose of the debtor reorganization and bankruptcy law. That purpose is debtor reorganization and fair liquidation. The targets of the right of denial have a tendency to increasing and the exercising condition is relaxed for the purpose of debtor reorganization. Transaction in family law and quasi-transaction except property transaction can be denied. Action of another person except debtor can be denied too. Sufficient reason is a negative condition for exercising the right of denial. Unfair action is a target of denial of intentional action. Action of decreasing liability property in time of crisis can be denied too.
  • 12.

    The Corporate Opportunity Doctrine as One of Behavior Types of Director's Self-Dealing

    Yungho Kim | 2008, (42) | pp.381~414 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Corporate opportunity doctrine is to be legislated in Korea through Ammendment Draft Article 398(3) of Korean Commercial Law(including corporate statutes) which is now under examination of the Korean Congress. This essay is focused on the legal analysis of the corporate opportunity doctrine through the comparative approach, especially through the analysis of American corporate opportunity doctrine that is composed by the original statute on the corporate opportunity and legislative review of the new Draft article 398(3). Different point in the legislative style from the American statute on the corporate opportunity is that the statute of corporate opportunity is to be legislated on the Commercial Code(including corporate law) as one component of some behavior types of Director's self-dealing. One of the problem which may be issued from such style of legislation is as follows. Firstly the confusion of legal theories from the legislative consolidation of two different and separate legal systems. Secondly no consideration of the fact that the illegal effects between two duties are different although director's self-dealing doctrine and corporate opportunity doctrine are same type of director's loyal duties. In the Amendment Draft Article 398(3) of Korean Commercial Law(including corporate statutes), all of the corporations are to be treated same without their size and corporate governance(close company and public company). But there should be different rules for different corporations. For examples, different rules between small size close corporations and big size public corporations, between full time directors and outside directors, and between parents corporations and others. And also the corporate opportunity doctrine should be extended to apply to the controlling shareholders.
  • 13.

    Review of Provisions Regarding the Liabilities of Multimodal Transport Operators under the Revised Korean Commercial Code

    Choi Sung Soo | 2008, (42) | pp.415~457 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract
    Although, through international efforts, a unified convention that will regulate international multimodal transport (United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods, 1980) has been adopted, it is not yet in effect. Furthermore, since definitions of international multimodal transport in each country have not been unified, and different statutes govern individual transportation transactions in practices, confused situations have increased. At present, multimodal transport is regulated by general terms and conditions (standard transport bill of lading form or uniform rules presented by dominant private groups such as FIATA, BIMCO, ICC), not by unified statutes. As Korea didn’t have systematic legislation, there was a preceding necessity to properly establish domestic legislation, which would lead to the systematization of legal issues that involve multimodal transport. As such, in a situation that required efforts to improve the safety of international multimodal transport and the efficiency of operation of the system and to prepare for legal disputes, new provisions governing the liabilities of multimodal transport operators were revamped in Article 816, Section 5 “Marine Commerce”, Commercial Code based on the existing legislative theories. More specifically, the revised Commercial Code that referred to the UN Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods, 1980 stipulates that multimodal transport operators take liabilities according to the laws which would apply to the transport section in which damages or loss occurred (declaration of network liability system), or take liabilities according to the laws which would apply to the main transport section if the section in which damages or loss occurred is unclear, and they take secondary liabilities according to the laws which would apply to such sections for which freight rates are the highest. The efforts to regulate the multimodal transport, though domestically, to prevent any confusion were desirable. However, it is difficult to effectively govern the complicated legal issues of international multimodal transport with the simple one article of Commercial Code. Accordingly, it is necessary to have detailed provisions throughout multimodal transport. According to the added provisions, only when the main section is determined, applicable principles and coverage of liabilities come out. Moreover, sometimes judgment by the court may be required to determine the main section. Accordingly, rather than giving an answer to a question in a way of leaving room for interpretation, it is required to reconsider the provisions so as to anticipate the coverage of liabilities by setting liability criteria clearly. Furthermore, as the methodology to determine unclear accident sections, it is suggested to consider properly referring to one of marine related transport conventions or setting limitations of liability of the operators under the Korean Commercial Code. In terms of the legislative system, it is suggested to consider establishing a chapter that includes land transportation as well as marine transportation in the Section “Commercial Activities”. Tentatively, it is possible to establish a separate part in the next of the part “Maritime Transportation”, but it is desirable to consider to enact an independent act that only covers multimodal transport. In addition, when considering the principles and period of liabilities in multimodal transport and the owner and coverage of liabilities, it is necessary to continuously explore what is the best way to treat interested parties fairly so as to reflect it into legislation.
  • 14.

