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2010, Vol., No.48

  • 1.

    A Constitutional View about Multiculture in Korea

    Choi Kyeong Ok | 2010, (48) | pp.1~29 | number of Cited : 11
    A sentence that ‘Korea is a single-race nation’ has been words of the past in Korea. Instead, a phrase of ‘Multiracial state’, rather than ‘Multinational state’, has appeared, and the word of ‘Multiculture’ has been naturally created due to the increase of foreign population in Korea since the 1990s. Human beings have the right to live happy wherever or whoever they are, and this is called the right to pursue happiness (Article 10 of the Constitution). With respect to this right to be naturally pursued by human beings and citizens, the term of ‘Multiculture’ contains the distinction between Home Culture and Alien Culture. Therefore, a constitutional significance hereof lies in the differentiation that may be caused by the distinction between Home and Alien Culture. This thesis deals with a constitutional concept about multiculturalism in Korea (II), and social integration types about multiculturalism and human rights, of which details focus on various matters related to (1) acquisition of nationality; (2) multiculturalism and education; and (3) human rights of foreign workers in Korea. Table of Contents is as follows: Ⅰ. Preface Ⅱ. A constitutional concept about multiculturalism in Korea Ⅲ. Social integration types in multiculturalism and human rights in Korea. 1. Acquisition of nationality by marriage immigrants. 2. Multiculturalism and education 3. Human rights of foreign workers. Ⅳ. Conclusion
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    Die gesetzgeberische Schutzpflicht der Grundrechte

    최현선 | 2010, (48) | pp.31~60 | number of Cited : 3
    Nach der Lehre von den grundrechtlichen Schutzpflichten ist es Aufgabe des Staates, den einzelen Bürger vor Übergriffen Privater zu bewahren und durch das Ergreifen geeingneter Maßnahmen Rechtsgutsverletzungen zu vermeiden. Während die Abwehrfunktion den grundrechtlichen Freiheitsraum gegen staatliche Eingriffe schützt, sichert die Schutzpflicht das grundrechtliche Schutzgut gegen Störungen von nicht-staatlicher Seite. Zu den objektive-rechtlichen Gehalten der Grundrechte ist die des Staates getreten, die grundrechtlich geschützten Rechtguter in seinen Schutz zu nehmen. Die Schutzpflicht hat keinen definetiven Inhalt, der dem konkreten Anspruch auf Eingriffsabwehr vergleichbar wäre. Vielmehr bedarf die grundrechtliche Schutzpflicht der Vermittlung durch das gestaltende Gesetz, dem die zu schützenden Grundrechte die Richtung weisen. In der staatliche Schutzpflicht bedarf es des die Schutzpflicht einlösenden Gesetzes, um auf seiner Grundlage private Eingriffe in das grundrechtliche Schutzgut zu unterbinden.
  • 4.

    The Nature and Characteristics of the Constitution of the United Kingdom

    이병규 | 2010, (48) | pp.61~103 | number of Cited : 7
    This study aims to examine the nature and characteristics of the Constitution of the United Kingdom(UK), a model of an unwritten constitution, in terms of constitutional diversity and to identify the value of the British Constitution embedded in its nature and characteristics. In addition, it explores the current situation of the Constitution of the UK challenged by recent changes in the constitutional environment at home or abroad. First of all, this research started with a typical question about whether the United Kingdom retains its constitution or not. The characteristics of the Constitution of the UK which exists with statutes, conventions, court judgements and so on was investigated without the narrow-minded, written constitution-oriented way of thinking that there might be or might not be the Constitution in the United Kingdom. Highlighted was the nature of the Constitution of the UK as a political constitution which has no codified one. The British Constitution has a power structure totally different from the strict principle of separation of powers, an essential feature of a constitution based on constitutionalism. In the UK, the legislative and the executive, which are interrelated in their establishment and existence, seek universal harmony and cooperation. Therefore, it is not easy to balance the principle of separation of powers and that of parliamentary sovereignty in the UK. The principle of separation of powers in the UK is weak to the extent that it just can exercise influence on judicial independence. Another notable characteristic of the British Constitution is the role that conventions play in the Constitution. Conventions are the essential source of such a political constitution as the British Constitution. In this sense, the UK puts priority on self-regulation of the government and politicians rather than on the legal system of checks and balances which can be formally enforceable in a court of law, one of the prominent features of today's codified liberal constitution. Such conventions are the most important in the British Constitution and play a role of restricting legal authority of a monarch and regulating the relation between the Parliament and the government. In the UK, freedoms and rights of the people are considered residual. They are the remaining rights people can enjoy when the statute law or common law are not applicable. Hence, the target of legal dispute is not to what extent the scope of freedoms can be extended but the scope of power under legislations or common law for restricting the freedoms. The British Constitution with the traditional nature and characteristics is recently facing demands for changes. The constitution initiates sweeping reforms of the established constitutional composition; from the reform of the House of Lord with the abolition of hereditary peerage and reinforcement of judiciary control over the legislative power and the executive power by means of the enactment of the Human Rights Act in 1998, to the reinforcement of direct democracy through referendums and residential votes as well as autonomy that transcends the concept of local autonomy by establishing independent parliaments for each race. As part of such effort, the Constitutional Reform Act was enacted in 2005, leading to open a new era of the independent Supreme Court by ending the House of Lords Supreme Court last year. These changes might be just the beginning or come to a close now. However, the history of the British Constitution clearly shows that the Constitution is accustomed to compensating and modifying established systems rather than adopting new ones even though it looks inconvenient and less refined. The British Constitution that has sustained the UK, a mother land of constitutionalism, includes the nature and value that today’s liberal constitution is pursuing and the UK maintains its constitutional order as well as any other country with a written constitution. In this sense, the Constitution of the UK is noteworthy and we can discover the true value of the British Constitution if we examine it in terms of constitutional diversity and free ourselves from a narrow and written constitution-oriented viewpoint. Only then will constructive discussion about the British Constitution possible.
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    Der öffentlich-rechtliche Sinn des Haushalts - insbes. über die Einführung des Haushaltsgesetzes -

