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2009, Vol., No.45

  • 1.

    Freedom of Speech on Internet and Portal Sites’ Responsibility - Concerning the Decision of the Supreme Court on April 16. ‘09, 008DA53812 -

    Choi Kyeong Ok | 2009, (45) | pp.1~40 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Of domestic hot issues in April this year, a contradictory judicial decision about freedom of speech and responsibility in cyber space has particularly caught our eyes. On April 16, 2009, the Supreme Court ruled that the responsibility of defamatory expression on internet should lie with portal site thereof, restrictingthe freedom of speech relatively, while on April 20, 2009, Seoul Central Court gave a decision of ‘not guilty’on Minerva Mr. Park, who was renowned as Internet economic pundit, on the grounds that ‘What he posted on Internet was rather exaggerated but with no intent of damaging the public good’ The former judgment deals with the responsibility of portal sitesabout the freedom of speech that individuals can exercise, while the latter one deals with the freedom of speech of individuals on Internet. Nonetheless, the main common point of two cases lies in the matter of freedom of speech on Internet. This thesis deals with the followings with respect to the decision of the above Supreme Court: (II) What responsibility the Supreme Court lays to portal sites in connection with news posting as the press; (III) How or in what extent the conflicting relation between the Internet users’freedom of speech and protection against defamation is mediated, and what matters there are with respect to the infringement to freedom of speech that is caused by laying the responsibility thereof to portal site’s manager. The decision of the Supreme Court apparently focuses on protection against individual’s defamation, but substantially it calls journalistic or press nature of Internet portal sites to account. So, it gives an undeniable impression that the decision restricts the freedom of both conscience and business that portal sites can exercise rightfully, and freezes the freedom of speech that Internet users or individuals can exercise rightfully.
  • 2.

    A Legislative Study for the Preventive Solution of Sunshine Conflicts

    LEE SANG CHEON | 2009, (45) | pp.41~95 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract
    The control of sunshine in building code is carried out through the conception of space i.e. height and distance, but the distribution of sunshine in the field of civil law is carried out by the hours of lasting sunshine. The sunshine conflicts are caused by the differences between the two means to guarantee sunshine. The sunshine interests have the characters of ‘game of zero sum’. Thus the essential function of the criteria of permitting building in concern with sunshine is the reasonable distribution of sunshine interests. From the above differences, the function of sunshine distribution through the existing building code is being carried out in a restricted degree. As in case of Japan, there are a little differences in the criteria of guaranteeing sunshine between civil law and administrative law. The standard law of building performance of Japan has the article that it should be decided by the hours of lasting shadow whether the right to enjoy sunshine infringed or not, but the case law by civil court has made decisions about shunshine infringement chiefly by the hours of lasting sunshine. Therefore, there are little severe conflicts surrounding sunshine in Japan, but in Korea there are so much severe cases of sunshine conflicts as the cases of injuction of building prohibition. Firstly, the presence of the differences between the two legal criteria dealing with sunshine in the above two legal fields is not consistent with our national legal feeling. we don't think it reasonable that the lawful building observing the criteria of permitting building is illegal in private law. Secondly, the existing building code is breaking the legal theory of ‘prohibition of inclusive mandate legistlation’, and the lower administrative legistlation doesn't go with the upper one. Thirdly, the negligence of the presence of the above differences come to the ‘nonperformance of necessary legistlation’ in theory of constitutional law. The differences should be removed at once. It is impossible and unreasonable that the criteria of sunshine in civil law be adjusted to the criteria of permitting building in building code. The criteria of permitting building should be revised according to the criteria of reasonable distribution of sunshine of case law in civil law. By that, in consideration of the revision, the civil court wouldn't accept any injunction of prohibiting building against the building under construction keeping the criteria of permitting building as long as under no special circumstances. If so, the sunshine conflicts would be much decreased, the new legistlation would be consistent with our national legal feeling, elevate the national spirits of observing law, and be helpful to the social peace.
  • 3.

