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2011, Vol., No.50

  • 1.

    A Narrow View about Controversy over the Legitimacy of Judicial Review

    kang seungsik | 2011, (50) | pp.1~31 | number of Cited : 4
    Some modern scholars have insisted that judicial review of legislation be confronted with the countermajoritarian difficulty. This known problem makes an issue of the propriety of unelected judges, who lack democratic legitimacy, invaliding duly enacted decisions of democratic legislature. But others have supported the role of judicial review in democracy as a check on majority power. According to this, judicial review can reinforce the democratic process by eliminating obstacles to its advancement. Also, several scholars see democracy as deliberation and debate. From this perspective, they have argued that judicial review helps deliberation and debate through institutional dialogues between Courts and other branches of government. What is remarkable is that much of the discussion above occurred in the United States. The debate on the legitimacy of judicial review in the U.S. is a critical constitutional issue because judicial review is not within the text of the U.S. Constitution itself. Futhermore U.S. Constitution guarantee unelected judges life tenure during good behavior. For these reasons, the legitimacy of judicial review continues to be challenged and hotly contested in the U.S. In conclusion, I think that it is inappropriate for country outside U.S. to embrace entirely the debate on the legitimacy of judicial review in the U.S. Korea intentionally introduced judicial review by constitutional Court in the current Constitution. Therefore, the legitimacy of judicial review in Korea should be understood in a different context.
  • 2.

  • 3.

    A study on the admissibility of a party to legal proceedings of the Adjudication on competence disputes

    CHO JAEHYUN | 2011, (50) | pp.33~65 | number of Cited : 3
    In 1995 there was a important decision(90 hun-ra 1) of the Constitutional Court of Korea. The constitutional court decided whether the part of the State agencies would be the admissibility of a party to legal proceedings of the Adjudication on competence disputes. In this case the constitutional court confirmed that the part of the State agencies could not be a party to the Adjudication on competence disputes. Two years later the constitutional court had overruled the precedent on the admissibility of a party to legal proceedings of the Adjudication on competence disputes. In 96 hun-ra 2, the constitutional court decided that the part of the State agencies could be a party to the Adjudication on competence disputes. From this case the scope of the party to the Adjudication on competence disputes has broadened gradually. With reference to the admissibility of a party to legal proceedings of the Adjudication on competence disputes, in this paper it will be trying to analyse whether the organ of local government, for example a local government head or a chairperson of local assembly can be a party to the Adjudication on competence disputes or not, commenting on the case of competence dispute initiated by Ongjin-gun(province) against Taean-gun(province) and the mayor of Taean-gun(2005 hun-ra 2). In this case constitutional court decided that the request for adjudication against the mayor of Taean-gun should be dismissed and the request for adjudication against Taean-gun would be admissible as legality. According to the opinion of the court, to request of local government against the organ of local government as an executive organ should be always inadmissible. It seems appears to me that the constitutional court decided whether the respondents(the mayor of Taean-gun) has infringed the right of autonomy of the claimant(Ongjin-gun), not dismissing the request of the claimant.
  • 4.

    Recent legislative trends and challenges for the Better Law-making

    Youngdo Park | 2011, (50) | pp.67~97 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    A successful implementation of the national policy need to be Effective norms. In our society over the course of various reform policies have been established in the meantime, a number of legislation made as well as the legal system of each sector has been transformed significantly. However, a simple means of norm as a tool to view or have a tendency to be strong as required by law whatever the situation is becoming more frequent, until now had not been required by law to matters stipulated by law or the need to thin the other hand, average is not high resistance also enacted laws Being. This study aims at the recent legislative trends by looking at our legislation trend. Furthermore, this study want to see quantitative and quality improvement in our legislation. First, in terms of legislative form in our trend of legislation, Basic Act, Special Measures Act, Promotion Act has increased significantly. In current, Basic Acts 53, 100 and various Special Measures Acts, there are 42 of the Promotion Acts and has a number of bills pending in National Assembly. These laws have a positive sense, given that some may view, but in terms of the actual effectiveness is still an Fundamental problems are pointed out. Second, in terms of legislative contents in our trend of legislation, the strengthening density of legal provisions, increasing private sector involvement in the legislation, increasing emotional expression in legal terms can be pointed out. The rate of change in our society is progressing very quickly and timely to deal with it the need for much greater importance in the field of legislation relating. amendment to runaway demand for such legislation, but the legal competence and legal legitimacy, legal consistency review has been neglected. Overall, economic regulatory reform policy and simplify administrative work in progress and extent, but the legal system and norms are still increasing and the phenomenon persists over the details of people's lives are governed broadly. In this study emphasize a better improvement and simplification of the legislation by reviewing the whole more and more understandable and more user friendly than people would have to be configured.
  • 5.