    Joo-Young Kang | 2010, (48) | pp.105~136 | number of Cited : 10
    Trotz der normativen Wirkung bzw. öffentlichen Gewichtigkeit, die der nationale Hauhalt besitzt, hat die Verfassung Koreas den Haushalt als Nicht-Gesetz verankert. Dies hat die heftige Debatte über den Rechts- charakter des Haushalts bzw. die Folge des als nicht-gesetzesförmig verankerten Haushlats verursacht. Es gibt aber die Idee ständig, dass die Änderung der geltenden Haushaltsregelungen in der Verfassung Koreas nicht nötig ist, da die normative Wirkung der geltenden Haushaltsregelung gesichert ist wie das normale Gesetz. Deswegen sei die effekivere Haushaltskontrolle durch das Parlament noch nötiger als Verankerung des Haushalts als Gesetesform. Aber die obige Ansicht kann nicht unterstützt werden, da die Verabschiedung der fremde Regelungsform durch Parlament das Rechts- sytem Koreas bzw. die öffentlich-rechtlichen Prinzipien verdrehen kann. Falls die wichtigen Finanzhandeln des Staates zu den Staatsorganen die Bindungswirkung hat, müssen sie mäßigen Rechtsstatus besitzen, also als Gesetz. Wenn der Haushalt als das Haushaltsgesetz eingeführt würde, würden wir einige nicht nur rechtstheoretische, sondern auch rechtspraktische Stärke erwarten. Zuerst kann die Finanzkontrolle vom Parlament durch das Haushaltgesetz verstärkt werden kann, Zweitens kann das Problem gelöst werden, das die Differenz zwischen dem einfachen Haushalt und dem Haushaltgesetz verursacht. Im Hinblick auf der Tendenz der Finanzkontrolle des Parlaments, muss es positiv überlegt werden, dass der Haushalt als das Haushaltgesetz gesetzgeben wird.
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    A Study on the Comparative Method related to Organnstareitigkeiten

    조연팔 | 2010, (48) | pp.137~188 | number of Cited : 0
    韓国でしばしば機関訴訟として大法院に申し立てられる訴訟類型である条例案無效確認訴訟(日本地方自治法176条の訴訟)は日本において判例は未だ出ていない状態である。2000年分権改革では地方公共団体の条例制定権に対する統制制度を取り囲んで多くの議論がなされたが解決策を捜すことができず法制定は次の機会へ延期された。その代わり日本での機関訴訟の問題は国家と地方公共団体間、都道府県と市町村間の訴訟を取り囲んで学説と判例が対立を見せているし、ここに対する議論が主になっている。日本では 2000年分権改革によって「国」などの関与に不服しようとする地方公共団体が利用することで国地方係争処理委員会が設けられて立法化されたが関与制度及び国地方係争処理委員会の機能不全とこれによって司法的関与の導入が論じられた。ここでは地方公共団体が関与による措置を講じなくて係争処理制度も利用しない場合に「国」が訴えを申し立てるようにする報告書を2009年末に作成した。韓国でも現在機関委任事務の廃止が論議されている。もし機関委任事務が廃止されて地方自治団体の事務を日本のように法定受託事務や自治事務に分けるとかあるいは他の名称の事務になってもこのような事務区分と係わって訴訟の類型や機関訴訟の前置主義問題などをどのようにするかの問題は本当に重要な問題であり、このような事務区分による争訟と地方自治団体が原告になって上級地方公共団体または国を被告にする訴訟の類型に対する研究は非常に現実的な問題になっていると言える。このような状況で日本の事例と議論は大いに参考になると思われる。そして日本で国と都道府県または市町村間,都道府県と市町村間の関係に関する訴訟が機関訴訟という命題の下に論じられるが韓国では日本にはない制度である憲法裁判所制度があるから現在議論されているように機関委任事務が廃止されて法定受託事務が新しく新設される場合に国と地方公共団体間の訴訟形態をどのように構成するかの問題は日本よりももっとも複雑に見える。もちろん権限の存否と権限の行事で区分して前者を権限争議の事項で,後者を機関訴訟の事項にすると言っても相変らず残る問題は権限の行事と存否をどのように明確に区分すべきかという問題と権限の行事に関して訴えを申し立てることができるという規定がない場合に裁判所で果して地方公共団体にどのくらい原告適格を認めるかという問題である。したがってこのような複雑な訴訟構造の統一性又は簡素性を持つ訴訟構造の必要性は日本よりも大きい。したがって、このような問題の解決策の一つとして自治訴訟概念を新たに取り入れて国と地方公共団体間の紛争の解決方案として定立することも考えられる。
  • 10.

    A Study on the Chemical Substances Control Act in Japan

    Kwihyeon Han | 2010, (48) | pp.189~217 | number of Cited : 4
    The use of chemical substances has become a necessity in almost everyone's daily life nowadays. However, improper management of hazardous waste and obsolete chemicals may result in environmental pollution, posing potential health and environmental risks. There is a growing demand from both home and overseas that strict control and regulation of chemical substances should be further enhanced. Against this backdrop, the Chemical Substances Control Act was amended in May 2009, in Japan, for the purpose of achieving the goals adopted at the World Summit Sustainable Development(WSSD). The Modification Act of the aforementioned Act has become of great significance by taking into account the fact that this bill is aimed at introducing the comprehensive control system of chemical substances for every chemical substance. In brief, it is truly noteworthy that the precautionary principle has been further strengthened in terms of the management of chemical substances through the amendment to the Chemical Substances Control Act. Therefore, Korea's management of chemical substances should be improved in a manner that strengthens the precautionary principle, in light of global efforts to carry out effective risk management of chemical substances.
  • 11.


    LEE SANG CHEON | 2010, (48) | pp.219~255 | number of Cited : 4
    The ‘INDUSTRIAL SITES AND DEVELOPMENT ACT’(We call this simply ‘ISDA’) is aiming at industrial sites and industrial complex and The ‘INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT AND FACTORY ESTABLISHMENT ACT’(We call this simply ‘ICFEA’) is aiming at stimulating indusrial cluster by sophiscating the structures of industrial complex. This means that the above two is playing the purposive role of firing up indusrial cluster. The above two have so many regulations in form of legal fiction in each of them. This comes from the fact that they take control of administrative authorizationㆍpermission. The most of them are about legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission, but some are about concentration effect, some have the middle character. Of course, although we have different opinions between legal characters of legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission and concentration effect, we see that legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission means a administrative deed is ragarded as legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission and concentration effect means a inclusive administrative treatment is regarded as some treatments of authorizationㆍpermission. It matters most that some regulations in form of legal fiction means concentration effect or simple legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission. In case of concentration effect the degree of concentration is denser than that of legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission. And If legal fiction of administrative authorizationㆍpermission and concentration effect are regulated at the same artricle, firstly the boundary of fiction by that article will be fixed by the article, in case of uncertainty of the boundary the boundary will be varied with this or that. The above two(‘ISDA’ & ‘ICFEA’) is regulated supra slimly in use of so many cases of legal fiction. Even though it is so simple in appearance the regulation in too simple and slim form could concurr the ambiguity of its meaning. We can see the example in case of ‘ISDA’ Article 45-4 (1) 6. By the time, the supreme court case says that the legal fiction of legal fiction cann't be recognized by court, and according to the case law the above two regulates each expression in each article like that which includes the case of legal fiction. In that meaning the two are quite fine and sophisticated regulations. The above two(‘ISDA’ & ‘ICFEA’) have little flaws in general. But there are rooms for disputes in the future time. In my thoght It would be useless to regulate so simplely and slimly in a degree of concurring the ambiguity of its meaning by that form of legistlation. Two much sophisticated regulation could concurr the contradiction between the articles, but could avoid the big flaw in legistalation. The ambiguity of meaning in regulation leads to the violation of costitutional law, and the interpretation of the law would be the legistlation itself in fact.
  • 12.

