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2009, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    Die Philosophische und Juristische Hermeneutik - Eine Skizze in Bezug auf die rechtsphilosophische Rezeption der Hermeneutik -

    Yang, Chun Soo | 2009, (44) | pp.1~35 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    Die vorliegende Arbeit zielt darauf, die Theorie über das Vorverständnis zu behandeln. Vor allem ist die philosophische Hermeneutik von Gadamer, die das Vorverständnis im Bereich von Textinterpretationen positiv rehabilitiert, der Gegenstand der Forschung. Damit möchte die vorliegende Arbeit die systematische Bedeutung des Vorverständnisses und seine theoretischen Grundlagen aufklären. Des Weiteren untersucht sie die Rezeption der philosophischen Hermeneutik in der Rechtswissenschaft. Zunächst überblickt die vorliegende Arbeit den allgemeinen Begriff der Hermeneutik (II), und behandelt die Phänomenologie von Husserl sowie die Ontologie von Heidegger, die der philosophischen Hermeneutik zugrunde liegen (III). Danach kommt die philosophische Hermeneutik von Gadamer in Betracht. Dabei stehen das Vorurteil, der hermeneutischer Zirkel und die Horizontverschmelzung im Vordergrund (IV). Sodann versucht die vorliegende Arbeit, die Rezeption der philosophischen Hermeneutik in der Rechtswissenschaft zu skizzieren. Dabei rücken die Konzeption von Esser, Kaufmann und Müller in den Vordergrund (V). Schließlich denkt der Autor über theoretische und praktische Grenzen der philosophischen Hermeneutik nach (VI).
  • 2.

    A Study on Parliamentary Elements in the Government Structure of the Current Constitution of Korea

    Manhee Jeong | 2009, (44) | pp.37~78 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract
    Except for a short period for the Second Republic under the parliamentary government, the Korean Constitution has primarily taken the form of presidentialism since its adoption in 1948. However, the government structure under the Constitution has had such a significant amount of parliamentary elements that it could be labeled as a mixture of both constitutional systems. Such a hybrid form of governments since its original adoption of the Constitution was simply a coincidental product of compromises between conflicting political groups and their interests, not based upon a reasonable resolution of necessary debates and studies. For that reason, the governmental structure under the Korean Constitution has built-in limitations as a make-shift compromise rather than well thought- out frames of the democratic government embodied on political objectives, theoretical bases and justifiable purposes. Those parliamentary elements that have been grafted to the presidential government were not to be functionally co-ordinated with the presidentialism; they in fact operated in dysfunction against the democratic advancement. However, certain elements of the parliament system have provided on the other hand convenient tools for a check and balance over the presidential powers. The recurrent controversies over the constitutional changes in the government structure are recently intensified again in the political fronts of Korea. Any change in the Constitution will require in-depth studies on the problems existing in the current government structure, which include such parliamentary elements that are embodied in the Constitution. My views on the constitutional reform on the government structure are focused primarily on the following parliamentary elements that exist in the Constitution, assuming that the basic form of the presidentialism thereunder will remain intact: (1) As a principle, we need to keep those parliamentary features that function well for the purpose, while those with dysfunction should be changed. Accordingly, the power of the executive to submit bills and the executive membership in the Assembly should be abolished as they tend to be used in support of usurpation of the executive powers. On the other hand, the legislative power of vote of non-confidence with respect to the Prime Minister and/or a cabinet member, which operates to serve as a check and balance against the executive, should be kept and strengthened. (2) We also need to keep the office of the Prime Minister as a part of the executive branch of the government for the historical as well as functional considerations. Furthermore, the constitutional power of the Prime Minister to recommend appointment or dismissal of cabinet members should be strengthened by giving more weight to the prevailing interpretation of the constitutional verbiage. In addition, it appears to be desirable that more constitutional practices and precedents be built and accumulated in support of a stronger position and more active roles of the Prime Minister under the Constitution. (3) The Constitutional reform should be limited to a minimum and gradual change, if at all. I oppose to any constitutional change that involves an outright abolition of the current presidentialism or adoption of a brand new constitutional system from another country. Any changes to the government structure should be partial and gradual, and should be based on a reasonable consensus from the historical and poli-cultural perspectives of the general populace.
  • 3.