    일본의 지구온난화 대책관련법제의 내용 및 과제

    CHOI WOOYONG | 2009, (45) | pp.97~133 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    일본은 1998년 온실가스의 배출량을 삭감하기 위하여 중앙정부, 지방자치단체, 기업 등의 책임과 시책을 정한 ‘지구온난화대책추진법’을 제정하였는데, 이 법은 일본의 지구온난화 방지대책의 기본 법률이 되고 있다. 이 법이 2008년 개정되어졌으며, 다음과 같은 내용을 담고 있다. 온실효과가스 산정, 보고, 공표제도의 개선, 배출억제등 지침의 책정, 국민생활에서의 온실효과가스억제배출을 위한 행동촉진, 신규식림, 재조림, CDM사업에 의한 크레디트(삭감량)의 보전절차의 명확화, 지방자치단체 실행계획의 충실, 지구온난화방지활동을 위한 추진위원, 도도부현지구온난화방지활동추진센터 등의 재검토, 등을 담고 있다. 즉, 이 법은 일본이 체결한 교토의정서의 내용을 보다 충실히 수행하기 위하여 보다 충실한 온난화대처방안에 대해서 정하고 있다. 그러나 일본의 온난화방지대책과 에너지정책에 문제점이 전혀 없는 것은 아니다. 먼저 정책의 문제점으로는, 첫째 에너지수요를 동반하는 국가시책이 계속되고 있고, 둘째 온실가스 배출예측 시스템이 결함되어 있으며, 셋째 배출량의 통계데이터를 둘러싼 문제, 넷째 중앙정부와 지방정부간의 정책의 통합의 필요성의 문제가 있으며, 그 외, 사업자의 영업정책에서의 온난화 영향평가의 의무부과, 집행관리 시스템의 정비등의 과제가 아직 남아 있다. 이처럼 일본은 정부 및 지방자치단체가 중심이 되어 지구온난화에 대한 대응방안을 수립하고 새로운 환경변화에 대처해 나가고 있다. 이는 지구온난화대책위원회의 최종보고서에서도 나타난 바와 같이 지구온난화방지를 위한 각 부문별 세부적인 지침을 수립하고 이에 상응하는 대응 논리를 적극적으로 개발하고 있다는 점이다. 또한 정부정책과 연계한 지방자치단체의 자율적인 정책수립도 주목할 만하다. 오사카의 예에서 본 바와 같이 지방자치단체 역시 온대법의 이념과 내용을 중심으로 자체적인 정책을 수립하고 자율적인 운영을 강구해 나가고 있다. 특히 각 지방자치단체는 ‘제도화를 통한 온난화대책’을 위하여 지구온난화방지를 위한 지방자치단체의 역할과 책무를 정한 조례를 적극적으로 시행해 나가고 있다. 내각 산하의 위원회는 온난화 대책에 관한 중간보고서 및 최종보고서에서 환경세의 도입, 서머타임제의 도입, 신에너지 정책의 수립 등을 정부에 건의하고 있는 바, 이는 우리에게도 시사하는 바가 크다 하겠다. 이제 우리는 지구온난화대책을 중앙정부의 시책에 맡길 것이 아니라, 지방자치단체가 자주적으로 대응하고 그 제도화를 도모하는 것은 지방분권의 관점에서도 많이 권장되어야 할 것이다. 따라서 본고에서 고찰한 일본의 여러 지방자치단체의 움직임은 향후 우리의 제도 설계 및 계획수립에 많은 참고가 되리라고 본다.
  • 4.

    Principal of the Administrative Self-commitment

    윤정화 | 2009, (45) | pp.135~164 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In the homogeneous cases on the area of the discretionary decisions of the past, an administrative agency bind to must treat the third parties as same by itself. This principal is the administrative self-commitment. This was formed a principle of the constitutional equality or a principle of confidence protection in the civil law by grounds. Such a self-commitment does grounds in an equal principle, and it is restriction to the administration oneself comparison standard that it set. Therefore, the self-commitment is a flexible restriction that can change this standard for the future. However, the theoretical discussion about the principal of the administrative self-commitment whether an administrative regulation become the law continues. The Supreme Court of Korea, and current Constitutional Court of Korea has recognized that these legal principles. This principal is introduced in all the textbook of Administrative Law. Therefore, it is considered that the principal of the administrative self-commitment is accepted by sound reasoning. As we know through a precedent, the principal of the administrative self-commitment will contribute to the protection of the personal right to equality by the control of the law under the increase of the administrative discretion
  • 5.