    A Critical Review of Death Penalty in North Korea

    Deokin Lee | 2010, (48) | pp.257~285 | number of Cited : 0
    If we look at the state of affairs of the Korean Peninsular and North Korean trend, North Korea is losing ground more and more in the international society, and internally this is aggravating the economic conditions and also a setback in succession of power seems inevitable. Therefore, in order to break this deadlock, North Korea is expected to strengthen the solidarity in order to support the system by tightening the more thorough crackdown and controls internally. Also, in this context, by tightening criminal laws and mobilizing politically severe punishments, it will try to maintain the dictatorship packaged by socialism. It was examined that, in functions managed by the criminal law in North Korea, disciplinary and mobilizational character was highlighted than a preventive aspect, and that the mobilization of punishments to a war against crime and violence wasn't for the prevention of crime and violence themselves but was nothing more than a means to protect the party line and policies. I In the recent 2007 revision of the criminal law, it is estimated to clearly reveal this situation and it is difficult to expect democratic criminal proceedings, and it can be identified to expand death penalty articles in order to support the system. Also, North Korea attempts to threaten the North Korean people for general prevention by mobilizing a way for criminal law enforcements, called a public execution, however, as the side effects shown in the process of development of human history in the past are embodied as the same pictures also in the present society of North Korea in the 21st century, the effects of the public execution don't appear to the direction intented by the regime of North Korea. Recently, our society has raised objections to armed provocations of North Korea and has been stepping up its efforts to impose appropriate sanctions. But it can be said to suppress the formal attitude about the human right abuse and the public execution that North Korea has been applying to its citizens internally. On the base of this fact, the approach according to the simple economic logic has limitations for true harmonization and unification and thus Republic of Korea will need to take charge of a leading position constantly raising objections to a question of human rights of North Korea and navigating changes in the international society.
  • 13.

    Das DNA-Identitätsfeststellungsgesetz und die forensische DNA-Analyse in Korea

    HA TAE YOUNG | 2010, (48) | pp.287~323 | number of Cited : 13
    Das DNA-Identitätsfeststellungsgesetz(DNA-IFG) in Korea ist ein Sondergesetz, das am 25. Januar 2010 verabschiedet worden ist und am 26. Juli 2010 in Kraft getreten ist. Diese Vorschrift ermöglicht es, zum Zweck der Identitätsfeststellung in Strafverfahren von bestimmten Beschuldigten und unter bestimmten Bedingungen Körperzellen zu entnehmen und mole- kulargenetisch zu untersuchen. Das Gesetz ist ein Kompromiss zwischen Positionen verschiedener politischer Kräfte. Ende des Jahres 2009 ist ein Regierungsentwurf vorgelegt worden. Derzeitig diskutiert die Gesellschaft der Strafrechts- wissenschaft und das Parlament über das Problem. Das Gesetz wurde durch das Gesetz zur Änderung der Vorschriften über die Straftaten gegen die sexuelle Selbstbestimmung 2010 modifiziert. Mit dem Gesetz über die forensische DNA-Analyse trat das DNA-IFG dann vollständig außer Kraft. Die materiell-rechtlichen Vorschriften werden in §§ 5-8 dieses Gesetzes integriert. Möglich wird damit auch ein Massenscreening, über dessen Rechtmäßigkeit bisher Streit bestand. In diesem Aufsatz wird zunächst der Inhalt des DNA-Identitätsfest- stellungsgesetzes in Korea analysiert(Ⅱ). Im Weiteren werden das materielle Problem auf den Schutz und der Verwendung zu erhebenden Daten(Ⅲ) und die strafprozesslichen Probleme auf die forensische DNA-Analyse untersucht(Ⅳ). Abschließend werden Zusammenfassung und Stellungnahme aufgezeigt(Ⅴ).
  • 14.

    Die strafrechtliche Aufgaben der Präimplantationdiagnostik

    Sun Jong Soo | 2010, (48) | pp.325~361 | number of Cited : 1
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit beschäftigt sich der Verfasser mit den Präimplantationdiagnostik in Korea. Präimplantationdiagnostik ist zur Zeit in Korea praktisch erlaubt und gesetzlich nicht verboten. Man kann sagen, wie die Präimplantationsdiagnostik zur der Erkennung von genetisch bedingten Erkrankung zu tun, bevor ein extrakorporal fortpflanzierter Embryo zur Einnistung in die Gebärmutter transferiert wird. In Korea hat man danach gefragt, wann die Menschenwürde beginnen könne und welche Schutzwüdigkeit dem Embryo zukommen solle. Normalerweise gibt es drei Alternativen, d.h. a) Personmodell, b) Stufen und Progredienzmodell, c) Objektmodell. Darin liegt ein wirklich schwieriges Problem, niemand kann daran sowald antworten. Die moraliche Bewertung der Menschenwürde bildet heute pluralistischen Rechtsordnung manchmal klare Unterschiede der Gruppenmeinungen, die nicht zur fertigen Lösung der konkreten Probleme führen. Das koreanische Verfassungsgericht hat vom 27.05.2010 entscheidet, wie weit der Menschenwürdigkeit reiche und wann ihm die Schutzwürdigkeit zuschriebe. Aber diese Entscheidung ist nicht klar. Deswegen ist Umstritten, ob der Embryo in vitro eine Schutzwürdigkeit haben könnten. Die Möglichkeit der indirekten Steuerung mit der Etikkommission kommt aus der Nichtwirkung des regulatorischen Biostrafrechts und der Kommunikationsfähigkeit des prozduralen Biorechts. Das Biorecht reguliert nur die Bedingungen des Verfahrens, und das Biostrafrecht kann nur verwendet werden, wenn diese Bedingungen des Verfahrens nicht erfüllt werden können. Die regulative Kraft des Biostrafrechts kommt nicht direkt aus sich selbst, sondern aus der Kommunikationsmöglichkeit mit dem prozeduralen Biorecht. Durch die neuen Entwicklungen in der Medizin, insbesondere in der Gentechnologie stellen sich neue schwierige Fragen des Lebensschutzes, sowohl am Beginn als auch am Ende des Lebens. Wir müssen auf die Zukunft und auf die Rechtsordnung für das unseren Leben vorbereiten, wie und was mit der Zukunft nicht rechnen können.
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    Recognition Requirements of Witness' Statement - Especially in Relation with Hearsay Rules -