    The Legal Interest of Confirmation Litigation of Nullity of Taxation Disposition

    전현철 | 2009, (44) | pp.79~108 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The Administrative Litigation Act provides only that a person having legal interests to seek the confirmation of effectiveness or ineffectiveness of a disposition has standing to institute confirmation litigation of nullity in Article 35, but does not provide about the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation of nullity. The problem on the legal interest of confirmation litigation of nullity of administrative disposition is whether the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation of nullity in civil case should be considered or not. If the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation should be considered, it dosen't permit taxpayers to institute confirmation litigation of nullity of taxation disposition after paying tax. Because civil litigation for refund of tax paid in excess is more direct remedy as compared with confirmation litigation of nullity of taxation disposition. But if the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation should not be considered, it permits taxpayers to institute confirmation litigation of nullity of taxation disposition regardless of the existence of a direct remedy such as civil litigation for refund of tax paid in excess. Previously the Supreme Court did not permit taxpayers to institute confirmation litigation of nullity of taxation disposition after paying tax. Because civil litigation for refund of tax paid in excess is more direct remedy as litigation to receive tax. But, Recently the Supreme Court have changed the position that the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation of nullity in civil case is not applied to confirmation litigation of nullity of administrative disposition. In conclusion, it is resonable that the supplementary nature of confirmation litigation of nullity in civil case is not applied to confirmation litigation of nullity of administrative disposition from the aspect of strengthening of remedies for rights, economics legal action, and the difference between administrative litigation and civil litigation. So, taxpayers can institute confirmation litigation of nullity of taxation disposition to receive tax refund in addition to civil litigation.
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  • 5.

    The Significance and Conception of Pardon in the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Founding of New China

    Yin, Jian-Feng | 2009, (44) | pp.139~168 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The year of 2009 coincided with the 60th anniversary of the founding of New China. At this important historical moment continuing with the past and opening up the future, whether it is the right time to pardonand how to execute it are significant practical issues involved in the development of national jutice and social progress. Considering the advances of a country and the development of social civilization, I believe putting pardon into effect can be an essential component of the grand celebrations as well as the parade ceremony at the time of the 60th anniversary of national founding. Sincethe specific scope of criminal offenders within amnesty, pardon not only can give full play to the inherent features of criminal policy, but also can highlight a great number of significant values of the times. So this paper will take the perspective of the form, substantive conditions, objects of the application, and the scope of implementation to put forward concrete conceptualization of execution of pardon, which is aiming at making proposals on promoting the development of national jutice.
  • 6.

    Ad Spokesperson's Joint Liability of Chinese Food Safety Law

    김현경 | 2009, (44) | pp.169~186 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    On Feb.28th, 2009, “food safety law of PRC”, enacted to replace the former “food hygiene law of PRC”, has entered into force on June 1stafterthreeyears’hotdiscussion,chinahasexperiencedseveralfoodaccidentandwalkedalongwaytoestablishlawonfoodsupervision,emphasizingnotonlyfoodhygiene,butmoreonfoodsafety. Generally speaking, “food safety law” has five characteristics, first of which is uniform the standard of food safety, and the second is that food problem information is no longer published afterwards. The third is to punish food maker and seller more heavily. The forth one is the implement of food additive label administration. And the last one is the regulation of food return and claim for compensation, etc. However, with the rise of mass of food safety events concerning entertainment stars in recently years, “food safety law” has paid much attention this time. For instance, food safety department and other inspection guild are forbidden to recommend food to the public, and caste, organizations or any other person should bear joint liability with food producer on the condition that the consumer’s right is infringed as the result of recommendation. Although this severe regulation focuses on protection of consumer’s right, stars speaks on advertisement have to hold heavy responsibility. Besides, whether this regulation can be carried out effectively is in question, maybe it is necessary to amend it.
  • 7.

    The Research of the Improvement of Financial Supervisory(Regulatory) System in Korea

    Lee, Seong Woo | 2009, (44) | pp.187~220 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Since 1999, the supervisory(regulatory) power of the financial institutions exclusively belongs to the Financial Services Commission and the Financial Supervisory Service inspected by the Financial Services Commission. But the Bank of Korea (hereinafter called “BOK”) and the Korea Deposit Insurance Corporation (hereinafter called “KDIC”) also have ① the power of request (the Financial Supervisory Service) to inspect the financial institutions and ② the power of request (the Financial Supervisory Service) to inspect the financial institutions jointly, and ③ the power of request (the Financial Institutions) to summit some data. There is no data or information of the financial institutions the Fianacial Supervisory Service cannot access to. There needs legislative measure which ① makes the BOK and the KDIC forebear the exercise of the power of request (the Financial Supervisory Service or/and Financial Institutions) to summit data or (joint) inspect or, ② deters the BOK and the KDIC abuse the power. the Prompt Corrective Action is not the power of the Financial Supervisory(Regulatory) Organization but the obligation. So the forebearance of the Prompt Corrective Action provided in “the Act on the Structural Improvement of the Financial Industry” Article10(3) should be abolished.
  • 8.