    Wirksamwerden des Angebots und Rücknahme des Angebots nach CISG

    Chinwoo Kim | 2009, (45) | pp.165~192 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Der vorliegende Beitrag will anhand Art. 15 CISG aufzeigen, wann ein Angbot wirksam wird und das Angebot zurückgenommen werden kann. Die Vorschrift regelt zunächst, ob und wann das Angebot wirksam wird und damit angenommen werden kann. Maßgeblich ist der Zugang (Abs. 1). Die ratio legis der Vorschift besteht einerseits in der Festlegung, dass ein Angebot nicht bereits mit Abgabe, sondern erst mit dessen Zugang beim Empfänger Wirksamkeit erlangt, sowie andererseits in der Klarstellung, wonach die Wirksamkeit eines Angebots nur durch Zugang und nicht durch eine anderweitige Kenntnisnahme durch den Empfänger bewirkt werden kann. Bis dahin hat es der Offernt in dr Hand, das Angebot zurückzuziehen (Abs. 2). Selbt ein unwiderrufliches Angebot kann noch zurückgenommen werden, wenn die Rücknahme spätestens gleichzeitig mit dem Angebot zugeht. Schwierigkeiten bereitet die Frage, ob und wann ein mündliches Angebot zurückgenommen werden kann. Ein mündliches Angebot kann jedoch überhaupt nicht zurückgenommen werden. Solange die Äußerung noch nicht abgeschlossen ist, liegt kein Angebot vor, welches zurückgenommen werden könnte. Mit dem Abschluss der Äußerung ist jedoch das Angebot im Sinne des Art. 24 CISG zugegangen und es besteht nicht länger die Möglichkeit, dass vorher oder zeitgleich eine Rücknahme zugeht. Die Rücknahme bewirkt einen vollständigen Wegfall des Angebotes. Sie selber kann zurückgenommen werden. Eine z.B. wegen Verspätung unwirksame Rücknahme, hat keinerlei Auswirkungen auf das Angebot. Es besteht jedoch die Möglichkeit, eine verspätete Rücknahme in einem Widerruf umzudeuten. Erklärungen an die Öffentlichkeit, denen als Publikumsofferte ausnahmsweise Bindungswirkung zukommt, werden auch erst mit Zugang wirksam. Auch solche Publikumsofferten können zurückgenommen werden. Für die Wirksamkeit der Rücknahme der Publikumsofferte gelten die gleichen Voraussetzungen wie für das Wirksamwerden der Publikumsofferte selbst. Zum Einfluss von Tod, Geschäftsunfähigkeit, Konkurs und desgleichen auf die Wirksamkeit eines zuvor abgesandten Angebots ist in der Konvention nicht gereglt. In der Literatur ist umstritten, wie dieses Schweigen des CISG zu bewerten ist. ME ist jedoch die Ansicht des Teiles der Lehre vorzuziehen, die ausgehend vom bewussten Verzicht der Regelung der erwähnten Frage seitens der Konventionsgeber zu dem Schluss kommt, es handele sich um eine außerhalb des Regelungsbereiches des CISG liegende Materie, die demzufolge dem über das IPR des Forumstaates berufenen nationalen Recht unterliegt.
  • 6.

    Les Quasi-Contrats de Source des Obligations

    박현정 | 2009, (45) | pp.193~223 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract
    Certains engagements se forment sans qu'il intervienne aucune convention, ni de la part de celui qui s'oblige, ni de la part de celui envers lequel il est obligé. Les uns résultent de l'autorité seule de la loi ; les autres naissent d'un fait personnel à celui qui se trouve obligé. Les premiers sont les engagements formés involontairement, tels que ceux entre propriétaires voisins, ou ceux des tuteurs et des autres administrateurs qui ne peuvent refuser la fonction qui leur est déférée. Les engagements qui naissent d'un fait personnel à celui qui se trouve obligé, résultent ou des quasi-contrats, ou des délits ou quasi-délits ; ils font la matière du présent titre. Les quasi-contrats sont les faits purement volontaires de l'homme, dont il résulte un engagement quelconque envers un tiers, et quelquefois un engagement réciproque des deux parties. Lorsque volontairement on gère l'affaire d'autrui, soit que le propriétaire connaisse la gestion, soit qu'il l'ignore, celui qui gère contracte l'engagement tacite de continuer la gestion qu'il a commencée, et de l'achever jusqu'à ce que le propriétaire soit en état d'y pourvoir lui-même ; il doit se charger également de toutes les dépendances de cette même affaire. Il se soumet à toutes les obligations qui résulteraient d'un mandat exprès que lui aurait donné le propriétaire. Le maître dont l'affaire a été bien administrée doit remplir les engagements que le gérant a contractés en son nom, l'indemniser de tous les engagements personnels qu'il a pris, et lui rembourser toutes les dépenses utiles ou nécessaires qu'il a faites. Celui qui reçoit par erreur ou sciemment ce qui ne lui est pas dû s'oblige à le restituer à celui de qui il l'a indûment reçu. S'il y a eu mauvaise foi de la part de celui qui a reçu, il est tenu de restituer, tant le capital que les intérêts ou les fruits, du jour du paiement. Si celui qui a reçu de bonne foi a vendu la chose, il ne doit restituer que le prix de la vente. Avant-projet de droit des obligations du Code civil françis permet de l’enrichissement sans cause. Quiconque s’enrichit sans cause au détriment d’autrui doit à celui qui s’en trouve appauvri une indemnité égale à la moindre des deux sommes auxquelles s’élèvent l’enrichissement et l’appauvrissement.
  • 7.