    A study on Cost Contribution Arrangement in the implementation rules for PRC special tax adjustments

    Kim, Tae-Ho | 2011, (50) | pp.99~132 | number of Cited : 2
    Tax administration in the People's Republic of China entered a new era in 2008 with enactment of the Enterprise Income Tax Law. Articles 41-48 of 'Chapter 6 – Special Tax Adjustments' of the EIT Law and Articles 109-123 of its detailed Implementation Rules establish a new basis for the Chinese tax authorities to make special tax adjustments related to areas such as Transfer Pricing, Thin Capitalization, General Anti-avoidance Rules, and Controlled Foreign Corporations. In addition, the EIT Law and its Implementation Rules provide the basis for Chinese enterprises to enter into Advanced Pricing Arrangements and Cost Contribution Arrangement. The State Administration of Taxation published the Implementation Regulations for Special Tax Adjustments as set out in notice, Guo Shui Fa [2009] No. 2, dated 8 January 2009. The growing complexity of business operations and commercial dealings has caused MNCs to seek a wider spectrum of support and assistance from both internal and external resources. CCA allows parties to agree to pool risks and resources for the purpose of developing intangibles and to share the benefits of such developed intangibles. As a result, MNCs often put in place CCAs to optimize their available resources so as to manage their overall business operations and their costs. The EIT Law and its Implementation Rules introduce the CCA concept to China for the first time and state that CCAs may cover the joint development of intangible assets and the provision of services. For cost sharing related to service activities, Article 67 of the STA Rules restricts acceptable services to group purchasing and group marketing activities. Because of lack of deepen understanding to the existing CCAs in China, few CCAs between related parties' transactions of intangibles and services might be exposed to not only double taxation but also taxation dispute between both countries' tax authorities. Thus it is necessary to study laws and regulations regulated CCA in both Korea and China. In this paper, the study had been focused to the CCA and then OECD Guideline and papers and books related CCA in China and Korea.
  • 6.

    The establishing possibility of the MMORPG game item

    류화진 | 2011, (50) | pp.133~162 | number of Cited : 3
    The discussion about the cash transaction of the game item is active due to the verdict of not guilty which is recently sentenced in Supreme Court on the game money change in the game Lineage. It has the provision prohibiting the cash transaction of an item in the game company providing most of MMORPG games. However, it is difficult to say that this behaviour in terms of interpretation of the Article 32 in the game industry Act is prohibited by the law. Therefore, the game company can impose players who violate provisions only the account break as a punishment. However, in case of exchanging the game money acquired through the illegal automatic hunting program as an occupation, it is the behaviour in which a punishment is possible. While the cash transaction of an item became possible, the need that the legal characteristic of the game item has to be clarified was generated. The object of the according to criminal law property crime can be acknowledged only in case of being the property or the pecuniary advantage. The game item is the information according to the common view. Since the information is not fluid and only businesslike administration is possible, it cannot regard as the property. However, since the game item can have a marketability, that is, the economic value, it can fall under the benefit on property. Therefore, the property crime profiting the according to criminal law pecuniary advantage with an object is possible to be established. For the game providing enterprise, from the viewpoint of the promotion of the game industry, and for gamers, in the point of view that it is the composition of the sound game environment, the criminal regulation about a game has to be made. Still, there is much recognition which is negative about a computer game. However, this has to be changed. There are the positive sides and the negative sides in all phenomenons of not only a game but also our society. Crime phenomenons due to various side effects are known about a game through the news. However, it views as the result of the survey that over half of our nation spend their leisure time playing a game. If it is the case, a game can be a hobby of a nation. The positive side that it contributes to the content industry development of nation is meaningful. Therefore, the criminal regulation should be consistent with the regulation about the behaviours infringing the game environment which is sound and agreeable of the gamers and the behaviour hindering the promotion of the game industry. In addition, the game providing enterprise should fulfill the obligation for the sound game environment development of the gamers to the utmost before admitting a crime due to the complementation of the criminal law. Even though the enterprises fulfill that obligation enough, gamers can be attcked by hacking. In that case, if the infringements are due to the carelessness in accounting management or the attention defict of gamers, all kinds of cases are not easy to punish.
  • 7.