    Rechtsverhältnis im Webstorage-Service

    최상필 | 2009, (44) | pp.221~246 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Die Arbeit besteht aus zwei Teilen. Im ersten Teil ist die Schätzung einer gerichtlichen Entscheidung über die Urheberrechtsverletzungen durch Webstorage Service behandelt, die von Internet-Nutzern begangen sind. Dabei handelt es sich darum, ob die Downloading durch Webstorage-Service unter §30 UrhG (Vervielfältigung zum privaten Gebrauch) gehört. In Deutschland sind zulässig einzelne Vervielfältigungen eines Werkes durch eine natürliche Person zum privaten Gebrauch auf beliebigen Trägern, sofern sie weder unmittelbar noch mittelbar Erwerbszwecken dienen, soweit nicht zur Vervielfältigung eine offensichtlich rechtswidrig hergestellte oder öffentlich zugänglich gemachte Vorlage verwendet wird. Im zweiten Teil sind die Bestimmungen §133-2 und §133-3 kritisch analisiert, die durch die Änderung vom 22. 4. 2009 ins UrhG aufgenommen werden. Es ist ganz unstreitig, dass der Verletzer die Verantwortlichkeit für die Schäden des Urhebers treffen sollte. Dagegen könnte es problematisch sein, ob das Recht und die Freiheit der OSP sowie Nutzer beschränkt werden, die keine rechtswidrige Handlung begangen haben. Darum braucht es eine gesetzgeberische Überlegung für die Ausgleichung der Interessen zwischen dem Urheber und OSP sowie Nutzer dringend.
  • 9.

    An Analysis on the National Treatment Principle under the TRIPs Agreement - A Case on EC Protection of Trademarks and Geographical Indications for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs. -

    Park HyungKyung | Lee,Eun-Sup | JangDooChae and 1other persons | 2009, (44) | pp.247~286 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article is a case-study on GI protection under the TRIPs. The case has been brought by The United States and Australia against EC concerning the protection of GI under the EC Regulation. The case has dealt with two important issues, the national treatment principle and the coexistence of GIs and Trademarks. First of all, this article talks about the general GI system under the TRIPs and studies about the EC GI system(under the Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2081/92 of 14 July 1992 on the Protection of Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs). Then it provides the history about EU vs. U.S., Australia case and analyses the panel report in terms of the national treatment in several aspects and the relationship between GIs and prior trademarks. The panel concluded that the EC Regulation violated the national treatment under the TRIPs, but the structure of EC system itself was complied with the TRIPs. Further, the panel concluded that the EC Regulation on the coexistence was consistent with art. 17 of the TRIPs as ‘limited exceptions’. However, there are still many problems to deal with about the protection of GIs in the international relationships. Because of the characteristics of GIs, it has great economic/trade stakes and historical and socio-cultural dimensions. As a result, the degree of protection is still sensitive and controversial at both international and national levels. In our situation negotiating the GI protection with the EU, this issues deserve to appreciate. In compliance with the national treatment and the minimum standards under the TRIPs, it is necessary to measure the impotance of GIs in our marketplace and find out the adequate degree of GI protection in international trade relationships.
  • 10.

    A Study on Fair Use of The Digital Copyright

    최원석 | 2009, (44) | pp.287~314 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The influence of internet on the copyright is that ① there is no visual copy mechanically existing on books or diskettes traditionally and the content and software is distributed in the electric type; ② the program used for reading information on internet can be completely copied and send it immediately to hundreds of computers in the world, and at the same time, the received computer may repeat the same procedure; ③ the electrical transmission means that electric copy is send to other country simultaneously and it is a great challenge to that depend on the country with unpermitted publishment and distribution to determine traditionally whether it is the infringement of copyright or not; ④ most of countries control the Copyright Act distinguishing between business use and private use, however, those were not discriminated on internet. Such sudden development of internet and digital is built up basic concepts such as copy, distribution, publishment, transmission and import in corresponds with the digital age. However, as the writing is digitalized, that is circulated and used through internet and it is easy to be modified and to be copied by user's will unlike author's intention. In this case, it is very difficult to relieve for the infringement with traditional copyright law. This study tried to actualize the fair use of it.
  • 11.