    Court opinion's change in the responsible spouse's application of judicial divorce

    Lee Hye Jin | 2009, (45) | pp.225~261 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    There are two types of legislation admitting judicial divorce ; the ruin system and the responsible system. In the former system one spouse can make an application for judicial divorce only if the marriage is ruined without asking the cause of breakdown. On the other hand in the latter system, a responsible spouse for ruining their marriage can't make an application and can't help keeping their legal marriage contrary to his or her wish. Supreme Court of Korea holds a fundamental opinion that a responsible spouse can't make an application for judicial divorce, but with a few exceptions. Criticisms are raised that such an opinion goes against global tendency in divorce cases and mars the right of one's pursuing happiness, and critics contend that judicial divorce should be allowed though a responsible spouse files a divorce suit. But if a judicial divorce is allowed according to the responsible side's filing without any limitation, it will coerce the other side(wife in most cases) a sacrifice and go against the principle of trust and good faith. So basically the Supreme Court's opinion about such cases should be maintained until the social maturity of the people and economic surroundings reach the level of accepting such cases without hesitation.
  • 8.

    Unconstitutionality of the Death Penalty and Global Trend

    HOH ILTAE | 2009, (45) | pp.263~298 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract
    There are 197 independent countries in the world. 94 countries of them have abolished the death penalty for all crimes in law. 10 countries have abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes. Moreover, 35 countries which are acknowledged to be abolitionists from Amnesty International have abolished the death penalty in practice because they have not executed a death penalty for ten years. Therefore, 139 countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. But the death penalty was abolished in 63 countries 13 years ago. These changes mean that 66 countries that is more than 63 countries in 1996 are newly added in the list of abolitionists. In the most of the abolitionists in law, legislatures have abrogated the laws that prescribed death penalty. In some countries, the death penalty was abolished by Constitutional Courts. For example, Hungary and South Africa are the typical counties that have abolished the death penalty with unconstitutional decision of the Constitutional Courts. On the contrary, 58 countries only retain the death penalty. I infer that many of the retentionists will abolish the death penalty in law or practice in the not-too-distant future. Because the number of countries that execute the death penalty in practice are less than half of the members in 58 countries, and 6 countries of them have not condemned to death at all. Every year, at least from two or three at the maximum to five or six countries take a turn in abolishing the death penalty. On the basis of these facts, we can expect that the number of the retentionists will be in the minority in about 20 years. Constitution of the republic of Korea avows human dignity, specifying the invulnerableness and the prohibition of violation of the essential aspect of the freedom or right. It finds the universal acceptance that the basis of human dignity is in the right to live. The country should have guaranteed the human dignity by the guarantee of Constitution, the country retains the death penalty which violates human dignity with the nation's rights of punishment and especially deprived of the life that is unacceptable from the view of Constitution. In addition, the death penalty is cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment. In conclusion, I think that the Constitutional Court of the republic of Korea should determine that the death penalty allowed on the existing law is unconstitutional punishment as legislation or decisions of Constitutional Courts of other countries. With the global trend of the constitutions for the death penalty, it should be adjusted logically to meet the valuable human rights in the republic of Korea.
  • 9.