    The Ideology of Criminal Procedure and Social Integration - The Ideological Ethos of Criminal Procedure -

    송희식 | 2011, (50) | pp.163~199 | number of Cited : 10
    The purpose of this study is to examine the ideology of criminal procedure. Generally speaking, the doctrine of substantive truth and due process of law are two ideologies of criminal procedure. But there is no exact term for ‘due process of law’ in German, and Anglo-American skepticism about man does not use the term of ‘substantive truth’. Truth is a fundamental objective of adjudicative processes in German and european continent. Without findings of facts that generally accord with substantive truth, citizens would lose confidence in adjudicative processes as fair and reliable tribunals of justice and as effective means of dispute resolution. Thus, legal finding of fact in a court proceeding should accord with the actual truth. So it is called “substantive truth” and the business of a court of justice is to discover the substantive truth. And they can accomplish the social integration by the justice realization through the finding of substantive truth. In America, the ideologies of highest level are liberalism and republicanism, and so to constitute a substantive limitation on the power of government and procedural safeguards for natural rights is most important. This ethos is expressed as 'due process of law' in criminal procedure. Both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments prohibit government actions which would deprive 'any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law'. So in adversary system in America, the discovery of the truth -the substantive truth- is not the objective of the criminal process. The purpose of the criminal process is not to find facts but to resolve a conflict-a conflict that can be defined in a variety of ways. The difference of the doctrine of substantive truth and due process of law is originated from the difference of ethos of the nation, people, or culture. Ethos is the distinctive spirit of a culture or an era. And the ethos of european continent and America is very different, particularly that of the attitude to the nation. One regards nation as the community where justice must be realized, the other regards it as the power mechanism which has temptation to invade the human rights. The ideological ethos of criminal procedure is based on the cultural ethos of the nation. In Korea, the doctrine of substantive truth and due process of law are two ideologies of criminal procedure. The Constitutional Court and Supreme Court seek to the harmony of two ideologies. In our ethos the social integration could be achieved by the harmony of two ideologies. And because the ethos is arbitrary, the harmony of two can be achieved theoretically. But what is the basis ethos of the harmony of the two? The social integration by the ideology of 'due process of law' could be formed on the basis of republicanism ethos. The social integration by the doctrine of substantive truth could be formed on the basis of justice ethos of nation community. Although the harmony of the two is theoretically very good, but we have not the basis ethos that makes the harmony.
  • 8.

    Admissibility of Sex Crime Victim's Statements in Video Recording

    Byung-Gak Choi | 2011, (50) | pp.201~230 | number of Cited : 6
    Recently in response to heinous sex crimes against children some tough countermeasures such as stricter penalty, internet registry, electronic surveillance, chemical castration and in-custody treatment have been widely introduced by legislation in korea. Among them the video recording of victim interview by the police or the prosecutor becomes obligatory. This is necessary to prevent secondary victimization also. And victim's statements in video recording are admissible where the correctness of recording is proven by the testimony of the victim or the reliable assistant during interview. Actually the statements of sex crime victim may be presented in some ways. Except for testimony by a victim-witness in court, all evidence including documents or video-tapes(files) recording victim interviews, victim's own records, and testimonies of victim's experiences are hearsays. Hearsay evidences are admissible if prescribed conditions are met. But the right of confrontation should be guaranteed to the criminal defendant because it is a fundamental right by the constitution. Though the necessity of protecting victim from secondary victimization is gross, it is essential to adhere due process principles in criminal proceedings. In this context when the sex crime victim's statements in video recording are admitted as incriminating evidences, the defendant shall be given an adequate and substantial opportunity to cross-examine the victim in trial.
  • 9.

    Correctional Treatment and Rights of Death Penalty Prisoners

    이호중 | 2011, (50) | pp.231~258 | number of Cited : 3
    Since 1998 there has been no execution of death penalty in Korea. Now 58 prisoners are incarcerated on death row. Although many politicians have kept repeating ridiculous claims for execution of death penalty, the experiences of non-execution during 13 years would be a positive step toward the ultimate abolition of death penalty in Korea. This paper deals with an issue how death row inmates might be treated by incarceration, in the current situation of “substantial abolitionist country”, but also toward ending capital punishment. I briefly review current statutes and practices on the treatment of death row inmates. The new Prison Act 2008 manages the death penalty prisoners as a particular category, not similar to the other prisoners. However, there is no particular treatment or program for death penalty prisoners. There is no systematic treatment for rehabilitation and no program for their psychological stability. It is not surprising that they suffer from emotional trauma of having to face impending death every morning. The psychological suffering caused by uncertainty of many years on death row is akin to torture. Therefore, this paper suggests significant change of treatment policy for death penalty prisoners. The long-term prisoner treatment system should be applied also to the death penalty prisoners. First of all, we should establish effective programs for their psychological stability. And until death penalty would be effectively shut down by a commutation of sentences, the systematic correctional treatment is needed to prepare for rehabilitation. Ultimately, they can have a chance and prepare for return to society that could one day be realized.
  • 10.