    Thought on the Legal System of Land Ownership in China

    CHO DONG JE | 2009, (44) | pp.315~348 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract
    With the development of social economy, land ownership system of china demonstrates many drawbacks. Nominal subject of land ownership is the deep-seated reason land problems in China now. The difference that owned by public system in land with private legal theory makes the property law of China meet an unprecedented challenge, the national and holding power gathers the civil corpus and the administration corpus as one, the easy to government make use of behavior to carry on an aggressive intervention to the land with insure the exploitation of land can be kept on, but it is possible that the influence of exorbitant intervention make less efficiency of land exploitation, intervention of the form mainly should be the strict performance the plans of land. Such as the subject of collective ownership of land nominal to put, the object of the right of ownership boundary line unclear landing to a lot of land is barren and interests of peasants damaged. Through the description and analysis of the historical changes of Chinese rural land property rights system, can clearly see an important influence of the Chinese rural land property system in the process of reform and opening-up as well as its important role.
  • 12.

    A Study on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Self-determination in International Law - With Special Reference to the Right to Development of Article 1 of 「International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights」 -

    SHIM YOUNGGYOO | 2009, (44) | pp.349~382 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Common Article 1 of the two 1966 international covenants on human rights, 「International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights」(hereinafter referred to as “Social Rights Covenant”) and 「International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights」(hereinafter referred to as “Civil Rights Covenant”), in which all paragraphs of both articles are exactly same, provides protection of the so-called right of self-determination. Traditionally, the right of self-determination under international law has been discussed and understood to mean peoples’ rights of political independence closely linked with the idea of decolonization. Article 1 of the 「Civil Rights Covenant」 has generally been recognized as providing the right of self-determination in this political aspect. Unliked the above mentioned classical right of self-determination under the 「Civil Rights Covenant」, the right of self-determination in the Article 1 of the 「Social Rights Covenant」 has recently been interpreted to mean economic, social and cultural aspects. Accordingly, the precise meanings and details of the rights of self-determination in the common Article 1, I think, should be differently understood and interpreted. However, the right of self-determination in the Article 1 of the 「Social Rights Covenant」, namely economic, social and cultural right of self-determination, has not been sufficiently and systematically analyzed. Consequently, the legal meaning, status and details of the right of self-determination in the Article 1 of the 「Social Rights Covenant」 still remain ambiguous and vague. This paper, based on this recognition, discussed what the meaning and details of the right of self-determination in economic, social and cultural aspects are as well as what its legal status is, with special reference to the right to development which has recently been discussed as the core of the economic, social and cultural right of self-determination in the Article 1 of the 「Social Rights Covenant」. To conclude, the author suggests the party states of the covenant including Korea, as the substantial responsible bodies, take appropriate and effective national measures to protect the right to development which is allegedly the core of the right self-determination in the Article 1 of the 「Social Rights Covenant」.
  • 13.

    The International Legal Discussion for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism

    KWON HAN-YONG | 2009, (44) | pp.383~412 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    Since 9/11, the international society has focused upon the financing of terrorism as a countermeasure against the terrorism. International organisations including the UN and countries employed proactive policies in order to prevent financing terrorism through international agreements or national legislation. Two countermeasures are generally recommended under this situation. Firstly, the control of financial system is employed in order to prevent terrorism; and secondly, international cooperation under Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF) is recommended. However, these countermeasures such as the prevention of financing and recommendation should not violate a person's right and economic liberty although these could be effective in terms of preventing terrorism.
  • 14.