    Fine, Imprisonment for Fine Default and Community Service

    Byung-Gak Choi | 2009, (45) | pp.299~323 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract
    In 2007, the number of imprisonment for fine default was 29,891. Among them 19,114(63.9%) persons were sentenced to fine under 1 million won and the total amount of their defaulted fines was 15.9 billion(4.9%). In contrast 422(1.4%) persons were sentenced to fine more than 5 million won and the total amount of their defaulted fines was 175.5 billion(96.0%). This made the National Assembly enact a law to adopt community service as an alternative to imprisonment for fine default in 2009. According to the law, those who are sentenced to fine of small amount would be able to apply community service to the court via the prosecutor until 30 days after confirmation of sentence. The court has a discretion in approving community service based on willingness to pay fine, incapability of payment and suitability for community service. But it is unpredictable how many persons are willing to choose community service instead of paying fine. And the expansion of the probation office is essential to operate community service program properly.
  • 10.

    Rationale und rechtlich zulässige Erwägungen inden Wiederaufnahmeverfahren

    Sun Jong Soo | 2009, (45) | pp.325~359 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit beschäftigt sich der Verfasser mit den Wiederaufnahmeverfahren in Korea. Man kann sagen, dass der Strafprozess ein gesetzlich geordnentes Verfahren ist, in dem über das Vorliegen einer Straftat zu entscheiden ist. Die Wiederaufnahme des Verfahrens dient der Beseitigung fehlerhafter rechtskräftiger Urteile, deren Bestand aus Gründen der Gerechtigkeit, der Wahrheit und schließlich der Rechtsbewährung unerträglich ist. Die koreanische StPO hat Vorschriften über die Wiederaufnahme eines durch rechtskräftiges Urteil abgeschlossenen Verfahrens, um nach der Rechtskraft ausnahmsweise fehlerhafte Tatsachenfeststellung zu korrigieren(§§420 ff. kor. StPO). In Korea wiegt die Autorität des rechtskräftigen Urteils sehr schwer, es gilt das Primat der Rechtskraft, und es gibt auch in der Praxis wenige Fälle. Koreanische Gerichte hassen die Beseitigung eines rechtskräftigen Urteils förmlich, und zwar auch wenn nachträglich Beweise auftauchen, die das Urteil als offensichtlich falsch erscheinen lassen. Das heißt, dass die Tür zur Wiederaufnahme nicht nur in Korea schwer zu öffnen ist. Man kann sagen, dass es unbedigt notwendig ist, falsche Urteile zu korrigieren und die unschuldig Inhaftierten zu erlösen. Deswegen müssen wir diskutieren darüber, welches Wiederaufnahmeverfahren sich empfehlen. Im Folgenden versuche ich eine Betrachtung über die Situation und Aufgaben des Wiederaufnahmeverfahrens in Korea.
  • 11.

    Der beweisrechtliche Umgang mit der gerichtlichen Ablehnung der Einsicht in das Verhandlungsprotokoll

    Shin, yi Chul | 2009, (45) | pp.361~385 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit versucht der Verfasser, wie man beweisrechtlich verwerten soll, wenn das erkennende Gericht einen Antrag des Angeklagten bzw. Verteidigers auf die Einsicht in das Verhandlungsprotokoll ablehnt. In solchen Fällen darf nach Meinung des Verfassers auch die Aussage des Angeklagten, die bereits in diesem Verhandlungsprotokoll niedergelegt ist, nicht verwertet werden, da die Verteigigungsinteresse des Angeklagten noch effektiver gewährt werden sollte. Die bisherige Prozesspraxis zeigt, dass das Gericht den tatsächlichen Vorgang in der Hauptverhandlung in der Regel vernachlässigt, auf Grund des als Beweiswürdigungsklausel geltenden §56 korStPO den berechtigen Antrag des Angeklagten in rechtswidriger Weise abgelehnt hat. Man sieht in solcher herkömmlichen Prozesspraxis einen Autoritarismus des Gerichts. Um das Misstrauen der Bürger gegen die Strafjustiz zu bewältigen und zwar ohne die Prozesssicherheit nicht zu gefährden, soll die absolute Beweiskraft des Verhandlungsprotokolls, die in §56 der geltenden Strafprozessordnung vorgesehen ist, in angemessener Weise gelockert werden, damit die Interesse des Angeklagten an seiser Verteidigung gewährleistet werden kann.
  • 12.