    Eine Studie über die Haftungsrechttsvariante im Zivilrecht und die Kost-Nutzungsanalyse im Schaden

    장병일 | 2011, (50) | pp.259~289 | number of Cited : 3
    Grob zu sagen, besteht der Inhalt der Gesetzfolgenabschätzung aus der Konzeptionsphasen und der Durchführungsphasen einer Abschätzung. Als erste Phase es ist zu sagen, dass die Probleme-, Ziel- und Systemfelder analzsiert werden muss. Demnächte ist Durchfühungsphase der Abschätzung. In der oben gennanten zweitten Phasen spielt der wirtschaftswissenschafliche Kostenanalyse sehr groß Rolle. Die Gegenstände der Gesetzfolgenabschätzung sind nomalerweise die fiskalisch unterstützenden öffentlichen Gesetze. Denn die Gesetzfolgen- abschätzungsmethode kommt ursprunglich von der wirtschaftwissen- schaftlichen Analyse. Nach der traditionalen Schadensersatzslehre nimmt die Beweislast vom Beschädigte übergenommen oder deren umgekehrt. Und die neue Haftungslehre brauchte die Beschädigte diese Last nicht überzunehmen. Das heißt eine Gefährdungshaftung; s.g. “nur mit der technischen Risiko oder der Risikoquelle ohne Fahrlässigkeit als eine schuldlosen Haftung anerkannt”. Aber mit solchen Schadenslehre kann die heutzutagen Ersatzsituation im Schadensbereich nicht erzählen. Deswegen braucht einheitlichen Schadenslehre diese komplizierten Situation zu lösen. In diesem Zusammenhang kann die Analysemethode von der Wirtschaftwissenschaft über den Schaden eine Lösung für diese Problem. Wenn die wirtschaftliche Analysemethode deshalb das bisherige zivilrechtliche Haftungslehre umfassen könnte, könnte die Gesetzfolgenabschätzung problemlos an dem zivilrechtlichen Bereich direkt anwenden. In dieser Beiträge wird eine Anwendungsmöglichkeit deshalb untersucht, ob die Schadensersatzlehre in der Gesetzfolgenabschätzung eine Anwendung durch wirtschaftliche Analyse finden kann oder nicht. Nach dem wirtschaflichen Gesichtpunkt sieht der Schadensersatz als eine Zurückhaltungskost für die gesellschaftliche Konntrolle. Nach dieser Meinung sehen den Umweltschaden und den Produktschaden als einheitlich “ein Unfallschaden” an. Demnach kann diese Schadensmenge arithmetisch kalkuliert werden. Imfolgedessen würde die arithmetische Schätzung im Zivilrecht möglich sein. Nach dieser Grundlage können die Schadenserschatz in der Gesetzfolgenabschätzung Anwendung finden. Noch eins, Die bisherige Schadenslehre muss von alten Lehre zu wirtschaftlichem Schadensbegriff umgestellt werden.
  • 11.