    Zur Reform des Koreanischen Strafzumessungsrechts und Rationalisierung des Strafzumessungsverfahrens in der Hauptverhandlung

    CHO GI YEONG | 2009, (44) | pp.413~433 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract
    In Korea wurden nur 1% Angeklagten nach der Hauptverhandlung freigesprochen. Strafzumessung ist das aktuelle Kernstück des Strafverfahrens als Ergebnis der Hauptverhandlung. In der Praxis und Theorie geben sich verschidene Mühe, um Verbesserung und Rationalisierung des Strafzumessungssystem. In 2007 wurden die umfassende Neuregelung von Strafzumessungsrecht mit der GVG-Reform eingeführt: die Einrichtung des Strafzumessungsausschuss(‘Sentencing Guideline Committee’) und die Etabilierung der ‘Sentencing Guideline’ durch Strafzumessungsausschuss. Aber diese Reform beschränkt sich auf die materialrechtliche Regelungen, um Unstimmigkeit und Abweichungen zwischen den verschiedenen Gerichte auszugleichen. Die Bemühungen um eine Erneuerung des Strafzumessungsverfahrnes in Bezug auf verfahrensrechtliche Aspekte, d.h. die Einführung der 'Presentence Invesitigation' in die kStPO bleiben folgenlos. Der Beitrag darstellt die Strafzumessungspraxis der koreanischen Gerichten und analysiert die heutigen strafzumessungsrechtlichen Reformbemühungen und schließlich empfiehlt den Gerichten den praxies- bezogenen Selbstversuch vor gesetzgeberischen Teilung des Strafverfahrens im zwei Abschnitte, die zur Rationalisierung des Strafzumessungsverfahrens in der Hauptverhandlung endlich eingeführt werden müssen.
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  • 16.

    A Introductory Study on Criminal Mediation System in Korea

    Shin Yang Kyun | 2009, (44) | pp.445~471 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    Criminal Mediation is the procedure, which resolve conflicts caused by offences and reintegrate legal community by means of mediation and dialogue between criminal offenders and victims. Criminal Consensus is similar with criminal mediation, but the former has been developed customarily to resolve criminal conflicts by civil methods and is not based on the idea of restorative justice. In our country many people are accused by victim or third persons against criminal cases and it makes cost of criminal justice increased, therefore to minimize a side effect of accusation shall criminal justice agencies develop ADR(=Alternative Dispute Resolution) such as criminal mediation or reconciliation. On the other hand, because traditional criminal policy oriented to rehabilitation of offenders exposed its limits on criminal measures and crime rates rised explosively since the mid 20 century, it grows interest in criminal victims. the nation has also interest in protection of criminal victims. A main issue of the protection is recovery of suffers or damages and voluntary mediation between offender and victim to restore damages play an important role in criminal procedure. In Korea has two mediation system in criminal cases generally, pretrial mediation and criminal conclusive effect to reconciliation between the person concerned, but the former is the criminal mediation in real meaning, in that the third party, the Support Center for Criminal Victims, has an advisory role in reconciliation between the parties and reconciliation has (restrictive) normative effect. From legislative aspect our criminal mediation system shall be more systemized according to levels and contents, and it requires practical plan to secure its legal effect.
  • 17.

    中国刑事和解的现状与展望

    宋英辉 | 2009, (44) | pp.473~487 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    传统的办理刑事案件方式以确定犯罪者的刑事责任和对犯罪者适用刑罚为核 心,在有效打击犯罪、维护社会秩序方面发挥积极作用的同时,也面临着诸多问 题:(1) 案件处理后,原有矛盾难以化解,当事人之间的关系难以修复,有些甚 至激化矛盾,酿成更严重的案件;(2) 被害人因犯罪所造成的心理创伤难以抚 慰,物质损失难以及时补偿;(3) 关押场所交叉感染,导致重新犯罪和严重犯 罪;(4) 办案机关不堪重负等。在中国,由于人口众多、地域广阔、人口流动性 大和社会整体处于转型期等特殊因素的影响,某些问题甚至更为突出。例如,被 害人由于难以获得赔偿并消解犯罪对其产生的影响,有些诉诸非常规的手段—— 上访、申诉甚至私力救济;公检法机关办案人员超负荷处理大量刑事案件而疲于 应付,难以保证办案质量。这些都严重影响了刑事司法在维护社会秩序方面的整 体效能。针对上述问题,在构建和谐社会与贯彻宽严相济刑事政策的背景下,中 国的法院、检察院和公安机关开始探索在公诉案件中鼓励当事人和解的办案方式 (以下称“刑事和解”)。刑事和解作为一种有别于传统的案件处理方式,开始出现 于中国司法实务之中,并在许多地区进行了探索。以下就中国司法实务中刑事和 解现状进行考察,并就其未来进行展望。
  • 18.