    Shin, yi Chul | 2010, (48) | pp.363~395 | number of Cited : 3
    The provision on the past criminal procedure law was pointed out as not being substantial when considered from the view point of guarantee of an accused's confrontation right, principle of immediacy, oral negotiating maxim etc. To overcome these problems, and realize the public trial system, the revised criminal procedure law generally reviewed the evidence law, and greatly modified the requirement of granting evidence capability to recorded statement of witnesses by the investigation agency. In spite of that, it is a fact that realizing the public trial system ultimately aimed at was only half worth what it had been since the priority principle of documentary evidence was attained by the authenticity of the constitution of the recorded statement of witnesses can be recognized through objective methods such as video recording. Thus if the accused makes statement of refusing at the court, then the testimony of a witness or an investigatee should be preceded, and only when it is not possible, it should be re-established in a direction of accomplishing the rule of personal evidence priority taking on the type of exceptional evidence use for documents as a hearsay evidence.
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    A Critical Study on Admissibility of Evidence

    Jin-Kyung Song | 2010, (48) | pp.397~419 | number of Cited : 4
    The Korean Criminal Procedure Law Article 318, Clause 1 stipulates ‘Agreement of Parties and Probative Value of Evidence’ as an exception to the Hearsay Rule, this permits documents or objects on which the public prosecutor and the defendant agree to be used as evidence. Hearsay is a statement based on what has been reported to a witness by others rather than what they themselves saw. Thus, cross-examination on hearsay is impossible. This is why hearsay to be used as criminal evidence is not permitted in principle. Nevertheless, the legislators established Article 318 of ‘Agreement of Parties and Probative Value of Evidence’ because they intended to realize economical criminal procedure. The Korean society in 1954 turned into a wilderness of cinders and ashes by colonial government of Japanese imperialism and Korean War. In view of these circumstances, the legislators formed the Korean Criminal Procedure Law to use various kinds of documents. The criminal procedures of Britain and the United States has realized substantial evidential justice by presenting proofs including murder weapon and pictures of the scene of the crime, investigation officer's or other eye witness's testimony, opinions of experts, for example, psychologists, physician, etc. However, The criminal procedure of Korea has been a perfunctory evidential justice based on documents including prosecutors' interrogation dossiers. The prerequisite condition to exercise a punishing authority is to find facts constituting an offense by evidences. Article 307 of ‘Principle of Evidential Justice’ stipulates that criminal facts shall be proved to the extent that there is no reasonable doubt. Above all, to use a material as evidence, a material has to be eligible for admissibility of evidence. It is important to judge whether a material has qualification as evidence because it is possible to judge whether the defendant is guilty or not from evidence. Therefore, we have to interpret that the defendant does not agree to give admissibility for evidence if it is doubtful whether the defendant agree or not.
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    A Study on the Reforms and new Treatments in the Probation of Juvenile Delinquency

    천진호 | 2010, (48) | pp.421~456 | number of Cited : 13
    Sixth the juvenile law which is amended is enforced from June 22, 2008. The new juvenile law introduced a improvement program about juvenile- law-theory and the operation of example and system of the foreign nation. Namely the new law is introducing the next system ; public assistant, out-of-court settlement and shock detention. The new law is putting in the Ministry of Justice assertion contents all almost. Even to being like that, this law is having a few thing problem point. Until 2010 May will investigate the control situation of boy protective event from the present paper. And in order to present the problem and an improvement countermeasure of boy event in the contents which is not reflected. The namely this dissertation the Juvenile Court establishment which becomes independent and Victim-Offender Mediation and Dialogue, shock Incarceration within 1 month. And further, as regards improvement countermeasures this paper refer to Probation as independent penal, Family Group Conferencing Program, and various special orders, scientific Assessment Instruments.
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    Die Eigenschaft der Gemeinschaftsordnung bei der Begrünung des Gemeinschaftseigentums im Hochhäuser

    JANG BYEONGIL | 2010, (48) | pp.457~483 | number of Cited : 13
    Im modernen Hochhaus müssen die Bewohner mit den Nachbaren unvermeidlich die bestimmten Orte oder die bestimmten Teile zusammen benutzen. Z.B. did Wände, die Haupteingang, Treppe, Haupt Wasserleitungen usw. sind das gemeinsames Eigentum. Und sogar die scheinbar ein Sondereigentum werdende Sache, wie der Keller oder bestimmter getrente Raum, sind durch die Gemeinschaftsordnung ein gemeinschaftliches Eigentum zu werden. In diesem Fall kann jeder Wohnungseigentümer auf einen Gebrauch des in das gemeinschafliche Gebäudeteile sthenden Eigentums verlangen,Es gibt im Korea 「ein Gesetz für die Verwaltung und Aneignung des Hochhauses (unten Hochhäusergesetz)」, wie deutsches 「Gesetz über das Wohnungseigentum und das Dauerwohnrecht (Wohnungseigentumsgesetz)」. Nach koreanischem 「Hochhäuser-gesetz」 begründet das gemeinschaftliche Eigentum durch das Gesetz und durch die gemeinschaftliche Ordnung. Das gemeischaftliche Eigentum in Sinne vom Gesetz besteht aus den zwei verschiedenen Eigentum; d.h. das gemeinschaftliche Eigentum durch Gesetz und das Eigentum durch gemeinschaftliche Ordnung. Nach deutschem 「Wohnungseigentumsgesetz」 ist die gemeinschaftliche Ordnung in zwei Sinne getrennt. D.h. eine ist Vereinbarung, andere ist der Beschluß. Die Vereinbarung hängt mit dem Verfügungsakt zusammen und der Beschluß verankert mit Verwaltungsakt. Aber das koreanisch 「Hochhäusergesetz」 kennt nicht diesen Unterschied. In diesem Zusammenhang kann die Begründung des gemeinschaftlichen Eigentums an einer Wohnung im Hochhaus nur durch die Vereinbarung in der gemeinschaftlichen Ordnung. Dann müssen wir anerkennen, dass die gemeinschaftliche Ordnung zwei verschieden Charakter hat. Ein Charakter ist den schuldrechtliche Verwaltungsakt. anderer Charakter ist ein Verfügungsakt, d.h. die hat sachenrechtlichen Charakter. Normalerweise sehen wir die gemeinschaftliche Ordnung im Hochhaus als ein Beschluß an, die schuldrechtlicher Charakter haben. Aber bei der Begründung des gemeinschalftlichen Eigentums ist die Entstehung eines Eigentums ohne sachenrechtliche Willenserklärung möglich. Deshalb bei der Anwendung der gemeinschaftlichen Ordnung müssen wir als ein Verfügungsakt im Grundbuch eintragen. Deshalb die gemeinschaftliche Ordnung hat nicht nur einfache Verwaltungscharakter sondern auch Verfügungscharakter. Dann können die Verwaltungsträger der Hochhäuser denjenigen auf die Belastung oder den Schuld vom gemeinschaftlichen Eigentum verlangen können, die neu Wohnungeigentum erhalten wollen.
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    Verwendungsersatzanspruch des Dritterwerbers