    Echtheitsvermutung einer Privaturkunde und ihre Widerlegung

    황형모 | 2011, (50) | pp.291~321 | number of Cited : 2
    Im Vergleich zu Zeugen, wessen falsche Aussagen auf Grund der unterschiedlichen Interessenlagen und der Erschwerung der Erinnerungen nur schwer ausgeschlossen werden können, werden Urkunden als noch wichtigeren Beweismitteln behandelt. Nicht selten wird in einem Prozess streitig gemacht, ob eine Urkunde rechtlich echt entstanden ist. Aber trotzdem sieht die herrschende Lehre die Echtheitsvermutung einer Privaturkunde gemäß §358 kZPO als eine beweisrechtliche Vermutung, mit der Folgerung, dass sie auch unter Vorliegen der vorausgesetzten Tatsachen nicht eine Beweislastumkehr herbeiführt. Für die Juristen in der Praxis sind die Töne der Rechtsprechungen bezüglich der Echtheitsvermutung einer Privaturkunde nicht leicht einzuschätzen, da die Rechtsprechung zwischen zwei verschiedenen Teilen von dem Inhalt nicht klar abgrenzt, nämlich dem Teil von tatsächlichen Vermutungen durch Anerkennung des Vorliegens der Vermutungsgrundlage und dem Teil von Vermutungen durch die oben genannte gesetzliche Vermutungsregel unter Anerkennung des Vorliegens der grundlegenden Tatsachen. Dies führt zur Folge, dass eine unübersehbare Zahl von Urteilen der Gerichte zweiter Instanz in der Revisionsinstanz angefochten werden, weil es in den Urteilen Mängel bezüglich Anerkennung der Echtheit der Urkunden vorläge. Auch in den Fällen, wo die endgültigen Urteile nicht an solchen Mängeln haften, nimmt der Verfasser an, es gab viele Fälle, in denen die Bewertungen über die Echtheit der Urkunden schwierig zu beurteilen waren. Diese problematische Situation veranlasste den Verfasser zu dieser kritischen Untersuchung, wobei die Frage immer unbeseitigt bleibt, ob hier die Rechtsprechungen ohne jede Mängel auseinandergesetzt und bewertet worden sind. §357 kZPO bestimmt die Echtheit einer Urkunde als Beweistatsache, und eine materiell-rechtliche, tatbestandsmerkmal begründende Tatsache eingestuft. Bezüglich ihres Beweises sieht §358 kZPO, zur Erleichterung der Beweislast, sieht die Vermutung des echten Entstehens der ganzen Urkunde vor, die nicht zu den Tatbestandsmerkmalen begründenden Tatsachen gehören, unter der Voraussetzung der Echtheit des Siegelabdrucks. Abgesehen davon, dass die vermutete Tatsache keine materiell-rechtliche, Tatbestandsmerkmal begründende Tatsache ist, ist die Vermutung in dieser Regelung nicht etwas Anderes als eine echte gesetzliche Vermutung, indem, wenn spezifische Tatsachen unter Beweis gestellt worden sind, andere zu beweisende Tatsachen auch vermutet werden. Mithin müßte meines Erachtens eine Vermutung in dem Fall von einer vorliegenden grundlegenden Tatsache gleich wie eine gesetzliche Vermutung behandelt werden; Infolgedessen müßte der Gegner des Beweisführers die Beweislast für das Nichtvorliegen von der vermuteten Tatsache tragen, nämlich die Beweislast für das Vorliegen von Gegentatsache. Hierbei muss meines Erachtens die Beweisführung nicht in der Form von Gegenbeweis, sondern als Hauptbeweis vorgenommen werden, wobei die Beweise als Anlass zur Überzeugung des Richters adäquat sein muss. Aber wenn es um Anerkennung der grundlegenden Tatsachen geht, muss der Gegner einfach durch Gegenbeweisführung die Beweiswürdigung des Richters erschüttern oder Zweifel hervorrufen und dadurch einen dubiosen Zustand herbeiführen oder durch Indizführung tatsächliche Vermutung einer grundlegenden Tatsache auf Grund von Erfahrungssätzen verhindern, damit die Vermutung gemäß der obigen gesetzlichen Vermutungsregel widerlegt wird. Dies besagt meines Erachtens die Rechtsprechung. Nach diesem Verständnis der Rechtsprechung könnte die Verworrenheit in Ordnung gebracht werden. Der Verfasser selbst sieht von der Möglichkeit nicht völlig aus, dass die Erläuterungen über Rechtsprechung in dieser Untersuchung auf dem Grund, dass sich der Verfasser selbst durch eigene subjektive Meinung verleitet sein könnte. Plausiblere Auseinandersetzungen und Erklärungen in der Wissenschaft sind von dem Abfasser erwünscht und erwartet. Dazu noch hoffe ich, The Supreme Court of Korea die Unklarheiten beseitigt und somit die Juristen in der Prxis von Verwirrungen befreit werden.
  • 12.