    Urheberschutz von Prüfungsaufgaben

    최상필 | 2008, (42) | pp.459~482 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Nach dem allgemeinen urheberrechtlichen Grundsatz der »Abgrenzung von Idee und Ausdruck« gilt der Urheberrechtsschutz nur für Form und Ausdruck eines Werkes, nicht jedoch auch für Ideen und Lehre. Der Maßstab zur Entscheidung über das Vorliegen der Schöpfungshöhe von Werken ist in Korea in § 2 Nr. 1 UrhG festgelegt, sodass sich die heutige Rechtsprechung ganz nach ihm richtet. Demgemäss können Werke nur dann urheberrechtlich geschützt werden, wenn sie individuelle Werke im Sinne des Ergebnisses der eigenen geistigen Schöpfung ihres Urhebers darstellen. Weitere Kriterien sind zur Bestimmung der Schutzfähigkeit nicht erforderlich. Im Verhätlniss von geschäftlich hergestellten Werken sieht § 9 UrhG vor, dass der Arbeitgeber als Urheber anerkannt ist, sofern nichts anderes vereinbart ist. Demgemäß hat der Arbeitgeber nicht nur alle wirtschaftlichen Rechte, sondern auch Urheberpersönlichkeitsrechte. Weil die ausschließliche Ausübung aller vermögensrechtlichen Befugnisse am Werk dem Arbeitgeber, der in die Entwicklung des Werkes viele Geld investiert hat, einen genügenden Ertrag bringen soll, sollten dem Arbeitnehmer, der das Werk persönlich geschaffen hat, als Urheber zwar die Urheberpersönlichkeitsrechte vorbehalten sein.
  • 15.

    Employer's Plant Closing and Unfair Labor Practices

    Song, Kang Jik | 2008, (42) | pp.483~512 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    使用者の閉業の自由は一般的に採用の自由の場合と同様に広く認められる傾向にあるように思われる。しかしならが使用者の閉業が労働者の労働組合の結成が直接の原因となった場合にその正当性の判断またはそれに対する不当労働行為の救済命令においても変わらないといえるのか。 本稿は少なくとも使用者の不当労働行為制度を設けているアメリカㆍ日本国ㆍ韓国において、組合結成と関連する使用者の閉業に対する不当労働行為の問題に対して比較研究を行ったものである。 アメリカにおいては、NLRBは閉業した事業所と実質的に同一性が認められる使用者の企業がある場合であるとし、そこで使用者の不当労働行為の成立を認めたうえ、再雇用命令と、同等の雇用があるまでまたは優先的雇用のためのリストへの登載までのパックペイ支給の救済命令をし、結論的には連邦高裁ㆍ連邦大法院のいずれもそれを認めたものがある。しかし連邦大法院はその判決の中で閉業が事業全体に渡っている場合には労働関係は終局的に終了するという立場を明らかにした。その後1989年には閉業及び整理解雇に対してこれを規制する法(Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act)の制定により一定の要件の下で閉業のための手続きを設けた。 日本国においては、使用者の閉業が労働者の労働組合の結成が直接の原因となった場合の閉業の正当性等に対して、判例(下級審)においては閉業の正当性を認めるものが支配的であり、例外的に不当労働行為を認めたものがあるにすぎない。他方親会社と子会社との関係のある場合で親会社が子会社の労働組合の結成と関連して子会社を閉業に至らせた場合にも、不当労働行為の判断は別れている。ところが学説上は依然として対立しているといえる。 韓国の場合には、事例及び学説においては偽装閉業でないかぎり使用者の閉業の自由が尊重されているといえる。例外的に労働委員会の命令で、事業の再開の場合を前提に再雇用ないしは優先的な雇用の救済命令をだしたものがあるにすぎない。系列社があって実質的に使用者の同一性が認められる場合の不当労働行為の判断は右アメリカの判断と同様なものになると思われるが、いまのところこのような不当労働行為と関連した事例はみられない。 そこで本稿は、韓国の不当労働行為制度は日本国と同様に使用者の不当労働行為のみを禁止していること、さらに日本国とは違ってそれを刑事処罰(その制度の存在の意義の当否は別にして)の対象としていること、事業の再開の可能性は排除できないこと等からして、使用者の閉業がいわば系列社もなく完全なものであっても、不当労働行為の判断は積極的に行うべきであることを強調した。また閉業に対する労働法における規制がないだけに、それを巡る労働関係の紛争を予防し、また紛争の解決のためにも、労働協約に閉業に関する条項をおくことが労使自治の段階で望ましいことを指摘した。
  • 16.