    Joon Hyun Lee | 2010, (48) | pp.485~516 | number of Cited : 0
    Nach § 367 KBGB kann ein Dritterwerber, der nach Bestellung der Hypothek ein Recht am Grundstück erlangt, Eratz nach Maßgabe des § 203 Abs. 1 und 2 KBGB aus dem Erlös der Versteigerung des Grundstücks vorrangig vor anderen Gläubigern suchen, falls er die zur Erhaltung oder Verbesserung notwendigen und nützlichen Aufwendungen macht. Dieser Anspruch des Dritterwerbers übt großen Einfluß auf das entgegengesetzte Interesse zwischen dem Hypothekengläubiger, der die Hypothek am Grundstück durchführte, dem nachrangigen Rechtsinhaber, und dem nomalen Gläubiger, der aus dem Erlös der Versteigerung Ersatz sucht, dadurch aus, dass das aufgewandte Geld aus dem Erlös der Versteigerung am vorrangsten befriedigt wird. Trotzdem besteht über den Verwendungsersatzanspruch des Dritterwerbers keine grundlegende Untersuchung in Korea. Über Rechtsnatur des § 367 KBGB und Umfang des Dritterwerbers im der Regelung zeigen ferner zwei zivilrechtliche Kommentaren, die im koreanischen Schrifttum am meisten zitiert werden, grundlegende Unterschiede im Verständnis. Heutzutage werden in der koreanischen Literatur folgende drei Punkte haufig diskutiert. 1. Aus welchem Grund wird dem Dritterwerber des Grundstücks die vorrangige Befriedigung gegeben?2. Auf weche Person erstreckt sich der Dritterwerber, der nach § 367 KBGB den Anspruch auf Verwendungsersatz hat? Dies hält enge Verbindung mit dem Verständnis des ersten Punktes. 3. Darüber hinaus muss in Bezug auf Rechtswirkungen des Verwendungsersatzes dargestellt werden, ① ob der Anspruch des Dritterwerbers durch das Recht, das er vor Durchführung der Hypothek hatte, Einfluß nimmt, ② bis zu welchem Zeitpunkt er sein Recht ausüben muss. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden über die oben erzählten Punkte die Untersuchung durchgeführt.
  • 20.

    A Study on Creditor’s Right to Cancel

    이태철 | 2010, (48) | pp.517~548 | number of Cited : 1
    Creditor’s right to cancel (“CRC”) refers to a right through which a creditor may disclaim the effectiveness of his/her debtor’s act and have debtor’s property restored to the original state for the maintenance/ preservation of the value of security when the debtor has diminished his/her total properties through legal acts, knowing that such acts cause damage to his/her creditors. Since the original power of CRC is to disclaim the effectiveness of debtor’s disposal of properties, which have already been established, and to have the properties, which have been gained from beneficiary or third party acquirer, restored to the original state, it greatly affects third parties and threatens to harm the safety of transactions. Nonetheless, Korean civil law addresses CRC only in Articles 406 and 407. Consequently, important legal doctrines addressing CRC solely remain in the domain of court cases. Recently, dishonors and bankruptcies have increased due to international economic recession and business recession. Cancelling a deceit that causes harm to creditors and restoring transacted properties to chargeable properties is an important function that not only resolves private disputes, but also establishes legal justice. Furthermore, protecting well-meaning beneficiaries or third party acquirers is also important to protect the safety of transactions. Accordingly, it is appropriate to make a legislative approach to CRC-involving transactions, which are important and diverse. More specifically, it is suggested to create provisions governing the requirements of deceits, and CRS's effects and scope, based on Articles 406 and 407 of the civil law.
  • 21.

    The Effect of Transfer for Future Claims

    Bae, Sung Ho | 2010, (48) | pp.549~576 | number of Cited : 6
    The transfer for future claims, which are non-eligible claims, is forming an ever-greater part of contract realities as the purpose of raising funds. There are several problems of those transfer for future claims currently. The main questions, we are facing with, are is it possible to transfers those future claims, what can be the valid reasons for acceptance of those transfers, and what can be the standard of those transfers, and then other problems are how we going to set up the requirement of objection for those transfers, and is it necessary to have those requirements, When and how can be the questions for the matter. Those problems are used to be theoretical issues; however, they are now related with legal policy issues such as the registration system of transfer for claims which comes the current issues lately. This study examines not only the current situations and problems of these subject matters, but also the similar status of Japanese cases and doctrines of transfers for future claims. This study also depict about the reform of Korean Civil Code on the tranfer of claims as a conclusion.
  • 22.

    The Standards of Judgement on the Consent Capacity of Patients

    송영민 | 2010, (48) | pp.577~602 | number of Cited : 5
    The existence of consent capacity should not be judged uniformly by a certain age, and also not be judged formally by an objective circumstance that a patient has mental problems. Therefore, the existence of consent capacity of patients about treatment behaviors should be judged separately and specifically on the basis of concrete situation of patients at the point of decision making. In addition, to judge consent capacity separately and specifically, it should be considered how much the treatment behaviors would affect the bodies and lives of patients, and third persons would affect patients' decision making after establishing several principles. The principles are as follows. ①Could patients remember and understand the informations about the treatment behaviors? ②Do patients have the abilities to trust the informations? ③Could patients make logical decisions through comparing the informations? ④Do patients have the abilities to deliver the drawing conclusions to others?However, considering the relationship of patients' age, it could be assumed that the adult patients have the abilities of decision making in principle unless it has been proved that they have no abilities of decision making in the Republic of Korea, referring Mental Capacity Act Article 1 Section 3 of the United Kingdom. Moreover, the Republic of Korea has no laws like the Family Law Reform Act Article 8 Section 3 of the United Kingdom that the persons under age are able to have the rights of the consent capacity on the treatment behaviors in case they reached a certain age. So, I suppose, it would be more reasonable for the age of over 16 and less than 20 to judge the existence of consent capacity based the standards of judgement on the concrete consent capacity, considering the point that the persons over 16 have the right to agree their organ donations according to the existing Internal Organs, etc. Transplant Act.
  • 23.