    A Study on Practical Subject of the Exclusionary Rule of Illegally Obtained Evidence

    천진호 | 2009, (44) | pp.489~525 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    The 17th Criminal Procedure Code of Presidential Committee on Judicial Reform led and established an the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence provision. But until which degree scope of non-statement evidence applying the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence about there is a various opinion. Specially after being supreme court decision(2007), the discussion sharply about this part, is advanced. The starting point of this dissertation the statement evidence when exception applies the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence without, non-statement evidence, the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence strictly, was not applied is. Relates with the application of the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence of non-statement evidence and the contents which the theory and judicial precedent are presenting is the fiction could not be materialized from fact. But the theory and judicial precedent faithfully in principle of the lawful process which is provided in constitution, must interpret the exclusionary Rule of illegally obtained Evidence is a thing. Under evidence collecting from process the process is violated conclusively in constitution and infringes the right of the defendant and to the case which influences to entity judgment of event is a statement evidence, or, is, exception without applies an illegal collection evidence exclusion law a non-statement evidence, or must do. And like this interpretation the fact that is faithful to the lawsuit ideology which is a guarantee of rights of lawful process principle and the defendant of constitution as a matter of means that will do.
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    A Study on Violate Due Process of Law and That`s Effect in Criminal Proceedings

    Hyeon-Soo Kim | 2009, (44) | pp.539~568 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    The fundamental idea in the criminal procedure is at just application of criminal law through revealing substantial truth of the crime in the range of the doctrine of due process of law. The doctrine of due process of law in criminal procedure guarantees fair procedures and prevent arbitrary when government deprives an individual of life, liberty or property. In criminal proceedings, there is a probability that human rights will be violated by the officials. Therefore, criminal proceedings must be dealt with in accordance with due process of law and government power must be restrained in the range of the doctrine. Due process of law contains fair play in trial, prohibit of overrule, opportunity to prepare a defence, safeguarding a suspect and the accused. For example, arrest or search and seizure, entrapment investigation, illegally obtained evidence other illegal process, the confession by a torture, the documents or articles obtained by that confession, etc. These cases which violate a due process of law. special effect must be imposed. Otherwise, due process of law does not guaranteed. Therefore the evidence obtained by a illegal has no admissibility of evidence(the court denies using evidence). Despite the violation of the due process of law, if it is convicted guilty, the accused will appeal against the conviction. And there is a possibility that claims damages or compensation against officials. Now in Korea, it is more compulsory that observe due process of law which is for human rights of a suspect and the accused. Therefore, criminal procedure should to be a constitutional. Most of all, investigation agency especially must have firm human rights for all people.
  • 21.

    Realizing the Rights and Obligations of the Criminal Defense Lawyer

    Song, Si Seob | 2009, (44) | pp.569~589 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The concept of ‘defense lawyer’ is very unique in criminal procedure law. It's appearance goes back to the Greek-Roman period. Since adopting the modern legal system, the importance of lawyer's status in criminal legal process has been escalating. However, the debate around the status of defense lawyer primarily has been based on the German theories. One is describing the defense lawyer as the guardian or patron (Fürsprecher) and the other is the organ or institution (eine Organ der Rechtspflege). But these approaches are not sufficient for grasping the real status of the defense lawyer in criminal procedure. So, I suggest the “quasi-legal entity” concept for better understanding of the status of defense lawyer and explain the rights and obligations based on it. First, the defense lawyer has the constitutional right to counsel for suspect and defendant and also has the criminal procedural rights of the free interview for appropriate legal effective counsel, the presence during the interrogation and inspection of the documents made during the process. On the other hand, the obligations can be explained through this analysis. Active duty as a defense lawyer is to serve the defendant with full effective assistance, and the passive duties are the duty to the truth and confidentiality derived from privilege against self-incrimination. Futhermore, I suggest the four criterion to fulfill the rights and obligations of defense lawyer. First, time aspect shows us rights of defense lawyer have to be expanded to the initial steps of criminal procedure and also to the final execution area. Secondly, confidential interview as micro-analysis and human capital reallocation of defense lawyers as macro-analysis can fall into space aspect. Third, human resource aspect is related to the public defense lawyer system. And final aspect is monetary aspect for realization for payment to public defense lawyer. Through the above-mentioned approaches, we can reach the goal to realize the rights and obligations of defense lawyer in criminal procedure.
  • 22.