    The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in the Cases of the U.S. Courts

    Kim, Yong Eui | 2009, (45) | pp.387~409 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    As the volume of international commercial transactions is increasing, the number of disputes arising therefrom is increasing as well. Nowadays the commercial arbitration is very popular means of resolution of such disputes due to the international trend favoring it. One of the main reasons is the UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (“New York Convention”) upon which the courts of a signatory country such as the US or Korea are bound to enforce foreign arbitration awards. However the Convention also permits the courts to deny the enforcement if enforcement would violate the public policy of their country. This treatise tried to find principles and general attitudes of the US courts in dealing with the claims against the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards based upon the violation of the public policy. The author found such things and summarized the same with five subject titles including “Pro-enforcement policy” after analyzing 70 cases of the US courts including the US Supreme Court. This treatise also compared as much relevant as possible the practices of the Korean courts with those of the US courts and the statutes of the two countries in terms of the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Through the knowledge and understanding of the US courts’ holdings as to the subject of this treatise, the scholars and practitioners can get the empirical idea about the subject area. Since the US business entities are the predominant participants in the globalized commerce who are therefore the majority parties to the international arbitrations, their action to enforce the awards and the US courts experience in dealing with such enforcement will be of good help to the Korean courts, practitioners and scholars.
  • 13.

    Korean Courts’ Attitudes towards Challenging Arbitral Awards

    Choi Sung Soo | 2009, (45) | pp.411~446 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    According to the Korean Arbitration Act Art. 36(2), a party may file a lawsuit for cancellation of an arbitral award on the following grounds. There are 4 grounds for which the party making the application should furnish proof and 2 grounds that the court finds at its own discretion. First, a party was incompetent or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the laws of this State. Second, the party making the application was not given proper notice of appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case. Third, the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to arbitration, or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of submission to arbitration. Fourth, the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties or Korean Arbitration Act. Fifth, the subject matter of the dispute is not the one in its nature to be settled by arbitration under the laws of this State. Sixth, the award is in conflict with the public policy. Korean Courts' current trends towards Challenging Arbitral Awards show that the courts interpret the reasons for Challenging Arbitral Awards relatively in a strict manner. Thus, the cases recognizing the Challenging Arbitral Awards belongs to the minority. Korean courts as a whole recognize the effect of an arbitral agreement widely, acknowledge the independence of arbitration clause, take a generous attitude towards the reasons of Arbitral Awards and also introduce the concept of international public order and morals into Arbitral Awards. Conclusionally, the courts take part in the international trend in the area of Arbitral Awards. Afterwards, an attitude like that will lead the present trends. For the sufficient fulfillment of the objectives of International Commercial Arbitration, we need reducing the reasons for Challenging Arbitral Awards, and we can make arbitration be used to the maximum extent. We also need more meticulous observation and care is required to catch what is not subsumed by the current cases. On the other hand, we need to seek the trends of cases steadily and need practical preparation in the field of Challenging Arbitral Awards.
  • 14.

    A Study on the Opening of Korea's Legal Service Market through FTAs - Focusing on the comparison between Foreign Legal Consultant Act and the opening of legal service markets of neighbouring countries -

    Sungwook Yoon | 2009, (45) | pp.447~473 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    The opening of the legal service market has been discussed in the WTO/DDA negotiations as an important issue since 2000, but the negotiations in the WTO has stalled in recent years. Under the situation that FTA negotiations have multiplied in number and spanned the globe, this issue has been revived as one of key issues in FTA negotiations, particularly for the US and the EU. Korea agreed upon opening its legal service market to several FTA partners such as EFTA, ASEAN, India, the US and the EU. However, the extent of opening Korea's market varies according to the FTA partners. Moreover, ‘Foreign Legal Consultant(FLC) Act’ which regulates foreign lawyers and law firms operating in Korea took effect on September, 2009. However, the 3-step opening of Korea's legal service market agreed upon in the KORUS FTA is much beyond FLC Act which only spells out the level of the 1st step opening according to the KORUS FTA. This indicates that FLC Act can be applied to any country which concludes an FTA - at least before the WTO/DDA negotiations conclude - including the issue of legal service market, and the level of opening can vary by negotiating partners. Having analysed the level of opening the legal service markets of neighbouring countries such as Japan, China, Singapore and Hong Kong, this research finds that the level of their opening is also various according to their policy goals or domestic situations. This analysis also demonstrates that their policies focus upon the management and/or control of foreign lawyers and law firms for the protection of their domestic law firms which are obviously less competitive than Anglo-American law firms. The opening of Korea's legal service market will be accompanied by the improvement of competitiveness of domestic legal services as well as encroachment on domestic markets, to some extent. In this sense, appropriate policies for ‘survival’ of the domestic law firms are required.
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