    A Study on Employer's Liability for Damages and Employee's Right of Indemnity

    Lee Hye Jin | 2010, (48) | pp.603~638 | number of Cited : 7
    Article 756 of Korean civil code prescribes that a person who employs another to carry out an undertaking shall be bound to make compensation for damages done to a third person by the employee in the course of the execution of the undertaking. And paragraph 3 of it gives the employer the right to obtain reimbursement from the employee. This paper explores several issues concerning the employer's liability in torts including the requisites to undertake the liability, the relation to the execution of the undertaking, the appearance theory and the restriction of exercising the employer's right of reimbursement from the employee, etc. And then this paper probes into the matter of the employee's right of indemnity from the employer(so-called “reverse indemnity”), namely whether the employee can exercises the right of reimbursement from the employer. There are pros and cons about it. I believe that the employee who compensated for damages, may have such a right from the employer as the case may be, judging from a standpoint of equity.
  • 24.

    A Study on Institutionalization of Counseling Services on a Divorce Careful Deliberation Term

    Kim, Man Woong | 2010, (48) | pp.639~685 | number of Cited : 4
    This study investigates effective measures to deal with troubles of married couples. The main objective is to provide professional divorce counsellors with guidelines to help married couples overcome the troubles wisely, develop the relationship in a positive way, and create a new life. It is not paid no regard to the problems raised by divorce and is a chief causes to the speedy collapse of a family on the rise in the system because the divorce system by a consent, one of divorce systems, permits a divorce to have a right of free choice which is unparalleled in the world. A standard of regulation governing the counselling services needs to be established, and better counselling skills which are able to enchance the efficiency of pre-divorce counselling need to be investigated. Pre-divorce counselling has to be performed by authorized counsellors who have been professionally trained and experienced in a systematic procedure. Divorce counsellors should be equipped with professional knowledge about and bright insight into matrimonial relationships and problems delived from divorce by means of clinical practices.
  • 25.

    Analysis on the Liquidity of the Contractual Managerial Right in Rural Household Areas in China

    CHO DONG JE | 沈萍 | 2010, (48) | pp.687~714 | number of Cited : 3
    The significance of studying Rural Land Contractual Management Right is set by the importance of the Rural Land Contractual Management System, which has tremendous influence in Chinese Land legislation, with its core part of guaranteeing the transferring of Management Right of Land Contract(hereinafter called the Transferring System). Nowadays during the process of reform and opening up, with the development of industrialization and marketability, to innovate the Transferring System, establish and keep improving the allocation mechanism of the rural land resource according to the rules of market-oriented economy, became the key for solving the Three Dimensional Rural Issues. However, the Transferring System still meets problems while execution, due to the lack of a sound and unified market, as well as the imperfectness of the existing Rural Land System. The author of this thesis raised her own idea and suggestion toward these problems, by the way of analysing the existing circumstance and the barriers during the execution of the Transferring System, under the policy of Balance Urban and Rural Development.
  • 26.

    Successor Corporate Penalty Surcharge Liability by Corporate Division

    KIM GUN SIC | 2010, (48) | pp.715~735 | number of Cited : 1
    This article analyzes legal regimes of successor corporate liability when a corporation received penalty surcharge by Fair Trade Commission after the corporation was already divided into another corporations otherwise dissolved. In this instance, the question is who bears the penalty surcharge liability which established prior to the date of its corporate division. Contingent corporation or new divided corporation? In general, it would be appropriate that both contingent corporation and new divided corporation have liability with regard to the penalty surcharge according to their division agreement. However, until now, there is no right answer to cover such liabilities. Because the liability which is above mentioned is grounded upon an unclear mixture of Corporation Act, FTC's regulations and Supreme Court decision. Moreover, if the contingent corporation divided again or closed their business, who bears responsibility for penalty surcharge relating to pre-distribution periods? And it is also unclear what date shall be executed to the previous wrongdoing prior to the filing of any charges. In order to solve these questions, in the United States Court ruled by common law but, in the end, most states have enacted regulations regarding successor corporate liability to provide clear answer. Because of the somewhat vague notions of derivate corporate liabilities based on the Corporation Act, FTC's regulations and Supreme Court decision, this article attempts to propose new enactment on the Korean FTC regulation. The proposal is that “The Fair Trade Commission shall discharge corporate successor liabilities of illegal activities against contingent corporation, new divided corporation, or new divided corporation's opposite corporation either prior to or within 3 years after the date of its division.” With this proposal, corporations may not evade penalty surcharge liability through corporate division, even if the division occurs before discharge.
  • 27.

    The Present and Future Role of the CISG in Korea

    Kim, Yong Eui | 2010, (48) | pp.737~768 | number of Cited : 0
    국제물품매매계약에관한유엔협약(CISG)이 발효된 지 22년 그리고 한국이 조약에 가입하여 국내에서 발효된 지 벌써 5 년이 지났다. 2010년 6월 25일 현재, 미국 중국 일본 그리고 대부분의 유럽연합 국가들을 포함하여 74개국이 이 협약의 가맹국들이다. 그 동안 주로 유럽 국가들을 중심으로 2500개가 넘는 판례와 중재판정들이 유엔과 연구기관들에 보고되었고, 수 천 편의 연구 논문과 출판물 들이 CISG에 관한 연구내용을 소개하였다. 비록 그 해석과 적용에 있어서 각 국가의 법원들이나 중재기관 들에 따라 충분한 통일성이 확보되지 않거나 잘 못 적용되는 등의 문제들이 있기는 하나, CISG 는 이제 누구도 부인할 수 없는 물품매매계약법에 관한 전 세계의 모델이 되었다. 이러한 시점에서 한국 법조계가 인식하고 있는 CISG의 역할은 아직도 유럽선진국이나 미국 심지어 중국과 일본에 비교하여 볼 때에 부족함이 많다 CISG는 우리 헌법이 정한 바에 따라 이미 우리의 국내법과 같은 효력을 가지고 있을 뿐만 아니라, 대부분의 우리나라 교역상대국이 그 체약국이기 때문에 우리 기업들의 국제 물품거래의 대부분에 (당사자가 명시적으로 그 적용을 배제하기로 합의 하지 않으면) 자동적으로 적용되도록 되어 있다. 그러나 한국에서는 아직 CISG를 적용한 판례를 찾아보기 힘들 뿐 아니라, 실무에 종사하고 있는 대부분의 변호사들에게 거의 알려지지도 않았다. 많은 국제거래에 관한 법률 서비스를 제공하고 있는 대형 로펌의 변호사들에게도 CISG는 아직도 낯설고 또 회피되는 법이 되어 있다. 지난 60년간 국제적인 사법통일화를 위한 국제사회의 많은 노력의 성과물인 CISG는 2010년 지금 시점에 미국 중국 일본 등 우리와 가장 밀접한 관계에 있는 통상 파트너들을 포함하여 세계경제를 주도하는 모든 국가들에서 점점 그 적용이 확대 심화되고 있다. 한편, 우리나라에서는 실무 계의 CISG에 관한 무관심 또는 회피경향에도 불구하고 우리 학계와 교육계가 그 동안 지속적인 연구 활동과 교육 활동을 통하여 새로운 세대의 법조인들에게 CISG의 역할과 유용성에 대하여 알려 왔다. 법률시장의 개방과 로스쿨을 통한 새로운 법률교육제도의 출발 에 즈음한 이때 본 논문은 우리나라에서의 CISG 에 대한 편견의 실체를 분석하고, 국제거래에 있어서 그 유용성과 우리 물품매매법의 개선 방향에 모델이 될 수 있음을 올바로 인식하는데 필요한 논거를 제시하고 미래에 대비하고자 하였다.
  • 28.