    A Review of Korean Cases Related to International Jurisdiction Agreements

    Choi Sung Soo | 2011, (50) | pp.323~350 | number of Cited : 10
    Determination of jurisdiction is the premise of the trial. As with domestic affairs, international jurisdiction agreements is recognized. The usefulness of international jurisdiction agreements, especially, can be found in the exclusion of uncertainty on international jurisdiction and governing law, adjustment of inflexible jurisdiction rule according to general norm. Even though the general point of issue in international jurisdiction in international transaction is solved considerably by jurisdiction agreement, the international jurisdiction agreements among concerning parties is not always considered valid. It is one of issues to determine in which cases the international jurisdiction agreements is valid. Depending on filing status, it can be different, there is no substantive enactment but only theory and precedent regarding this in private international law in Korea. Korean court tries to excessively accomplish the essential condition of the validity of international jurisdiction agreement. Jurisdiction agreement is valid reflecting parties' autonomy and should be corrected in the valid direction unless there is misuse of jurisdiction agreement because it is the matter of procedure convenience, not the matter of substantial justice. In this regard, the matter of reasonable connection needs to be reviewed as claimed in existing theory and it can be settled through the legislative method or joining in related international agreement. Even before this, Supreme Court needs to consider the change of precedent regarding the details of reasonable connection reviewing academic criticism.
  • 13.

    Die rechtliche Überlegung über die laufende Versicherung

    Eun-Kyung Kim | 2011, (50) | pp.351~382 | number of Cited : 2
    Die laufende Versicherung ist eine technische Versicherung, die im Vertrag in der Weise geschlossen wird, dass das versicherte Interesse bei Vertragsabschluss nur der Gattung nach bezeichnet und erst nach seiner Entstehung dem Versicherer einzeln aufgegeben wird. Die laufende Versicherung gilt für die alle Versicherungsarten und ist als zwei Grundform, also als obligatorische laufende Versicherung und fakultative laufende Versicherung unterscheidet. Der Versicherungsnehmer ist bei der laufenden Versicherung verpflichtet, entweder die versicherten Risiken einzeln oder, wenn der Versicherer darauf verzichtet hat, die vereinbarte Prämiengrundlage unverzüglich anzumelden oder, wenn dies vereinbart ist, jeweils Deckungszusage zu beantragen. Hat der Versicherungsnehmer die Anmeldung eines versicherten Risikos oder vereinbarten Prämiengrundlagen oder Beantragung der Deckungszusage unterlassen oder fehlhaft vorgenommen, ist der Versicherer nicht zur Leistung verpflichtet. Verletzt der Versicherungsnehmer die Anmelde- oder Antragsplficht vorsätzlich, kann der Versicherer den Vertrag fristlos kündigen. Außerdem ist der Versicherer nur gegen Vorlage der Urkunde zur Leistung verpflichtet, wenn bei einer laufenden Versicherung ein Einzelpolice oder ein Versicherungszertifikat ausgestellt worden ist. Der Inhalt der Einzelpolice oder eines Versicherungszertifikats gilt als vom Versicherungsnehmer genehmigt, wenn dieser nicht unverzüglich nach der Übermittlung widerspricht.
  • 14.

    A Clitical Review relating to violation 'Attorney-At-Law Act' about the Claim adjuster's business conduct

    조규성 | 2011, (50) | pp.383~416 | number of Cited : 6
    According to Attorney-At-Law Act, Article 109, “a person, not an attorney-at-law, who receives or promises to receive money, articles, banquet or other benefits or who gives or promises to give those things to a third party, in compensation for providing or mediating legal services, such as examination, representation, arbitration, settlement, solicitation, legal consultation, making of legal documents, etc. ...(omission)..., any person shall be punished by imprisonment with prison labor for not more than 7 years or by a fine not exceeding 50 million or may be punished by both.” Meanwhile by the Act, many claim adjusters were punished. But the claim adjuster's business conduct is guaranteed by the Insurance Business Act. The claim adjuster shall render the services falling under each of the following, ① the service of confirming the occurrence of damage, ② the service of judging whether the application of articles of incorporation and relevant Acts and regulation are appropriate, ③ the service of setting the amount of damage and amount of insurance money, ④ the service of preparing documents related to the services referred to sub-paragraphs 1 through 3, ⑤ the presentation of opinion to the relevant insurance company in connection with the performance of the services referred to sub-paragraphs 1 through 3. Thus, I think that it is unjust punished by Attorney-At-Law Act. Due to the revision of the Insurance Business Act, the claim adjuster has been recognized the right which presentation of opinion to the relevant insurance company. To protect the rights of the claim adjuster, I think that the complement of legislation is needed.
  • 15.