    Participation in Society Affairs of the Aged and 'Welfare of the Aged Act'

    구재군 | 2008, (42) | pp.513~531 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    This treatise deals with the legal problems in regard to construction of the ‘Welfare of the Aged Act’ in Korea. In case the Act has some problems, I'd like to advance my opinion on the point of legislative views. Enforcement Decree of the Welfare of the Aged Act Article 18(1) says that the aged who serve their community may be payed. However the legal nature of the activity is a kind of service as usual. In case an aged man who serves as a regional service volunteer is dismissed on the contrary to his intention from service, he may be disheartened. It is possible that dismissal from service makes him lose hope or confidence. Therefore the regulation of dismissal from service needs to be revised as a discretionary regulation. It is necessary to make regulations referring to an insurance system, a savings system and an exhibition service to support the aged volunteer by revising the Enforcement Decree of the Welfare of the Aged Act. It is necessary to enlarge the assistance range of occupation in Article 25 of the ‘Welfare of the Aged Act’. I would like to propose that only the poor aged must be adopted and then should be assisted financially for operating their business and also should be given the assistance of an occupation by revising the Enforcement Decree of the Welfare of the Aged Act.
  • 17.

    The Role and Problems of International Criminal Court(ICC)

    Jaehyeong Yoo | 2008, (42) | pp.533~560 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    The purpose of this research is to figure out what the main role of ICC, which was established in Jul 1st 2002, is and what problems ICC has currently. The main purpose of ICC is to guarantee international humanitarian order, which can contribute to international peace in 21st century, as it punishes individual who violates international humanitarian law. Considering the purpose, this research tried to analyze historical background of ICC establishment from the aspect o f construction of international humanitarian law. After that, it analyzed the structure and the nature of ICC, which is designed to conduct given role, based on Rome Statute in order to deduct following problems which ICC is facing currently. (1) Resistance of strong countries and necessity of cooperation (2) The problem of ‘self-referral’ (3)The problem of magnificent cost required for labor and administration (4) The problems concerning the crime of aggression (5) The problem of ‘double standard’ for human rights In conclusion, the establishment of ICC is a historically meaningful event as it sets up principles of judging individual’s behavior as an international crime for the first time in the history of international law, and as it indicates establishment of permanent court which is equipped with substantial organization and process. ICC is expected to play a significant role to maintain international peace and security, which are deemed to be the most important principles in international law. However, it is required to make global efforts to solve given problems for ICC to realize its aforementioned principles effectively.
  • 18.

    A Study of Employer’s Liability in the Financial Institutions - With a focus on the Supreme Court "2004Da43866" Judgment dated September 20, 2007 -

    이태철 | 2008, (42) | pp.561~596 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    A person (hereinafter “Employer”) who hires other individual (hereinafter “Employee”) to engage in certain business is liable to indemnify a third party for any damage the Employee causes to the third party in association with the business (Paragraph 1, Article 756, Civil Act), which is called as “Employer’s Liability”. It may be said that the practical justification of employers’ liability is to protect victims. Employer’s liability is characterized by the liabilities for a tort by other individual and without the employer’s direct negligence. Employer’s liability has the significance as it serves as the basis of corporate liabilities. Companies employ many employees in order to conduct its corporate activities. It is fair that a company should indemnify a third party for the damage any employee caused to the third party in the course of such activities. Furthermore, it is advantageous to the victim in receiving damages to relate to the company rather than to related to an employee who does not have sufficient funds. It is the opinions of the court and most dominant theorists that the provisions of Article 756 of Civil Act should apply not only to the employment of domestic workers, but also to the employment of corporate employees since the Civil Act does not have any special provisions that govern general liabilities of companies, and that the legal basis that a victim can be paid sufficient damages lies in the operation of Article 756. This paper will review legal theories regarding the employer’s liability and analyze and ealuate the legal theory presented in the judgment with a focus on one of the Supreme court’s recent judgments wherein some employees of the indemnifying company and the indemnified company misappropriated deposits of the indemnified company, in collusion with each other, unlike common cases that occurred in relation to the existing employer’s liability.