    A Review of Korean Cases Related to International Jurisdiction in International Private Law, Article 2

    Choi Sung Soo | 2010, (48) | pp.769~806 | number of Cited : 11
    International jurisdiction depends on what court of specific country as a whole should try legal contestation or what specific country as a whole responsibility for trial should be distributed to. When international private law was totally revised on April 7, 2001, the general principle of international jurisdiction out of international private law (article 2) was newly established transitionally. Although it was regulations in a general form of ‘substantial connection’, it will be an important ground to judge international jurisdiction in the future Although the parties to a suit may not be secured predictability or legal stability because of the abstract standard of ‘substantial connection’ in international private law (article2), it is expected that a distinct standard will appear since cases are being created reflecting revised contents after revising international private law. More distinct trend will be disclosed through more accumulated cases in the future. However, Cases in the present have become a trend which judges international jurisdiction in proper application of indications such as ‘ideals of allocation in international jurisdiction’, ‘jurisdiction of domestic law’ and ‘uniqueness of international jurisdiction’ suggested in international private law (article 2) including the indication of ‘substantial connection’. At least, it is being escaped from a trend which judges international jurisdiction in the category of regulations and sound reasoning in land jurisdiction as the past cases. International private law (article 2) is not simple reflection of the existing cases of Supreme Court. In international private law (article 2), a new standard of judgment is established. However, Supreme Court from the above regulation is still in the process of setting up its position. As partial cases are seen, an attitude of inclusive judgment after arranging conditions without establishment of reasonable logic by being inclined to only the abstract standard of substantial connection should be sublated. In the future, inclusive cases integrating laws, regulations and theories in the present in the position of Supreme Court should be created. Based on relatively distinct cases as above, it is expected that the parties to a suit including practical officers will have predictability in instituting a lawsuit. In addition, it is necessary to watch over in what direction international treaty and legislation and international jurisdiction related cases of major countries including South Korea are developed in the side of comparative law to get more information for setting up Korean cases.
  • 29.

    The Roles of Constitutional Law in Labor Law

    Song, Kang Jik | 2010, (48) | pp.807~856 | number of Cited : 18
    Whether fundamental rights in employment on the constitutional law are secured or not has very important meaning in interpreting statutes of labor. The Korean Constitution established in 1948 had secured the rights in Article 18. Even though the Constitution was amended nine times, the rights are still secured in Article 33. I take, however, an apprehension seriously with respect to introducing exclusive collective bargaining system especially in the Labor Union and Labor Relations Adjustment Act(LULRAA) amended on January 1, 2010. Under this circumstance, I intend to analyze some issues, that is, discrimination in employment, dismissal, fundamental rights in employment in public sector(including teacher in private sector), restriction on establishing union by the LULRAA, exclusive collective bargaining system, criminal responsibility in strike, unfair labor practice etc. in a point of view of fundamental rights in employment on the constitution. Furthermore, this paper has also another goal that congratulates Kim, Hyo-Jeon Professor(who is my teacher since a bachelor process of me in Dong-A University and is become a member of the National Academy of Sciences, Republic of Korea on July 9, 2010) on his retirement under the age limit. Conclusions from this article are as follows:① Discriminations in hiring employer's potential employees based on sex, age, disability are prohibited with an independent law each other in Korea. Because the discrimination by an employer is also against the human rights, the objects of discrimination in employment is extended towards general contracts of employment, and these kinds of discrimination should be prohibited in principle. ② The Supreme Court of Korea holds that an employer's termination of the contract of employment on the basis of a false record applied for the job by an employee specifically was lawful in general in the event of dismissal cases. These kinds of the termination of the contract, however, have been motivated substantially by its employee's union activities, and then an employer's terminating the contract because of the false record should be deemed to have violated generally a justice cause clause for dismissal in Article 23 of the Labor Standards Act. ③ All teachers excluding Professors in College or University has the right to organize, to collective bargaining, and to conclude collective agreements, but is still prohibited from entering into strike. The right to strike of the teachers in private sector specifically, however, should be recognized through amendment of a statute concerned. ④ According to the ULRAA, an union is never to be lawful without reporting on establishment of the union against administrative authority and getting certification from the authority. In that case, the union is prohibited from using the name of the union with criminal liability. Those restrictions on establishing union in the ULRAA also should be repealed as soon as possible. ⑤ The Supreme Court holds that a requirement of two thirds in Article 81(2) is an effective requirement to make union shop agreements between union and an employer or its association. Where the employer forces an newly employee who is employed newly to choose the union of the party to the agreements, however, it should be construed as unfair labor practices. Thus, when an employee is employed under union shop agreements, if the employee choose another union that is not a party to the union shop agreements, his(her) right to choose union should be respected fully. ⑥ An exclusive collective bargaining system can be construed as an unconstitutional system prominently against fundamental rights in employment on the constitution. According to a traditional interpretation of the rights to organize among the fundamental rights, an equal treatment between unions by employer has been recognized. So a principle of the equal treatment between unions should be reflected on operating the new bargain system. ⑦ There are many restrictions on the procedures of strike by employee(or union) side in the ULRAA. The Supreme Court holds that the procedures should be done for a lawful strike, and so if the strike fails to keep the procedures(approval of a majority of union members specifically), the strike will be unlawful also in the relation to its employer. According to a present law by the Supreme Court, the employer pursues a criminal responsibility against the union planed or did the strike, and the employee participated in the strike. Even though the strike failed to comply with the procedures, it should be interpreted not to be an object of the criminal responsibility at the least in the relation to the employer. ⑧ According to a present law also by the Supreme Court, where an employer has a justice cause in dismissal, even though the dismissal is assumed to have antiunion intention by the employer, it generally will not be unfair labor practices. I suggest again, however, as I already said in another article, that the dismissal is valid, and simultaneously the dismissal should be considered as unfair labor practices.
  • 30.