    U.S. Supreme Court's Holding on the Actionability of the Validity of Contract and Arbitration Agreement

    김상만 | 2011, (50) | pp.417~445 | number of Cited : 18
    Arbitration is the way of resolving disputes by arbitrators instead of a court. To submit to arbitration, there should be a valid arbitration agreement between the parties in which the parties agree to settle the dispute by arbitration. An arbitration agreement, aka ‘arbitration provision’, is a written agreement to submit present or future disputes to arbitration. In international dispute resolution, generally an arbitration is preferred for its advantages such as speed, confidentiality, professionality, etc. Futhermore a foreign arbitral award is more recognized and enforced for UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The court shall dismiss the suit, when there is arbitration agreement under the contract or transaction charged. However, it is arguable whether the court can decide whether arbitration agreement is valid, or whether the contract is valid. Korea Arbitration Act and Model Arbitration Act imply that arbitrators shall decide both the validity of the contract and the validity of arbitration agreement. U.S. Federal Arbitration Act does not state who shall decide the validity of the contract, but states that a federal court shall decide the validity of arbitration agreement. U.S. Supreme Court expressed its holding as follows in Buckeye Check Cashing v. Cardegna(2006) ; 1) As a matter of substantive federal arbitration law, arbitration clause is severable from the remainder of the contract 2) Unless the challenge is to the arbitration clause itself, the issue of the contract's validity shall be considered by the arbitrator 3) The issue of the arbitration agreement's validity shall be considered by a court. However, it is presumed under Korea Arbitration Act that the issue of the arbitration agreement's validity shall be considered by arbitrators. It seems to be more reasonable that the arbitration agreement's validity be considered by a court rather than arbitrators. Therefore, U.S. Supreme Court's holding is meaningful is in this respect.
  • 16.

    A Study on Essential Minimum Services System in the Trade Union and Labor Relations Adjustment Act

    김동훈 | 2011, (50) | pp.447~486 | number of Cited : 5
    According to the Labor Union Law and the Labor Mediation Law (hereinafter referred as ‘the Labor Union Law’) passed the Assembly plenary session on December 22, 2006, as one of actions for push for legislation of bills on the advancement of labor relations, the mediation system by authority for essential businesses for the public interest was abolished, the aviation transporting business and the blood provision business were added to the category of essential businesses for the public interest instead and the system of essential works to be maintained was adopted for essential businesses for the public interest. Also, according to the law, substitutional work and subcontract which were normally banned were prohibited from being applied to essential businesses for the public interest, and a permission for it would be given only in case participants in a walkout was 50% or below among the total employees. For these, relevant regulations for the system of essential works to be maintained was enforced from January 1, 2008, and the government revised the Enforcement Ordinance for the Labor Union Law on November 30, 2007 to specifically stipulate the range of essential works to be maintained for each of 10 essential businesses for the public interest. However, since the mediation system by authority for essential businesses for the public interest basically infringed on the employees' right to engage in collective actions and caused a violation of the constitution, the Labor Union Law and the Labor Mediation Law was revised with the objectives of resolving the violation of the constitution. But, this revision adopted the system of essential works to be maintained and the substitutional work system and, to make the problem worse, blocked the opportunity to perform a fair strike action that could be performed unless the Labor Relations Board submits for a mediation by authority according to its operation and interpretation, and this brought the possibility of degeneration of realization of basic labor rights. Though conclusion of an agreement on essential works to be maintained is a pending issue for each workplace among essential businesses for the public interest, there are huge confusion among them in the absence of specific standards and guideline for the system of essential works to be maintained was introduced to Korea for the first time, and there has been no legislative precedents which fit this situation. Thus, we would like to review the reasons of introduction of the system of essential works to be maintained and its meaning, content and application range, and then, would like to put things in order since there is no systematic organization in relation to a decision on which essential business for the public interest should be affected, to which extent service has to be maintained and relevant appeal procedures. Then, we would like to review legislative inadequacy and problems by reflecting on the movements made so far. And, we will point out problems in legal interpretation due to the short period of enforcement of the system of essential works to be maintained and the absence of accumulated judicial precedents, and then, suggest alternatives to promptly establish the system of essential works to be maintained and to promote the harmony between assurance of basic labor rights in workplace for essential businesses for the public interest, including the right of strike, and pursuit of the public interest.
  • 17.