    Einstellung Mangels Hinreichenden Tatverdachts und aus der Opportunitätsgründen

    Sang-Je Cho | 2009, (44) | pp.591~609 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit beschäftigt sich der Verfasser mit den Einstellungsnormen in der koreanischen Strafprozessordnung(kStPO). Die kStPO regelt die Einstellung mangels hinreichenden Tatverdachts einerseits und aus der Opportunitätsgründen andererseits. Beide Einstellungsform sind jedoch streng zu trennen, da die Einstellung mangels hinreichenden Tatverdachts als eine Kehrseite des Legalitätsprinzip gilt, während sich die aus der Opportunitätsgründen auf die Effizienz und Zweckmässigkeit der Strafjustiz trotz der Bejahung des hinreichenden Tatverdachts stützt. Es geht in diesem Zusammenhang um die justizielle Kontrolle gegen die staatsanwaltschaftliche Einstellung. Durch die reformierte kStPO, die am 1. Juni 2007 veröffentlichte und 1. Januar 2008 in Kraft trat, wurde sich der Gegenstand des neu eingeführten Klageerzwingungsverfahrens auf die alle Taten erstreckt, wegen derer Verletzte und gesetzlicher Vertreter Anzeige erstellt haben. Auch die Taten, die durch die Staatsanwaltschaft aus Opprtunitätsgründen von der Klageerhebung abgesehen wurden, können im Klageerzwingungsverfahren verhandelt werden. Um das Klageerzwingungsverfahren gegen die Einstellung aus den Opprtunitätsgründen wirksam zu ermöglichen, soll in erster Linie die Kriterien für die Anwendung des staatsanwaltschaftlichen Ermessens noch präziser bestimmt werden. Auf der anderen Seite soll die Einstellung mangels hinreichenden Tatverdachts nicht mehr im Verordnung als jetzige Form geregelt werden, sondern ihre Rang im Gesetz besitzen, da solche Abschlussverfügung der Staatsanwaltschaft von den Beschuldigten den Verletzten unmittelbar tangieren muss.
  • 23.

    中国的刑事起诉分流机制

    樊崇义 | 2009, (44) | pp.611~618 | number of Cited : 0
  • 24.

    Eine kleine Bemerkung zum Rechtlichen Umgang mit der Untersuchungsvollzugsanstalt

    Lee, Jin Kuk | 2009, (44) | pp.619~639 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit beschäftigt sich der Verfasser mit der rechtlichen Bestandsaufnahme über den Untersuchungsvollzugsanstalt in Korea und damit verbundenen Problematik, die bislang in der Wissenschaft vernachlässigt worden ist. Die gesetzlichen Grundlagen zur Aufnahme der Festgenommenen in die Untersuchungsvollzugsanstalt und deren Behandlung sind vielfältig, so dass dem Gesetzgeber ein eigenständiges Gesetzeswerk gezwungen ist, in dem alles, was für den Untersuchungsvollzug erforderlich sind, umfasst und einheitlich geregelt werden sollte. Auch die Anstalten, die innerhalb der Polizeibehörden eingerichtet sind und die man insoweit als Ersatzanstalt nennt, müssen ohne Verzug angeschafft werden, da sie ansonsten erheblich negative Wirkungen bezüglich des Grundrechtsschutzes auf die Insassen verursachen würden. Auf der anderen Seite soll dem Beschuldigten und dessen Angehörigen ein Anspruch auf die staatsanwaltschaftliche Besichtigung bei der Untersuchungsanstalt in Polizeibehörde gewährt werden, die jedoch de lege lata in der geltenden koreanischen Strafprozessordnung nicht erlaubt ist.
  • 25.