    A Study on the Relationship between the WTO Legal System and Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) - With Special Reference to the Article XXIV of 「GATT 1994」 concerning the Requirements for Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) -

    SHIM YOUNGGYOO | 2010, (48) | pp.857~894 | number of Cited : 3
    Although a regional trade agreement (hereinafter referred to as “RTA”), a preferential trading agreement of which attributes are regionalism and preferential discrimination, is intrinsically a violation of the WTO legal system based on multilateral trading system and non-discrimination principle, establishment and operation of an RTA satisfying certain requirements are exceptionally permitted under the relevant WTO rules. Therefore, in order for the RTA to be legitimate, any WTO member state concluding it has to observe the principles and rules under the WTO legal system. In particular, the basic legal requirements for the exceptional permission of an RTA in the field of trade in goods are provided in the Article XXIV of 「GATT 1994」. The Article XXIV of 「GATT 1994」 stipulates external requirements for the RTA members as well as internal requirements for non-RTA members, and only the preferential RTA fulfilling all the requirements can be lawful under the provision. Accordingly, the Article XXIV is generally regarded as seeking the balance between the multilateralism and an RTA. However, the provision has caused some interpretative controversies because the requirements for permission of an RTA consist of ambiguous and obscure expressions and contents, such as the expressions of “substantially all the trade,” “not on the whole” and “within a reasonable length of time.” As a result, it is needed to define the meanings and contents of the provision more clearly in order for the proliferation of regional trading blocs through RTAs to be a reasonable legal basis which can substantially contribute to the policy goal of multilateral free trade. Based on the above recognition, this paper, starting with consideration on the concept and types of RTAs, reviewed and analyzed not only the requirements for permission of an RTA in the Article XXIV but also the interpretative problems and necessity of improving the provision.
  • 31.

    Létude sur l'action de lutte contre le terrorisme et la piraterie maritimes dans le droit international

    KWON HAN-YONG | 2010, (48) | pp.895~926 | number of Cited : 15
    Le terrorisme et la piraterie ont mis en évidence l'importance des enjeux de sûreté maritime, aux frontières de la défense et de la sécurité. Alors que plus de 90% du commerce mondial transite par la mer, l'économie mondiale est désormais liée à la maîtrise du milieu marin et sous-marin. Il y a là un enjeu stratégique essentiel puissance maritime qui s'ignore. La recreudence de la violance en a amené la Communauté internationale à renforcer, dans le cadre international et régional, son action de lutte contre le terrorisme et la piraterie maritimes. Tout d'abord, l'organisation des Nations Unies encourage ses Etats membres à participer aux instruments internationaux, telle la Convention SUA du mars 1988. L'ONU situe également son action spécifique de lutte contre la piraterie dans le cadre international. Méttant en oeuvre les résolutions du Conseil de sécurité des Nationa Unies, elle adopte l'action commune, à l'origine de l'opération militaire Atalanta, CTF-151 etc., donc l'objet est de protéger les navires vulnérables qui naviguent au large de la Somalie et en mer de Chine. En outre, la lutte contre la piraterie ne pouvant se borner à une seule opération militare navale, l'ONU a élaboré divers mesures restrictives, positions communes complétées par les résolutions à l'encontre du Golfe d'Aden, du détroit de Malacca, du Golfe de Guinée etc., mesures visant à la livraison d'armes à déstination de ces zones dangereuses. Consciente de l'importance du phénomène de la piraterie et du terrorisme martime, cet article s'est attaché à préciser les caractéristiques, les enjeux et conséquences de ce phénomène et à étudier les capacités de réponses de la communauté internationale et de la Corée du Sud (notamment relatif au droit pénal coréen de l'article 340). Au niveau international, deux axes d'action doivent 'être privilégiés : la coordination des forces navales intervenant dans la zone et le développement des capacités des Etats de la régions à assurer, par eux-mêmes, la sécurité maritime dans la zone. Afin de la sûretés et la sécurité maritimes, on ne pourra pas être atteinte par les seuls efforts des Etats développés. Les Etats riverains et les intérêts privés doivent également s'y associer pour restaurer la sécurité des zones de navigation. Pour atteindre l'objectif, trois capacités doivent être activitées grâce à une coopération à tous les niveaux:- une capacité de surveillance, par la fédération des vecteurs nationaux disponibles;- une capapcité d'analyse, par la mise en commun et l'échanges d'informations;- une capacité d'intervention adaptée et durable, comme l'illustre bien l'opération Atalante. Chacun, selon ses moyens économiques et financiers, ses capacités militaires et de sécurité, ses outils juridiques et technologiques, doit contribuer à cet effort mondial de coopération et de régulation, afin de préserver la liberté des mers et de valoriser au mieux ce trésor commun que sont les espaces maritimes.
  • 32.

    Eine Studie über die Beurteilung der erfinderischen Tätigkeit von Erfindungen

    최상필 | 2010, (48) | pp.927~951 | number of Cited : 5
    Um patentiert werden zu können, muss eine Erfindung neu sein und auf einer erfinderischen Tätigkeit beruhen. Sie darf weder zum Stand der Technik gehören noch sich für den Fachmann in naheliegender Weise daraus ergeben. Daher ist die Erfindung, deren Patentierbarkeit in Frage steht, zum Stand der Technik in Beziehung zu setzen. Für die Patentfähigkeit der Erfindung wird ein Fortschritt auf dem Gebiet der Technik gefordert. Nach § 29 Abs. 2 kPatG wird für die Erfindung das Patent nicht erteilt, die sich für den Fachmann in naheliegender Weise aus dem Stand der Technik ergibt. Diese Voraussetzung entspricht der erfinderischen Tätigkeit" nach § 4 des deutschen PatG. Bei der Beurteilung der erfinderischen Tätigkeit, wie der Neuheit, handelt es sich darum, dass vor allem der Stand der Technik festgestellt werden soll und damit ist letztlich der Begriff Technik" maßgebend. Die Voraussetzungen der Patenterteilung nach §29 kPatG, nämlich gewerbliche Anwendbarkeit, Neuheit und Fortschritt auf dem Gebiet der Technik, entsprechen den Voraussetzungen des § 1 Abs. 1 deutsches PatG. Im koreanischen PatG bestehen jedoch keine Vorschriften, die den Vorschriften der §§ 3 ff. deutsches PatG entsprechen. Daraus ergibt sich die Schwierigkeit, dass bei der Patentanmeldung (oder der Patenterteilung) man zunächst den Maßstab für die Auslegung der Voraussetzungen setzen muss. Für die konsequente Beurteilung der Frage, ob die angemeldete Erfindung die Voraussetzungen der Patenterteilung erfüllt, bedarf es der Einfügung der einzelnen Vorschriften über Voraussetzungen und dazu können die Vorschriften der §§ 3 ff. deutsches PatG als Vorbild dienen. In dieser Arbeit ist das Hauptgewicht auf Diskussionen über die erfinderische Tätigkeit als eine Voraussetzung des Patentschutzes gelegt und dafür sind die Rechtsprechung und Literatur davon untersucht.
  • 33.

    헌법의 개념(1928) (1)

    Kim,Hyo-Jeon | 2010, (48) | pp.953~1000 | number of Cited : 3