    韓国における労働者の経営参加法理の在り方 A Direction for Workers' Participations in the Management and the Law in Korea

    Song, Kang Jik | 2011, (50) | pp.487~516 | number of Cited : 7
    지금까지의 근로자의 경영참가 문제는 주로 노사협의회제도를 중심으로 논의되어 왔다고 할 수 있다. 그러나 필자는 선행연구를 통하여 단체교섭의 대상과 단체협약을 통하여 근로자의 경영참가를 고찰할 수 있다는 논리를 펴왔다. 나아가 노사협의회와 단체교섭 및 단체협약을 통한 상호간의 관계는 단절적인 것이 아니라 상호 중첩될 수 있다는 것을 지적하여 왔다. 이러한 사견의 입장에 대하여 특별히 논의되어 오고 있지는 않지만 우리나라의 현실에서는 경영참가가 제도적으로 충분히 보장되어 있지 않은 상황에서 오히려 노사협력증진, 노사 상호이익 증진의 관점에서 단체교섭 및 단체협약을 통한 근로자의 경영참가는 적극적으로 논의하여야 한다는 기본적인 입장을 갖고 있다. 그리고 본고에서 근로자의 경영참가와 관련하여 새로운 주장을 한 것은 취업규칙의 작성 및 불이익변경 등에 있어서 현행법이 근로자측의 의견 내지 동의를 구하는 절차를 규정하고 있는 것에 대하여 근로자의 경영참가의 입장에서 해석할 수 있다는 견해를 피력하였다. 왜냐하면 근로자의 경영참가제도가 매우 빈약한 상황에서 법에서 규정하고 있는 취업규칙 등의 직장질서의 형성에 있어서의 근로자측 참가를 근로자의 경영참가의 입장에서 접근할 수 있다는 논리의 구성이 필요하다는 생각에서이다. 나아가 현행법상의 취업규칙의 작성 내지 불이익변경 절차를 근로자의 경영참가의 일환으로 해석하는 경우에는 위와 같은 절차 위반의 취업규칙의 효력은 자연스럽게 부정될 수 있다고 생각한다. 다음으로 생산관리 투쟁의 경우에도 임금체불이 만연한 사업 또는 사업장에서 근로자들이 사용자의 재산을 인수하여 직접 경영의 주체로 된 사례가 실제로 나타나고 있으므로, 이러한 경영주체로 나아가기 이전의 단계에서 생산관리라는 전술이 선택될 수 있을 것이고, 그 구체적인 내용이 사용자의 경영 등을 원천적으로 부정하는 것으로 인정되지 않는 정도의 경우에는 그 적법성을 인정할 수 있을 것이라는 것이다.
  • 18.

    Labor Law Protections for Workers treating Nanomaterials and Viable Legal Measures for the Next Stage

    피용호 | 2011, (50) | pp.517~546 | number of Cited : 2
    Nanomaterials' novel properties pose potentially significant health and environmental risks several studies point. Nanoparticles can enter the human body through skin absorption, ingestion or inhalation, because of the small size, once they enter the body they can be carried past the blood-brain barrier into brain cells and can pass through lung an liver tissue, and cause oxidative stress and localized immune lesions, and may lead to other tissue and cellular damage, and are also linked to dangerous air, soil and water pollutants. Views in the current debate over nanotechnology regulation range from halting all research and development to allowing virtually unregulated innovation, this article treats viable legal measures for the next stage in order to protect workers treating nanomaterials. Current regulatory and remedial methods in the field of labor law, especially in the system of Occupational Safety & Health and Workers' compensation, in my humble opinion, are not sufficient and appropriate to prevent the second asbestos nightmare. In this situation, this article deals with several problems of the legal system and proffers the legislative improvement related in order to provide better protections for workers treating hazardous nanomaterials.
  • 19.

    A Review of Critical Issues with respect to EU REACH

    이경아 | 차종문 | 2011, (50) | pp.547~576 | number of Cited : 0
    This study begins with a review of the key features of current European Union’s chemical regulation REACH concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals. Under REACH, the industry including manufacturers, importers, or downstream users, but not regulators, has responsibility to ensure the chemical safety and the industry must conduct the risk assessment to trade with the EU market. We particularly selected some aspects of the EU competition law violation risks and enforcement and penalties for non-compliance because the companies affected by REACH are likely to be interested in. We reviewed a very efficient mechanism for data sharing and cost sharing through SIEFs to comply with REACH, and continued to review the EU competition law violation risks through participation in a SIEF or consortium and the enforcement regime and types of penalties made in the EU Member States. This study concludes with a brief discussion of the global impact of REACH on Asian countries including China, Japan, and Korea.
  • 20.

    헌법의 개념(1928) (3․끝)

    Kim,Hyo-Jeon | 2011, (50) | pp.577~614 | number of Cited : 0
  • 21.

    동아법학 제50호 부록

    법학연구소 | 2011, (50) | pp.615~646 | number of Cited : 0