    Über das Zeugenschutzsystem in Korea

    HOH ILTAE | 2009, (44) | pp.641~672 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    In Korea müssen wir auch den Gesichtspunkt der Zeugen als Beweismittel überwinden und einen neuen Gesichtswinkel zum Zeugenschutz festlegen, welcher auf dem Gedanken des Rechtsstaates basiert. Solange wir bewußt unseren bisherigen Gesichtspunkt, der die Zeugen als Mittel zum staatlichen Justizverfahren ansieht, nicht überwinden können, können der erwünschte effektive Zeugenschutz und die damit verbundene Tatsachenermittlung fehlschlagen. Umfangreicher Schutz der Zeugen und ihrer Menschenrechte mit Verwirklichung der Gerechtigkeit im strafrechtlichen Justizverfahren zusammen stehen somit mit dem Grundgedanken der Verfassung im Einklang. Besonders das Gebot zum Respekt des Willens der Zeugen bei dem Zeugenschutzverfarhen ergibt sich direkt aus dem Gebot des Schutzes der Zeugen. Der Beistand einer vertrauenswürdigen Person eines Zeugen ist nach dem geltenden Koreanischen StPO erlaubt und die zeugenschutzbezogenen Regelungen im „Gesetz zum Schutz der Zeugen und anderen Personen“ nähert sich der deutschen Regelungen. Aber die koreanische Regelungen erlaubt die Zeugenschuzmaßnahmen nur für einen bestimmten Zeitraum für bestimmte Verbrechen. Im Vergleich dazu, erlaubt die deutsche Regelungen Zeugenschutzmaßnahemen bei jeder Art der Verbrechen und die Maßnahmen können fortgesetzt werden, solange sie erforderlich sind. So können die deutsche Regelungen Zeugenschutz für eine längere Zeit erlauben und somit schützen die Zeugen zu einem höheren Niveau. Wir brauchen unsere Regelungen dahingehend zu ändern und zu ergänzen, damit ein effektiver Zeugenschutz unter dem Gesichtspunkt des materiellen Rechtsstaates ermöglicht wird. So und nur so würde willentliche Kooperation der Zeugen in einem sinnvollen Sinne möglich sein: Somit wird die Gerechtigkeit im strafrechtlichen Justizverfahren einen Fortschritt machen.
  • 26.

    Der Bereich von anderen Menschen bei der Verletzung von Privatgeheimnissen gemäß § 49 Sondergesetz über die Förderung der Nutzung von Informationsnetzwerken und zum Schutz des Privatinformationsgeheimnisses

    HA TAE YOUNG | 2009, (44) | pp.673~706 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Das Urteil des koreanischen höchsten Gerichts vom 14. Juni 2007 - 2007 StR 2162 [Sachverhalt] Der A, Angestellter einer Kreditkartenfirma, sammelte zwischen dem 1. 12. 2004 und dem 4. 2. 2005, auf die Bitte seines Freundes F hin, persönliche Daten aus den Personalausweisen von Personen, die bei zwei Unfällen in Kimhae und Taegu ums Leben gekommen waren. Die Daten leitete er auch an den F weiter. Dieser verwendete die Daten daraufhin, um Informationen über die Verstorbenen, beispielsweise bei Banken, zu erhalten. Der Staatsanwalt klagte A wegen der Verletzung von Privatgeheim- nissen gemäß § 49 Sondergesetz über die Förderung der Nutzung von Informationsnetzwerken und zum Schutz des Privatinformationsgeheim- nisses an. Die erste, wie auch die zweite Instanz sprachen den A frei, da sie den Tatbestand nicht erfüllt sahen. Der Gesetzeswortlaut beziehe sich lediglich auf die Privatgeheimnisse noch lebender natürlicher Personen, nicht aber auf solche von bereits Verstorbenen. Das koreanische höchste Gericht hat die Revision bezüglich § 49 Sondergesetz über die Förderung der Nutzung von Informationsnetzwerken und zum Schutz des Privatinformationsgeheimnisses zugelassen. Es hat nach erneuter Auslegung anerkannt, daß § 49 neben dem Schutz der Privatgeheimnisse Lebender, auch den Schutz der Privatgeheimnisse von bereits Verstorbenen umfaßt. Meiner Meinung nach ist die Auslegung des koreanischen höchsten Gerichts nicht richtig, da sie zu weit geht. Grenze jedweder Auslegung des koreanischen StGB ist der Wortlaut des Gesetzestextes und dieser spricht ausdrücklich von lebendigen Personen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Bereich von anderen Menschen bei der Verletzung von Privatgeheimnissen im § 49 Sondergesetz über die Förderung der Nutzung von Informationsnetzwerken und zum Schutz des Privatinformationsgeheimnisses untersucht(II). Der Kernpunkt der Recht- sprechung wird durch dieses Konzept weiter analysiert(III). Abschließend schlägt der Verfasser einen neuen Gesetzesanderungsentwurf des § 49 Sondergesetz über die Föderung der Nutzung von Informationsnetzwerken und zum Schutz des Privatinformationsgeheimnisses vor(IV, V). § 49 Verletzung von Privatgeheimnissen (2) Absatz 1 ist auch anzuwenden, wenn der Täter das fremde Geheimnis nach dem Tod des Betroffenen unbefugt offenbart.
  • 27.

  • 28.